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TO tfttilisk f *mtfo§ ,H:v>a 


(Sawles Warde, and }?e Wohunge of Ure Lauerd : 
Ureisuns of Ure Louerd and of Ure Lefdi, &c.) 

of tj)C 

^foelftf) an* Wrtcentf) Centuries 




Author of ' Specimen* of Early English;' 

Editor of Hampole's ' Pricke of Conscience ;' 'Early Entilish Alliterative Poems;' 

' The Story of Genesis and Exodus ;' ' Tlic Ayenbite of Intvyt,' <J-c. 

Member of the Council of the Philological Society. 


M q ' 








X E R D : 




THE present volume does not consist of a continuous series of 
Homilies, as was originally intended, but is merely a bundle of 
fragments and smaller treatises arranged in the order in which 
the editor was fortunate enough to meet with them. He, there- 
fore, does not think it necessary to offer any apology to the reader 
for presenting them in their apparently unconnected form, since 
all the pieces are of great philological value, and many of them 
are not wanting in literary merit. The contents of the Lambeth 
MS. 487 occupy the first and most important place in this series, 
and form no inconsiderable part of the whole work. They are, 
however, only a portion of a much larger and probably complete 
collection of Homilies compiled, as we shall presently see, from 
various sources of an earlier date than the MS. that contains 
them ^L. 

The Homilies are immediately followed in the MS. by a portion 
of an old English poem 2 known as "A Moral Ode" (pp. 158-183), 
copies of which are by no means uncommon in our ancient MSS. 
It was first printed by Hickes in his "Thesaurus," vol. i. p. 222, 
from one of the Digby MSS., and Mr. Furnivall afterwards edited 
an excellent version of it in his u Early English Poems" (Philo- 

1 See p. xi. 

2 The handwriting of this poem is of the same date as the Homilies (before A.D. 
1 200). 


logical Society's Transactions, 1858) from the Egerton MS. 613, 
which I found very serviceable in completing' the Lambeth text 
and correcting, in the translation, the scribal blunders that it 
contains. 1 

The " Moral Ode" is an excellent sermon in verse, remarkably 
free from mediaeval superstitions. In its admonitions and warnings 
it administers sharp reproof to greedy niggards and oppressors of 
the poor, and gives wholesome advice to "rich men and poor." 
It exhorts all men to grow in love as well as in years, to think of 
the future (pp. 159, 160), and to lay up treasure in heaven by 
performing deeds of mercy here on earth. All men may purchase 
heaven — the poor man with his penny and the rich man with his 
pound (p. 163). At the Day of Doom every man will be his own 
accuser, for there is no greater witness than a man's own heart. 
We should repent while we have health and strength, for it is too 
late to cry for mercy when Death is at the door. Nor will it avail 
us to loathe evil deeds when we have no longer the will or power 
to do them. Mercy is offered alike to all who sincerely repent 
(p. 167), but all wrongdoers who will not amend their evil ways 
shall go into hell's abyss for ever ; Christ will never again break 
the gates of hell to unloose their bonds (p. 170). Hell is a horrible 
place of torment, where the uncharitable suffer the extremes of 
hunger and thirst (p. 1 73) ; where vow-breakers, traitors, thieves, 
drunkards, unjust judges, unfaithful stewards, and adulterers are 
tortured in turn by fire and frost (pp. 173-175) ', and where slan- 
derers, envious, and proud men are torn and fretted by adders, 
snakes, and ferrets. There shall they see Satan and "Belzebub the 
old" (p. 177). The sum of human duty consists in "two loves" — 
love to God and to man (p. 179). We must forsake the broad way 
(that is, our own will) which leads to hell, and choose the narrow 

1 In the Appendix the reader will find that portion of the " Moral Ode " from the 
Egerton MS. not included in our text. I am inclined to think that all the existing 
copies of this Ode are taken from an older (Saxon-English) version, which may 
perhaps turn up hereafter. 


and green way (along the high cliffs) which leads to heaven, where 
there are no earthly luxuries, but where the sight of God alone 
constitutes the eternal life, bliss, and rest of His saints (p. 1 8 1 ). 
There they shall learn and know more of God's might and mercy 
than they did while on earth ; as in a book they shall see all that 
they were here ignorant of. No one is able to describe the great- 
ness of heavenly bliss, but may God grant that we may come td 
that bliss when our souls are released from these mortal bonds 

(P- i83). 

Next follows the little devotional piece (pp. 182-189) entitled 
" On Ureisun of ure Louerde," which is unfortunately imperfect. 
It is written in a smaller and later hand than the Homilies, and was 
probably added to fill up the spare folios of the manuscript. Had 
this "Orison" been complete, our "Old English Homilies" would, 
in all probability, have terminated at this point, and the reader 
would have been deprived of the interesting and valuable treatises 
that now follow it. 

On looking, however, over Cotton MS. Nero A xiv., a somewhat 
later but unmutilated copy of the " Orison" was found, under the 
title of " On Wei SwuSe God Ureisun of God Almihti" (pp. 200- 
203) ; together with " On God Ureisun of Ure Lefdi" (pp. 190-199), 
" On Lofsong of Ure Lefdi" l (pp. 204-207), " On Lofsong of Ure 
Louerde" (pp. 208-216), and " pe Lesse Crede" (pp. 216, 217), all 
of which are now for the first time printed. These bear a striking 
resemblance in their philological peculiarities to the u Ancren 
Riwle" (which was edited from this MS. for the Camden Society 
by the Rev. R. Morton, B.D., in 1853), and are excellent speci- 
mens of the Hail Maries, Psalms, and Orisons alluded to in that 
work (p. 44), of which shorter examples occur in the first part, 
treating of Divine Service (pp. 38-42). 

The " Ureisun of Ure Lefdi" (pp. 190-199) is a rhyming poem of 
about 170 lines. Towards the end the singer expresses a hope that 

1 An imperfect copy of this piece is in Eoj'al MS. 17 A 27, entitled " pe Oreisun 
of Seinte Marie. " As the fragment is not a long one it is printed in the Appendix. 


her friends will be all the better for having heard her English lay 
(p. 199), which seems originally to have been composed (? in Latin) 
by some monk (p. 199, 1. 169), who, perhaps, was the John alluded 
to in Royal MS. 17 A 27, and at p. 267 of the present work. 1 
The " lay" is really deserving of its name, and contains evident 
proof that the writer or translator was a skilful master of his native 
tongue. In describing the joys which the Virgin Mary has pre- 
pared for her friends, the poet says that the golden bowl shall be 
mixed for them from which shall be poured out eternal life and 
angelic pleasures (p. 193)- 

The pieces just mentioned are followed in the text by three 
Homilies and a fragment of a fourth (pp. 216-245), from Cotton 
MS. Vespasian A 22, which have been added on account of the 
additional illustrations they afford of the grammatical peculiarities 
in the Homilies from the Lambeth MS. 

"Be Initio Creature" (pp. 216-231) is transliterated and slightly 
abridged from iElfric's homily entitled " Sermo de Initio Creaturae, 
ad Populum, quando volueris." 2 The first twelve lines of preface 
to the homily in our text are not iElfric's, but have been added by 
the compiler, and form a short but excellent introduction to what 

"An Bispel" (pp. 230-241), as I have called the next sermon, 
and " Induite vos armaturam Dei " (pp. 240-243), which is a dis- 
course on Ephesians vi. 11, are not found, so far as we know, in 
iElfric's edited or unedited works, nor are they at all in his style, 
though by no means inferior to anything that he has written. A 
very favourable instance occurs in the " Bispel," p. 233, where, 
after describing God as our father, whose earth produces for us 
corn and cattle, whose sun gives us light and life, whose water 
produces drink and fishes, and whose fire serves manifold purposes, 
the homilist asks, " May we, think ye, call him at all our mother ? 
Yea, we may. What doth the mother to her child ? First she 

1 See description of " Soules Warde," p. is. 

- See JElfric's Homilies, vol. i. Pt. I. p. 8, edited by Thorpe for the ."Elfric Society. 


cheers and gladdens it by the light, and afterwards puts her arm 
under it, or covers his head that he may enjoy a quiet sleep. This 
does the Lord of you all. He rejoices us with the daylight, and 
sends us to sleep by means of the dark night." But the night 
is created for another reason — to fix some limits to the insatiable 
greed of those who are never weary in heaping up worldly wealth. 

The homily commencing " Erant appropinquantes" (pp. 242-245) 
is a mere fragment, containing only the text of a discourse, which, 
if complete, would probably be found to be identical with ^Elfric's 
sermon rubricated Dominica iiii. post Pentecosten. 1 

"Soules Warde" (pp. 244-267), the next on our list, is from 
the Bodleian MS. 34, and has been ascribed to the author of the 
"Ancren Riwle," " Hali Meidenhad," 2 and the smaller treatises 
(pp. 182-217) already noticed. 3 Copies of " Sawles Warde" are 
found in the Royal MS. 17 A 27 and the Cotton MS. Titus D 18, 
but without any title. The Bodleian version is certainly the oldest, 
though slightly imperfect, and is here for the first time printed, 
the missing portions being supplied from the Royal MS. 17 A 27. 
A fourteenth-century version of this interesting discourse may be 
seen in the Early English Text Society's edition of the " Ayenbite 
of Inwyt " (pp. 263-269). 

The last, but by no means the least important or interesting, of 
our homiletic treatises is "pe Wohunge of Ure Lauerd" (pp. 268- 
287), from the Cotton MS. Titus D j 8, which also contains ver- 
sions of the " Ancren Riwle/' " Sawles Warde," and " Hali 
Meidenhad." 4 From internal evidence I am convinced that " The 

1 See Thorpe's edition of ^Elfric's Homilies, vol. i. Pt. IV. p. 338. 

2 See " Hali Meidenhad," ed. Cockayne, E. E. T. S. 1866. 

3 For the accuracy of the text I have relied upon the fidelity of the transcript and 
collations furnished me by Mr. G. Parker, Rose Hill, Oxford. The marginal readings 
are from Roy;d MS. 17 A 27 ; and in the notes will be found some collations from 
Cotton MS. Titus D 18. 

4 A better copy of this homily than that printed for the E. E. T. S., as shewn 
by the marginal readings in the Society's edition, is contained in the Bodleian 
MS. 34- 


Wooing," in its original form, was by the same author as the 
u Ancren Riwle," &c. ; but as now presented to us by the scribe of 
the Titus MS., it abounds in dialectical peculiarities, 1 which are 
altogether foreign to the compositions, already alluded to, in 
Bodleian MS. 34, Royal MS. 17 A 27, and Nero A xiv. 

" The Wooing of our Lord" is evidently a lengthy, but by no 
means uninteresting, paraphrase of a portion of the Seventh Part 
of the "Ancren Riwle" treating of Love (pp. 397-401), in which 
the wooing of Christ is distinctly mentioned. The Spouse is either 
Holy Church or the pure soul, which Christ is said to woo in the 
following terms : — " If it (love) is to be given, where couldst thou 
bestow it better than upon me ? Am I not the fairest thing ? 
Am I not the richest king ? Am I not of the noblest birth ? Am 
I not the wisest of men ? Am I not the most courteous of men ? 
Am I not the most liberal of men ? Am I not of all things the 
stveetest and most gentle ? Thus thou mayest find in me all the 
reasons for which love ought to be given." (Ancren Riwle, pp. 
398, 399.) In our treatise Christ is wooed in almost the same 
terms : — " Ah ! who may not love thee, lovely Jesu ? For within 
thee alone are all the things united that ever may make any man 
worthy of love towards another." (p. 268.) "Thou then with thy 
beauty, thou with thy riches, thou with thy liberality, thou with 
wit and wisdom, thou with thy might and strength, thou with noble- 
ness of birth and graciousness (or courteousness), thou with meek- 
ness, mildness, and great gentleness, thou with kinship, thou with all 
the things that one may purchase love with, hast bought my love." 

(p. 274.) 

Having thus briefly enumerated the several items of the present 
volume, I must now return to the Homilies from the Lambeth 
MS. Though now for the first time printed, they have not been 
altogether unknown to students of our early literature. Hickes 
has very minutely and accurately described them, and Sir F. 
Madden, in his valuable preface to " Lajamoir's Brut" (p. v.), has 

1 A summary of these peculiarities is given in the Grammatical Introduction. 


sufficiently recognised their philological importance; but it has 
never, I believe, been previously pointed out that . these Homilies 
are a compilation from older documents of the eleventh century. 

This view was suggested by the evident proofs of transliteration 
which occur in many of the Homilies, the very blunders of the 
scribe leading me in the first instance to suspect what I afterwards 
found to be the fact. 

These errors of transcription are of two kinds. The first involves 
the assumption that the scribe in copying from MSS. in the Saxon 
character mistook the stroke of the letter p (r) for a part of an m or 
n. Thus we find hem for bepn (p. u); iemede for lejmebe (p. 93) ; 
denafo for bepiaS (p. 101). The second blunder is just the reverse 
of this, for the copyist has read p for n or ra, so that we can have 
no difficulty in undei'standing such errors as Jww^ (or pup3) for J?in3 ; 
and s'lrlat (or ppiac) for smat (or rmac), which occurs no less than 
three times on the same page. But the proof of this theory was 
furnished by Homilies IX. and X., which are beyond a doubt 
f/y//is/iterations (with here and there traces of translation or the 
substitution of a word more familiar to the scribe than that in the 
original copy) of two of iElfric's Homilies bearing the same titles. 1 

As instances of what I have called translation are by no means 
difficult to point out with the originals before us, the reader may 
not be displeased by having the following examples selected for him 
from the tenth homily : — rixa^S (rule, reign) for onwinnaft ; unmete 
(excessive) for ormete ; more (root) for toyrtruma ; fikenunge (deceit) 
for licetunge (p. 103); mihtan (virtues) for magna; onercnmen for 
ouersw'vftan ; to his lord ne sitte for ne gereordige ; wisdom for ^esceade 
(discretion); sterhe (harsh) for retyan ; hihyen (hasten) for efstan (p. 
105); stance (sloth) for asolcennysse ; herynge (praise) for hlisan ; 

1 For the original of IX. see Thorpe's edition of ^Elfric, vol. i. Pt. I., and for that 
of X. see Appendix to the present volume. I am indebted for the A. S. text to the 
kindness of the Rev. W. M. SnelL who copied and collated it from a MS. in Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. Unfortunately my texts and translations were in print 
before I saw the earlier versions, and I have not therefore derived as much help from 
them as T might otherwise have done. 


frewscipe (religion) for eawfesinysse (p. 107); \e ]>e for se ]>e ; biho- 
vige (behove) for gedafenige ; efre (ever) for symble j \>eqf (thief) for 
seeafta (p. 109); 611 ten clenesse for nnsydeful (unchaste) (p. 111); 
woh^e (wrong) for riccetere (violence); heordom for forliger; nnriht- 
tvise for arlease ; unlayeliche for tmeawfee&tlice (p. 115); iinrihtwisra 
dedan for \10yrlicra dada; uuel for sceftftig (p. 117). 

Of the remaining Homilies I have not been successful in finding 
the original texts from which they were copied. 1 

In the Sermon for the Fifth Sunday in Lent (pp. 121, 122) the 
compiler has very ingeniously inserted a long passage from iElfric's 
homily for Palm Sunday. (See Notes at the end of the present 
volume, pp. 317, 318.) 

But what strikes one very clearly is that the first six Homilies 
(pp. 1-7 1 ) are by one and the same author. This, I think, is 
evident from the use of the curious word witicrist (or witecrist), "By 
Christ !" or " So help me Christ !" and the frequent employment of 
the phrases "dear men," "good men/' "dear brethren and sisters," 
which do not occur in the later discourses. These six Homilies 
have really but one theme, and that is shrift, which, as explained 
by the author, is to renounce the devil, to repent of sin, and to 
determine to lead a better life for the future. These points are 
by no means unskilfully handled, and the author, whoever he may 
have been, stands before us in these discourses as a plain but earnest 
and outspoken instructor of the "lewd." His familiar mode of 
address and homely illustrations, as well as his frequent appeal to 
his flock as " dear men," " good men," &c, must have done much 
to secure him attentive listeners to the end of the sermon. The 
preacher is thoroughly practical in the lessons which he draws 
from the life and teaching of Christ. Thus in the sermon for Palm 
Sunday he reminds his hearers that though Jesus might have 
ridden upon a rich steed, a palfrey, or a mule, he did not even ride 
on the big ass, but upon the little foal, setting them an example of 

1 The Trinity Coll. MS. contains Homilies XIII. (De Sancto Lanrentio), XV., 
XVI. and XVII. (De Sancto Jacobo). 


humility which the more prosperous among* them would do well to 
imitate, by not allowing themselves to be puffed up with their 
riches, by being thankful to God, and by relieving the necessities 
of the destitute (p. 5). He bids his hearers observe how much more 
strictly the Jews keep their Saturday, wherever they may be, than 
do Christians their Sunday (p. 8). The severity of the Old Law is 
mitigated by the New Dispensation, so that there is now no more 
need to atone for sin by penalties, for Christ is satisfied with 
shrifts, fasting, church-going, and other good works. It is no 
good, however, to offer prayers or sing masses for the soul of the 
proud and unrepentant sinner, for " how should other men's good 
deeds profit him who in this life never took thought of any good 
thing? Who is he that may water the horse that refuses to 
drink?" (p. 8.) The sinner is declared to be utterly lost in the 
abyss of hell if he thinks of delaying repentance and of continuing in 
his sins until he is older or becomes sick (p. 23). He who promises 
God and his confessor to forsake his misdeeds and is shriven 
thereof, but still continues to commit the same sins, is no better 
than the hound that " now vomits and afterwards eats it," and 
becomes thereby much fouler than he previously was (p. 24). Some 
go to shrift in order to be like other people, or because they would 
not like to be turned away from the Lord's table on Easter Sunday; 
but they had far better stop away, for, under these circumstances, 
there is more harm in going than in abstaining. Though they 
receive the housel, or sacrament, it will not benefit them in the 
least, for so soon as the priest shall put the hallowed bread between 
their lips an angel will come and take it away with him towards 
heaven's kingdom, and instead thereof there will remain a live coal 
that will utterly consume them (p. 26). He who has wrongfully 
taken possession of another man's property, must not fancy that 
confession and fasting, unaccompanied by restitution, will avail 
him anything. Numbers will joyfully go to confession and cry 
peccavi, and will willingly listen to the penance that is enjoined • 
but let the priest bid them give back their unrighteous gains, and 


they are no longer patient hearers, but will answer in " fox-like," 
glozing words, "We have nought thereof, we have spent it all." 
" This will not do," says the priest, " you must take of your own 
goods and make restitution." The covetous sinner may perhaps 
reply that he does not know where to find those whom he has 
wronged, that they are either dead or have left the neighbourhood, 
so that he cannot find them. The priest will still exhort him to 
make amends, and bid him go to the district where the theft was 
committed and expend a sum equivalent to the value of the goods 
taken, in almsgiving or in the repairing of bridges and churches (p. 
30). The increase of sin causes the death of the soul, and because 
she is unable to endure all the sins a man putteth upon her, there- 
fore does she leave the body (p. 34). The priest cannot forgive any 
man his sins, nor even his own; all he can do is to teach the sinner 
how he may obtain forgiveness from God and have Christ's friend- 
ship through repentance and confession, which is the second baptism 
that every sincere Christian must undergo (p. 36). 

The fourth homily, "In Diebus Dominicis" (pp. 40-47), contains 
the curious legend 1 of St. PauFs and St. Michael's descent into 
hell, and how they obtained for the damned one day's rest in the 
week until Doomsday. They saw among other horrible sights a 
bishop who in this life was more given to oppress his underlings 
than to sing psalms or to do other good deeds (p. 42). The Sunday 
has three estimable privileges : on earth, men and women rest from 
their daily toil; in heaven, the angels rest longer than they do on 
any other day; and, in hell, the wretched souls do not undergo 
their accustomed torments (pp. 44—46). 

In the fifth homily, which is a very curious discourse on Jere- 
miah, we find the fable of the young crab and its mother (p. 
50). The preacher compares slanderers and detractors to spotted 
adders; rich men who misuse their wealth are likened to black 
toads that cannot moderately eat their fill lest the earth on which 
they sit should play them false ; yellow frogs are apt emblems of 
1 Audelay, the .Shropshire poet, tells this in English verse in MS. Douce. 


those women who wear saffron-coloured clothes and who powder 
their faces with blaunchet to made themselves fair and seductive to 
the opposite sex. Such as these are the devil's mouse-trap, and their 
outer adornments are " the treacherous cheese " whereby many a 
mouse is enticed into the trap. Their cosmetic is the devil's soap, 
and their mirror is the devil's hiding-place. "Wherefore, good 
men," says the preacher, "for God's sake keep yourselves from the 
devil's mouse-trap, and see that ye be not the spotted adders, nor 
the black toads, nor the yellow frogs (p. 52). 

There is much that is interesting in the rest of the Homilies 
(as for instance in the eighth discourse, p. 78) and the other devo- 
tional treatises in this volume ; but, in the words of our homilist, 
it behoveth the reader " brehe \as word f alse me brekefo \e mite for 
to habbene \>ene camel" (p. 79), which he will have no difficulty in 
doing with the help of the translation (rough as it is) which 
accompanies the old English text throughout. The critical reader 
is referred to the Notes and Emendations at the end of the work. 
The Glossarial Index will form part of the second series, — which 
will contain a collection of Homilies from MS. B. 14. 52 in the 
Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

In conclusion, I have the pleasant duty of acknowledging the 
kindness of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury for the long 
and undisturbed possession of his manuscript from the Lambeth 
Library, which, always being at hand, has enabled me to produce 
a faithful copy of the original. My thanks are also due to my 
friend Mr. Skeat for some useful suggestions while the work was 
passing through the press. 

R. M. 

Tottenham, 1868. 


'The language of L^amon belongs to that transition period in 
which the groundwork of Anglo-Saxon phraseology and grammar still 
existed, although gradually yielding to the influence of the popular 
forms of speech. We find in it, as in the later portion of the Saxon 
Chronicle, marked indications of a tendency to adopt those termi- 
nations and sounds which characterize a language in a state of 
change.' These remarks, by the editor of Lajamon's Brut, apply 
with even greater propriety to the language of the present Homilies 
(pp. 1-183, 216-245), and in fact to most of our English documents 
of the twelfth century. In the Brut we have the plainest evidence 
of an earlier transition stage (which I have elseAvhere described as 
a period of gi'eat grammatical change and confusion), wherein the 
older inflexions co-existed along with their more modern varieties, 
thus indisputably proving that the former did not go out of use 
without a struggle for existence, and showing also that this secondary 
or less inflexional (not non-inflexional) stage of the language was 
brought about very gradually by changes that continued in operation 
throughout the greater part of the twelfth century. 1 La3amon's 
work belongs to the first half of the thirteenth century, and represents 
the commencement of a new period, in which we plainly perceive that 
the language is gradually settling down after a long elemental war 
in which certain forms maintained their position to the exclusion of 
all others ; and we therefore find, as we might expect, a greater 

1 We may divide the documents of this period into two classes. In the first, 
belonging to the first half of the twelfth century, the older forms predominate ; 
in the second, belonging to the latter half of the twelfth century, the modern forms 



uniformity in its employment of grammatical inflexions, than in the 
literature of the twelfth century, together with a further simplification 
of syntactical structure ; and for the next century and a half, as far as 
the Southern dialect is concerned, there is scarcely any fresh change 
of importance in the grammar, although the vocabulary exhibits the 
influence of the new element introduced by the Norman Conquest. 

But our Homilies illustrate the earlier transitional period, which, as 
we have seen, is characterized by a want of uniformity, and enable us 
to trace with some minuteness the various changes that took place 
during the latter half of the twelfth century. Here, perhaps, for the 
first time we find the provincial, or, as Sir F. Madden terms them, the 
popular elements, cropping up, many of which, at a later period, became 
the established forms. 1 

The appearance of these modern elements, — such as u for i ; v for/"; 
ham for heom (them) ; es, his, is, for hi, heo (her, them) ; ha for he, hi, 
heo (he, she, them) ; imperfect participles in -inde (for -encle) and in- 
finitives in -ie (not very numerous as yet), — together with the uniform 
employment of verbal plurals in -eth, mark a Southern dialect ; but 
.the reader must bear in mind that the criteria of this dialect, as they 
are preserved for us in the records of the fourteenth century, cannot 
be rigorously applied to the literary remains of the twelfth, on 
account of that admixture of forms before alluded to, and because many 
of the grammatical elements did not become recognised as dialectical 
varieties until after this transitional period. 

Comparing the present Homilies with ^Elfric's, we find the following 
noteworthy points of difference : — (i) A simplification of the vowel- 
endings by the change of final -a, -o, -u, into -e. 2 (2) A tendency to 
drop a final n in nouns, verbs, adverbs and prepositions ending in -en 
(or -an). (3) A tendency to add a euphonic n to the final e of the 
genitive singular of feminine nouns of the complex order, of the dative 
singular of complex nouns, of the plural of nouns (complex order) and 
of adverbs and prepositions. This nunnation, as it has been called, 
is very common in La3amon, who probably carried this novelty to its 
utmost limits. At a later period we find it in the East-Midland 
dialect. 3 ( 4 ) The softening of c (initial and final) into ch, as child for did; 

1 This is seen by comparing these Homilies and Lajamon's Brut with the 
Ayenbite of Inwyt, A..D. 1340, and Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon. 

2 The suffixes -an, -on, -um, -as, -ath, became -en, -es, -eth. 

3 See Preface to Genesis and Exodus. 


ich for ic; -lie, -lice, for -lich, -liche (in adjectives and adverbs) : but 
the initial sc is not yet softened into sch. (5) The softening of g (medial 
and final) into i or y, as fein for fcegen, etc. (6) The breaking up of 
the simple or n declension of nouns. 1 (7) The plurals of the complex 
order of nouns originally terminating in -a, -0, -u, become ( 1 st) -e, and 
(2nd) -en. (8) The genitive plural -ena becomes -ene (occasionally -en 
or -an). (9) The substitution of -ene for -e (representing an older -a) 
in the genitive plural of complex nouns. (10) The dative plural 
-um (in nouns and adjectives) becomes 1st -an, 2nd -en, 3rd -e. 
(11) Adjectives of the definite declension undergo changes similar to 
those in the n declension of nouns, the great tendency being to sub- 
stitute a final e for an original -a or -an. (12) The -re of the genitive 
and dative case singular (feminine) of the indefinite declension frequently 
becomes -e ; so in the genitive and dative feminine of the indefinite 
article we find ane for anre. 2 (13) The definite article se, seo, ]>cet 
becomes be, \eo (bo), \at (\>et). 3 (14) A tendency to employ be for se 
and seo, \eo (but not for \>at). (15) The genitive singular bees (of the) 
becomes ]>es (occasionally )>a$). ( 1 6) A tendency to change the dative \>am 
into 1st \>an, 2nd btf. (17) The accusative \one becomes \ane or \ene 
(occasionally ]>anne) ; and be is used after all prepositions. (18) The 
nominative plural ]>a (or bo) occasionally becomes be. (19) The dative 
plural Jmww frequently becomes \aa. (20) The pronominal forms undergo 
a change of form, as ich, ih, for ic (I) ; 4 lieom, ham, for him (them) ; 
heo for hi (they); heore, hare, for hira, heora (them). (21) New pro- 
nominal forms make their appearance, as his (is), I; ha, he, she, they, 
them; his, es, is, her (ace), them. (22) A tendency to use the dative 
instead of the accusative, as him for hine; and hwam for hwcene. 5 (23) 
The future tense of verbs is frequently formed by the aid of sceal and 
wile. (24) The infinitive mood occasionally takes to before it. (25) The 
gerundial infinitive ends in -ene instead of -enne or -anne; sometimes 
the dative -e is dropped, and it has the same form as the ordinary 
infinitive in -en. (26) The imperfect participle in -hide often replaces 

1 In these Homilies we find four varieties of this declension ; in La3amon's 
Brut there are two, with traces of a third. 

2 We also find alia, alle, for alra, aire. 

3 In the older Homilies se, si, \>at still keep their ground. The form Se and 
<5io occur in the Northumbrian Gospels of the Saxon period. 

4 Ic, as well as the other varieties, occurs in the present Homilies. 

5 We find hwan (in later Eng. vxm) which seems to be another foim of the 
dative, just as \>an=\>am. 


the older form in -ende, and is occasionally confounded with the gerun- 
dial infinitive in -me. (27) The prefix ge- of the perfect participle 
for the most part becomes i- or y-. (28) n falls off from infinitives 
and perfect participles. (29) Lengthened forms are often used for 
contracted ones in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular present indica- 
tive. (30) Some verbs of the strong conjugation adopt the inflexions 
of weak verbs. (31) Adverbs exhibit a tendency to add s to a final 
e in conformity with genitival forms. (32) n often falls off from 
adverbial forms in -en or -an. (33) Prepositions govern special cases, 
as in the older period, but the government is rather variable, so that 
many govern an accusative that formerly took the dative only. 


1. Gender. — The gender of nouns is in nearly every instance the 
same as in the oldest or Saxon stage of the language. 
. 2. Declension. — Nouns may be arranged in the four following 
Divisions : — 

Division I. 

Nouns of the simple or n declension, containing masculine, feminine, 
and neuter substantives in e (some few masculines in -a), and forming 
their plurals by -en (-an, -e) originally in -an. 

Division II. 

Class i. Nouns of the feminine gender ending in a consonant, and 
forming the plural by -e (-a), -en (-an), originally in -a. 

Class ii. Nouns of the feminine gender ending in -e (originally in 
u or 0), and forming the plural by -e (-a, -en), originally in -a. 

Division III. 

Class i. Nouns of the masculine gender which end in a vowel or 
consonant, and form their plurals by -es (-as). 

Class ii. Nouns of the masculine gender, for the most part termi- 
nating in -e (including nouns in -er), and forming the plural by -e 
(-en, -an), originally in -u (-a). 


Division IV. 

Class i. Nouns of the neuter gender ending in a consonant, and 
having the singular and plural alike. 

Class ii. Nouns of the neuter gender ending in a vowel or a con- 
sonant, and forming the plural by -e (-en), originally in -u. 

3. The dative singular of all nouns of Divisions II, III, and IV 
ends in -e (occasionally in -en) ; the dative plural of all declensions 
terminates in -e, -en, or -an (occasionally in -um). 

Division I. 

4. In this declension no less than four varieties of the singular may 
be distinguished, all arising out of the Saxon English form. 

The first form is identical with the oldest English form. 

The second form drops -n in all the oblique cases. 

The third form has -en in all the oblique cases (of masc. and fern, 

The fourth form has -e in all cases. 

The plural is quite as varied. 

The first form (i.) is identical with the Saxon English declension ; 
and (ii.) has -an in all cases. 

The second form drops -n in all the oblique cases. 

The third form has -en in all cases, but -ene as well as -en in 
genitive plural. 

The fourth form has -e in all cases. 

5. It is of course difficult, within the limits of a few pages, to collect 
examples of all these forms, and therefore in the reconstruction of 
the varieties of this declension I have often supplied the missing 
links from other works with similar grammatical peculiarities, viz. — 
1. Hatton Gospels (St. Matthew, ed. Kemble) ; 2. Peri Didaxeon (in 
vol. iii. of Cockayne's Saxon Leechdoms) ; 3. Rule of St. Benet 
(Cotton MS. Jul.). 

6. In Lajamon's Brut the fourth variety in the singular and the 
third in the plural seem to be the established form, which prevailed 
until merged into Class i, Division III, which was the ancient model 
of our modern declension of nouns. 

7. Masculine and neuter nouns were perhaps the first to adopt the 
inflexions of the modern form ; but we have only one example of this 



change in these Homilies (at p. 77), where likames (cp. ures licliomes, 
127) occurs for licam-e ( = licam-en = licam-an). 

8. Feminine nouns of this declension, in a later stage of the 
language, became merged into the feminines of Division II, forming 
the genitive singular in -e and the plural in -en. 

Examples of the first declension, tima (masc), time ; heorte (fern.), 
heart ; eare (neut.), ear : — 








Form I. 


Heort-e, 1 

( Tim-an, 
) Heort-an, 
( Ear-an, 




Tim-ena (-an), 
Heort-ena (-an) 
Ear-ena (-an), 
Tim-um (-an), 
Heort-um (-an) 
Ear-um (-an), 

Form II. 

Form III. 

Form IV. 











Tim -en, 




























Tim-ene (en), 



Heort-ene (en), 



Ear-ene (en), 






Heort-en, ' 





Illustrations op the First Form. 

A. From the present Homilies. 

(i.) Singular. — be witega het 7 ; steorfa seal hene 13 j he do^ swa be 
swica 25; be witega cweS 117; bet is a^enscla^a 103; be alweldenda 
dema 105; God br$ his ifulsta 113; be witega serS 113; cu^ his 
noma 115; 3if his willa nere 121; ure wv&erwinna 127; ba bicom 
godes grama 219 — (nom.). 

1 Occasionally feminines end in -a in the nom. sing. ; cp. pa heorta, Peri Didaxeon 
120 ; hearta Sin, Lindisfarne Gospels, Matt. vi. 21. 


Jjes witeyxn cwide 91 ; J>es witegan mu? 91; ]>es dusian bosme 105; 
to )>an icitegan 117; 0113611 godes iwillan 93; to salm-iourhtan 97; er 
tiinan 103 ; on his welan 105; er meltiman 115; to his ivillan 119; to 
]>an lichoman 119; on }>isse timan 119,121; on gocles loillan 123; }>ene 
ileafan 107 ; )>en nam he andan 223; heo gestilcl groman 11 1 (masc); 
on eorSan 11, 13, 97; on heore heortan 101 ; of eor¥>an 221; of his 
si Jan 2 23 — (fern.), mid tirwan 225, probably neuter (gen. dat. and ace). 

(ii.) Plural. — J>et beo^ }>es monnes e3«?i 23; weren seofen cluster- 
lokan 43; blawende beman 87; heortan 95; in heore heortan 101; 
}>ine welan forrotia^ 111; biwerian widewan 115; his e3«w bunden 
1 2 1 j ablende heore heortan 121; of ure heortan 127; )>et beoJ> ure 
e3«w and ure earan 127 — (nom. ace. and dat. case). 

gromena 103; heoranna 103; welena 111 — (gen. case). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

(i.) Singular. — The nominative in -a (masc.) is very frequently 
employed, so that a few examples will suffice to show that the older 
form was preserved along with the other varieties : — of J>e forSge^ se 
heretoga ii. 6; all jnn lichoma fare v. 30; se witega xv. 7; gang ]>u 
succa onbsec iv. 10; )>es hlisa sprang ix. 26 — (nom. case). 

)>as bredguman cnihtes ix. 15; J>am deman v. 25; on naman x. 42, 
xviii. 5; )>urh Jjanne witegan i. 22, ii. 5, iv. 14; we geseagen his 
steorran ii. 2 ; ouer jjanne mu*6an xvi. 5 (masc.) ; eor^an salt, v. 1 3 ; 
heofenes and eor^San xi. 25; heortan willan xii. 34; eor¥>an heortan 
xii. 40; on eor^San vi. 10, ix. 6; on heortan xi. 29; heo eorScm 
agunnen v. 4 — (gen. dat. and ace. cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — cleopede jja tungel-witegan ii. 7 ; Jja tungel-witegan 
geseagen ii. 10; fram J>am ttuigel-tvitegan ii. 16; hyo ehtan )>a xoitegan 
v. 12; ealle witegan xi. 13; se J>e earan hsebbe xi. 15; to J>am eor^S- 
tilian xxi. 34; steorran failed xxiv. 29; mid beman xxiv. 29 — (nom. 
ace. and dat. cases). 

sander-halgena iii. 7; naiddrena iii. 7; sunder-halgcme v. 20; 
witegena x. 41; an jjare witegan xvi. 14 — (gen. case). 

C. From Peri Didaxeon. 

(i.) Singidar. — The nom. in -a is very common : — assan tord 98; 
heofenes 3 eor¥>an 84; on aniolitan 84; innan jjare blcedran 82; of 
anne cuppcm 92; eet Jjare heortan 106; of eor¥>an 118 — (gen. dat. and 
ace. cases). 


(ii.) Plural. — cedran 120, 138; sa (J>a) earan 94, 98 , of }>an ea^ean 
96 ; on cedran 138 — (110m. ace. and dat. cases). 
eagena 96 ; sidane 126 — (gen.). 

D. In the Rule of St. Benet the first form is the one most fre- 
quently employed. 

witogan boc 79a; on hal^enan messeda3um 79b — (gen. pi.). 

Illustrations of the Second Form. 

A. From the Homilies. 

(i.) Singidar. — to tima g; a3ein Jjine nexta 13; wrS Jnne efen 
nexta 1 7 ; mon seal his euen nexta beodan 1 3 ; nane o^re assa 5 ; 
uppon )>a assa 5 ; heo unbunden \>& assa 5 ; ]>urh pe witega 7 1 ', nenne 
lichama 219; God sette him nama 221; nam ]>e folc anda 229 ; mid 
J>an lichama 229 — (dat. and ace. cases). 

]>a assa fole ; }>& assa fet 3 — (gen. case). 

(ii.) Plural. — }>a witega 7 ; ]>a mor^Sscla^a 29 ; ic welle 3euan zoela 
, 13 ; heore licoma todelden 131 — (nom. and ace. case). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

(i.) Singular. — }>urh Jeremie )>anne witega ii. 23; Jmrh ysia J>anne 
ivitega iii. 3; for eenne witega xxi. 26; hedde hire fola xxi. 7 — (ace. 

(ii.) Plural. — eale 3e nceddra xxiii. 33 (voc). 

C. From Peri Didaxeon. 

(i.) Singular. — on }>an lichoma 82, 140 ; under J>ara tunga 102 ; on 
ana panna 108; hnecca 108; on ceddra 112; on heorta 120; oppan 
jjara eoir&a 104; on lichama 142 — (dat. and ace. cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — Uppa 100; tunga 100; ceddra 120, 138, 140; sida 
128 ; eara 88 — (nom. and ace. case). 

Illustrations of the Third Form. 

A. From the Homilies. 

(i.) Singular. — on culfren heowe 95; an edren hiwe 225 (gen. case); 
to his willen 89 ; on culfren 95; bodian J>a so^en ileafen 97; ]>a nam 
he mulcene gramen 223 — (ace. case). 


(ii.) Plural. — J>et becyS }>es monnes earen 23 ; \>e fifte . . . neddren 43 ; 
heore eym weren 43; }>er wunie^ inne faje neddren %e\uwe froggen 
and crabben 51; heo becrS monslayen 53; }>os blaca tadden bitacne'S 
53; umrhten were 93; steorren sculen 143 — (nom. case). 

mid ]>'me e^en 33; tune^ his eren 49; mid furen tungen 89, 93; 
to ire/*e?i 115; tel J>eo steorren 133; ine }>e monnes e3e?i 153; Adam 
ham alle namen gesceop 221 — (dat. and ace. cases). 

welene 33 (gen.). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

(i.) Singular. — huse )>as reofelen xxvi. 6 (gen. case); beo jju onbu- 
gende J>ine wv&er-ioinnen v. 25; sylst pu him neddren vii. 10 ; on 
jjinen namen vii. 22; on eowren heorten ix. 4; forminen namen x. 22; 
owre lichamen of slea^ x. 28 ; J>e maig sawle and lichamen fordon x. 28 ; 
on hire yb?e?i xviii. 2, xxi. 2; Jjurh J>one ivitegen xxvii. 35 — (dat. and 
ace. cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — J?a coman )>a tungel-witegen ii. 1, xii. 2; his mete was 
gerstapen iii. 4 ; ^is sende so^lice }>are twelf apostle namen x. 2 ; 
beo^ . . . gleawe swa neddren . . . bylewhitte swa culfren x. 16 — 
(nom. case). 

fram J»am tungel-witegen ii. 16; on eowre eagen xxi. 42; on eowren 
Jieorten ix. 4; setran heore eagen ix. 29; gehedde to demen x. 18; 
heo heore eagen npahofen xvii. 8; ofslagen J>a witegen xxiii. 31; on 
eowre eagen, xxi. 42 — (dat. and ace. cases). 

neddrene cynrin xii. 34; witegene byregene xxiii. 29; britsene xiv. 
20— (gen. case). 

C. From Peri Didaxeon. 

(i.) Singidar. — of }>an earen 90 ; on an crocen 92 — (dat. and ace). 
( ii.) Plural. — ]>a ea^en 98 (nom. case). 

to Jjan earen 92; to ]>an ea^en 96; eay,n 94, 96, 98 — (dat. and ace. 

ea^ene 94 ; ea^en 98 — (gen.). 

D. From the Rule of St. Benet. 

(i.) Singular. — on tymen 75b; on chyrchen io6h; J^ane licamen 
114a; on rihtne tymen 130b; inne }>cere cyrecen ; to eyricen 125 b — 
(dat. and ace- cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — of J>are witegen bocan 77 a (gen. case). 

xxvi grammatical introduction. 

Illustrations of the Fourth Form. 
A. From the Homilies. 

(i.) Singular. — pe licome luua^ 19; pe o^er witege serS; pa bicom 
his licome 47 ; pet is heore beire iville 99, 219; yd his wille were 129; 
se time com 227 — (nom. case). 

licome uuhele 7; licome lust 11, 19, 21 (gen. case, masc). 

asse fole 5; fule heorte wil 9; chirche bisocne 45; eorSe )>relles 47; 
chirche dure 73; orthe scrud 79; culfre onlicuesse 95; ctdfre liche 
141; eorSe brihtnesse 217 — (gen. case, fern.). 

godne ileafe 5; pene wreche licome 19, 21; minne licome 35; on 
wowie 5; mid pe licome 21, 29; in his licome 27; of pon licome 
35; pene wome 83; mid o«c/e 83; to ane gode witege 97 — (ace. and 
dat. cases, masc). 

heo nomen pe asse 3; 3e finde^ ane asse 3; we habbe^ nu chirche 

9; mid godere heorte 3, 11, 23, 25; for halie chirche 17; to chirche 

23, 31; alle hefden ane heoi'te 91; on culfre 97; buuen eorSe 139; 

wip J>e nedclre 151; he halt eorSe 219; of eorSe ; to eorSe 223; leuS 

'us his eor¥>e 233 — (dat. and ace. cases, fern.). 

(ii.) Plural. — pas fa^e neddre bitacne^ 53; beo noht pe foa3e neddre 
ne pe blake tadde, ne pe jelewe^'o^e 353 — (nom.). 

to brekene pa erming licome 43 ; pa sunder-hahfi 245 ; mid Seme 143 
— (dat. and ace. cases). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

(i.) Singular. — se steorre ii. 7; se deme v. 25; wv£er-winne v. 25; 
eall pin lichame syo v. 29; sye pin name vi. 9:; min cwope viii. 8; 
time is xiv. 15; gewurSe pin ge wn'We vi. 10; se witege xxiv. 15 — 
(nom. case). 

pas loitege xvi. 16 (gen. masc.) ; eorSe sterunge xxiv. 7 (gen. fern.). 

panne steorre ii. 10 ; nemne^ his name i. 23, 25; on pinen name 
vii. 22; on his name xii. 2 1 ; for senne witege xiii. 6 ; purh panne 
witege xxvii. 9; nomen his licluime xiv. 12; of pare heorte xv. 18 — 
(dat. and ace. cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — No examples. 

C. From Peri Didaxeon. 
(i.) Singular. — on para bladre 84; ane panne 90, 106, 116; 
under pare tunge 100; on panne 124; in pare panne 126; of pare 
bladre 138; his tunge 140 — (dat. and ace. cases). 


(ii.) Plural. — on eare 88 ; inna }>a eare 94. 

D. From the Rule of St. Benet. 

(i.) Singular. — on byre herte 74 a; mit ]>&m wytage 74 a; wrS-teo 
beora lichame ma; on name 120b; to cyrce 109b; on time 76a, 
111a, 123b; of ancle 132 b — (dat. and ace. cases). 

(ii.) Plural. — mine lippe 99 b. 

In the Homilies we meet with such a form as e^en-e dative plural, 
which is probably an attempt to form a new dative case front the 
nominative plural. 

In Peri Didaxeon we have lungone, lungane 118, 138, 140, 142; 
and in L^amon's Brut examples of this formation are very common. 

Division II. — Class i. 


Nom. Hond, Hond-en (-e, -an, -a). 

Gen. Hond-e (-en), Hond-e (-ene, -en, -a). 

Dat. Hond-e, Hond-en (-e, -an). 

Ace. Hond-e, Hond-en (-e, -an, -a). 

Some nouns, like stefen (stefn), voice; sawel (saul, sawl), soul ; 
synn, take an -e in the nominative singular, as stefne, saule, sunne. 

To this declension belong dun (hill), frofer (comfort), gled (live 
coal), helle, mihte, misded, pin (pain), tid (time), swingle (scourge), 
woruld (world), ytsunge (covetousness), and all nouns in -ing, -ung, 
and -ness. 


A. From the Homilies. 

mild heortnesse ba^e 15, 19; saule bihofSe 19; helle grand 19, 21 \ 
helle pine 49; saule bihoue 85; worlde sarinesse 103; hehte lure 103; 
rode tacne 121 — (gen. sing.). 

sunnen 35, 37, 51; saulen 39, 41, 105, 117; gleden 43; pinen 43; 
wunden 79; spechen 93; mihten 107; roden 147; hondan 23, 91, 101 ; 
pinan 433 sunnan 91, 95, 103; ehtan, iselh^San 105; sorinessen 
105; misdede 19; saide 37; mihte 75; sunne 11, 37, 91 ; sarinesse 
103 ; honde 109 ; tide 89 ; sunna 97 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 

sunna 37 ; sunnen 97 ; mihta 101 — (gen. pi.). 

honden 41 ; sunnen 51 ; deden 57 ; wunden 75 ; spechen 89, 93 ; 
sunnen 103 ; sunnan 99 ; dedan 99 ; saule 41 ; sunne 35 — (dat. pi.). 


In ' beosternesse hellen,' p. 61, Ave have an instance of a genitive 
singular in -en instead of -e. 

B. In the Gospel of St. Matthew (Hatton MS.) we have instances 
of nominative and accusative plurals in -e, -en, -an (as well as the 
older form -a), and dative plurals in -e, -en, -an : l — 

cneornysse i. 17; mihte vii. 22; adle viii. 17; hande xvii. 22, 
xxvii. 24 ; handen xv. 2; gemyndstowe xxiii. 29 ; synnen ix. 5, ix. 6 ; 
bytten ix. 17 ; synnan iii. 6, vi. 14 ; synna vi. 15, ix. 5 ; stowa x. 43; 
stowen xvii. 4 ; kaigen xvi. 19 ; byr&ene xx. 12 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 

hande iv. 6, xv. 20; synnen i. 21 ; £v/c?ew v. 21 ; adlen iv. 20 — 
(dat. pi.). 

fo'tZe xvi. 3 (gen. pi.). 

C. In Peri Didaxeon we find : — 

beane 84; adle 94; beanen 86; hand an 112, 114; breosta 142; 
wunda 86, 134; handa 112, 134 ; wurtan 90, 114, 134 ; wyrta 118 ; 
beana 108 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 

breosten 84, 116; wyrta 134; breostan 124, 128; handa 112; 
handan 134 ; handum 112 — (dat. pi.). 

D. In the Rule of St. Benet we have synnan 79 b (ace. pi.). 

Division II. — C7ass ii. 


Nom. Ia3-e, hvj-e (-en, -a). 

Gen. Ia3-e, la3-ene (-e). 

Dat. Ia3-e, la3-en (-an, -e). 

Ace. Ia3-e, la3-e (en). 

Niht makes the plural niht ; boc has bee for its plural (p. 101) as 
in Saxon English. 

A. As examples of the plural forms belonging to this declension 
we have the following in our Homilies: — lay,, lay,n 15, 85; duren 
87 (nom. pi.) ; yfan 99 ; bohen 113 (dat. pi.). 

B. In the Gospel of St. Matthew we find burga, burgan, burgen as 
the plural of burh x. 23, xi. 20, xiv. 15. 

burgan, burgen xi. 1, xiv. 13 (dat. pi.). 

C. In Peri Didaxeon we have syna and synan, 88, no, as the nom. 
plural of syne (or synu) a sinew. 

1 The dative in -urn also occurs. 


Division III. — Class i. 


Norn, king, king-es (-as). 

Gen. king-es, king-e (-ene, -a, -an). 

Dat. king-e, king-en (-e, -an, -um). 

A. The following examples illustrate some varieties of the plural 
number in the Homilies : — 

elates ii. 1349 ; westmas 13; weies 49 ; wurmes 51 ; domas 1 35 ; 
eontas 93 ; apostlas 93 ; monslehtas 103 ; westmas 109 ; \>eoivas 119 ; 
fuyelaSjfiscas 129 — (nom. and ace. cases). 

westme 13; hinge 33; dayx 87; eldra 123; apostlan 91, 93; 
eontan 93 ; yeran 131 ; munechene 93 ; clerkene 133 — (gen. case). 

la^ea 11, 119 ; apostlen 133 ; apostlan 91 ; weran 119; aposthim 
91, 93 — (dat. case). 

.Fa makes the plural /cm (foes) 87, 143. 

B. The Gospel of St. Matthew supplies us with the following- 
varieties of the plural : — 

ealdres ii. 4 (nom. case). 

writere v. 20 ; gaste x. 1 ; apostle x. 2 ; AZ«/e xv. 34, xvi. 10 ; Jlsca 
xv. 343 weran xiv. 21 ; ealdran xv. 2 ; Ida/en xvi. 10 — (gen. case). 

ealdran ii. 6; day,n ii. 1, iii. 1; stanen iii. 9; wcestman vii. 16, 
ix. 20 ; wulfen x. 16 ; kyngen x. 18 — (dat. case). 

C. In Peri Didaxeon we find : — 

dwges 84 ; n&glas 114 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 
dcegen 84 (dat. pi.). 

Division III. — Class ii. 


Nom. and Ace. sun-e, broker, sun-e (sun-es), bro^r-e (-en, -an). 

Gen. sun-e, broker, sun-e, bro^r-e (-ene, -en). 

Dat. sun-e, broker, sun-en, bnrSr-en (-e, -an). 

Fader (feder) makes gen. sing, federes, feder ; -pX.federes. 

A. Examples of the plural forms : — 

broftre 5 ; sustre 5, 23 ; childre 73 ; children 7 ; briSren 11 ; ibro- 
%ran 125; sustren 157 ; feond 7 ; deofles 87 — (nom. and ace. cases). 

1 mid seems to govern the accusative as well as the dative. 


feonda 33; monna 91, 93; childre 1 7; tdpen 33; mannen 99 — 
(gen. case). 
feonden 7 ; deoflan 3 ; foten,fotan 87, 91, 129 — (dat. case). 

B. Examples of the plural from the Gospel of St. Matthew : — 

gebro&re v. 47, xii. 47, 48, xxiii. 8 ; deq/te viii 31 ; ix. 34 ; swustre 
xiii. 56; gebrcferen iv. 18; broferen xx. 24; gebrcfera xii. 46; 
brcrSra xiii. 55 ; sunen xxi. 37 — (nom. and ace. cases). 

manna iv. 19; deofla ix. 34; feonda xiii. 25; fobme vii. 12; 
chyldren xxi. 16 ; e/eo/?e xii. 24 ; fobe xiii. 42, xxii. 13 ; manne xvii. 
22 ; faderen xxxiii. 30 ; mannen xxiii. 14 — (gen. case). 

mannen v. 16, xix. 26 ; mannan vi. 14 ; fotan vii. 6 ; /b£e?i x. 14 ; 
brcr&ren xxv. 40 — (dat. case). 

sunes, sunas, as the plural of sune, occurs in ch. xx. 21, xxi. 28. 

C. Examples of the plural from Peri Didaxeon : — 
cegeran 106 ; cegru 136 ; cegere 134 — (nom. and ace. cases). 

topan 102 ; fram ba topa 104; ban manna 126; foten 132; fotum 
134— (dat.). 

D. Examples of the plural from the Rule of St. Benet : — 
swustra 88 b, 90 a ; swustre 75 b, 90a, 91b, 92 a, 96 b, 98 a, 109 a, 

125 b, 127b; swustren 75 b, 102a; ^eswustren 102a; swustran 
119 b — (nom. and ace. cases). 

sustrene 88 b; ^eswustra 91a; ^eswustre 97a, 106a, 132 a (gen. 
case); ^eswustren 97b, 198a; y swustre 88b, 100b, nib, 133b; 
$eswustra?n 93 b — (dat. case). 

Division IV. — Class i. 


Nom. and Ace. word, word, word-es (-as). 

Gen. word-es, word-e (-ene, -en, -a). 

Dat. word-e, word-en (-e, -an). 

To this declension belong beam, bern, child ; deor, animal ; hors, 
horse ; lonib, lamb ; seep, sheep ; ping ; wif, wife, woman ; weorc, work. 

The tendency to adopt even more modern forms is seen in such 
forms as huses, wi/es 49 ; 'on weorcas,' 107, ' for werkes,' 145. 

1 There is good evidence for believing that in addition to the simple forms 
child, egg, lomb, there existed also corresponding sterns in -er, as childer, egger, 


A. In the Gospel of St. Matthew we have : — 

sceapene vii. 15; \inge vi. 32; bearne xx. 20 — banen xxiii. 27 ; 
swina viii. 31 ; beornan hlaf xv. 26 ; wifen, xi. 11 — (gen. pi.); wifen 
xv. 38 ; sceapen xv. 24 — (dat. pi.). 

B. \inge, worde 1 1 1 a (gen. pi.) occur in the Rule of St. Benet. 

C. \>ingas (ace. pi.), Peri Didaxeon 140. 

Division IV. — Class ii. 


Nom. and Ace. treow (treo), treow-e 1 (-en, -a, -u 1 , -es 2 ). 

Gen. treow-es, treow-e (ene, -an). 

Dat. treow-e, treow-en (-e, -an). 

A. Examples of the plural forms in the Homilies : — 

ibede 7 ; breode 1 1 ; bebode, ibode 11, 13 ; treowe 5, 155 ; yeade T27 ; 

ibeden 55; biboden 99 ; $eten 141, 153; limen, leoman 103, 109; 

bibodan 119 ; tacne, tacna 91 ; biboda 119 ; twigga 5 ; nutenu 129 — 

(nom. and ace. cases). 

limen 23 ; biboden 95 ; iwedan 109 ; twige 149 ; wepne 155 — (dat. 


B. Examples of the plural from the Gospel of St. Matthew : — 
lendene iii. 4 ; fate xii. 29, xiii. 48 ; wundre vii. 22, xiv. 2 ; tacne 

xvi. 3 ; <7«te xvi. 18 : chihene, xxiii. 37 ; ticcene xxv. 33 ; eorde xxvi. 
53 > fi\vra xxiii. 37 ; mere-groten vii. 6 ; leoht-faten xxv. 1, 3 — (nom. 
and ace. cases). 

treowe iii. 10 ; lime v. 29 ; Zt?na v. 30 ; treowa xxi. 8 — (gen. case). 

gemceren ii. 16 ; beboden v. 19 ; ticchenan xxv. 32 — (dat. case). 

C. In the Rule of St. Benet we have the following plurals : — 
fata, fate, fatan, 93 b, 96 b, 97 a (nom. and ace. cases). 

D. In Peri Didaxeon we find the following plural forms : — 

tacnu 88 ; cymlu 134 ; cyrnles 1 34 ; lime 1 20 — (nom. and ace. cases). 

cicene, cicena, 118, 122, 124 (gen. case). 

1. The foregoing divisions show us that the tendency of nouns 
feminine of Div. I. Classes i. and ii., of masculine substantives of 
Div. III. Class ii., and of neuters of Div. IV. Class ii., is to change the 
older vowel endings {-a, -u, -0) first into -e and then into -en. 

1 In Saxon English the plural endings were -0, -a, -u. 

2 Plurals in -es occasionally occur, as wederes, p. 13. (See wederes in Sax. 
Chron. ed. Earle, p. 229.) 


2. The older forms of brothers, sisters — brothres, sustres — would lead 
us to suppose that the s was a later addition to the plural suffix -e, so 
that brothres, sustres are not equivalent to brotheres, susteres, but = 
brothr-e-s, sustr-e-s. 

This addition of an s to a final e was very common in the Early 
English period, so that we find, even in the same work, such forms us 
the following, which have been rather perplexing to our English 
grammarians : — en-e, en-e-s (once), neod-e, neod-e-s (needs), Jieonn-e, 
heonn-e-s (hence), twi-e, twi-e-s (twice), thri-e, thri-e-s (thrice). 

3. The genitive plural -ene and -e maintained their ground for some 
time ; the former however, occasionally contracted to -en, was the last 
to go out of use. 

4. We find no examples as yet of genitive plurals in -es. 

The adjective, as in Anglo-Saxon and modern German, has a 
Definite and an Indefinite form, the former being used when it is 
preceded by the definite article, a demonstrative or a possessive 
pronoun 1 , and the latter in all other cases. 

The nominative masculine singular has two forms in -a and -e, of 
which the latter is the more commonly used. The oblique cases of 
masculines and feminines have four varieties, corresponding very 
closely to the first or n declension of nouns. 





r I. 

Nom. | 2> 




r '■ 














- 4- 




r '■ 









1 4. 







1 Adjectives qualifying nouns in the vocative case usually take the definite 
form, as in Saxon English. 







Masc. Fem. Neut. 

1. gocl-an. 

2. god-a. 

3. god-en. 

4. god-e. 

1. god-ena. 

2. god-ene. 

3. god-en. 
L 4. god-e. 

1. god-an. 

2. god-a. 

3. god-en. 

4. god-e. 

Examples of the First Form. 

A. From the Homilies. 

]>e halia gast 89 : )>e helia gast 93, 97 ; ]>e almihtiyt 97 ; J>e alweld- 
enda dema 105 ; )>e zoisa mon 107 — (nom. sing). 

\>es halgan gastes 3ife 99 ; \>es gastes isundinge 99 ; )>ere 
halgan )>remnesse 101 ; to ]>ere upplican riche 41; on J>am ealdcm 
pentecoste 89 ; of \>&m halym gaste 99, 101 ; to Jjan almihtiyxn gode 
111 j Jjene kalian gaste 91 — (gen. dat. and ace. sing.). 

J>a mildheortan 109; ]>a modian 11 1; )>a droriym 95 ; ]>as Jewcwi 
world-Jnng 105 ; )>a mildem 113 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 

on ure god-an weorcan 107; bi j>an gastliche wrecclian 113 — 
(dat. pi.). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

The nominative singular in -a occurs frequently along with the 
form in -e, even in the same verse. 

)>u god-e ]>eow and getreowa xxv. 23 ; ]>u efela j?eow and slawe 
xxv. 6 (nom.) ; )>an toweardan eorre iii. 7; on j>a halgan ceastre iv. 5 ; 
jjonne unnyttan )>eowan xxv. 30 — (ace. and dat. sing.). 

jjas halgan gastes xii. 31 — (gen. sing.). 

]>a mildheortan v. 7; ]>a godan v. 45 ; J>a wntrurnan xiv. 14; }>a 
fermestan xxiii. 6 ; eale ge blindan xxiii. 17 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 



C. From Peri Didaxeon. 

se ruwa gealla ; se swerta gealle 82 ; se yfela wseta 130 — (nom. 

of ban swertan wsetan 94 ; of bare dri^an hsetan 96 ; on ban 
wynstran earme ; to ))an scearpcm bane 124 — (dat. and ace. sing.). 

to ban menniscan toban 102 ; of ban scearpan bannm 138 — (dat. pi.). 

D. In the Rule of St. Benet the forms in -a, -an, &c, are of more 
frequent occurrence than the other varieties. 

Examples of the Second Form. 

A. From the Homilies. 1 

be wrecche mon 27; be halie gast 53 ; be ^elowe clath 53 — (nom. 

on Here ilea nihte 87; of bam Italia gast 97; bene halia gast 97 ; 
imong ]>an muchela wisdoma 125 ; to be hahfib gast 101 ; on J)a hafya 
breomnesse for 99 ; ^a re¥>a dome 15 ; bes /i«^a gastes to cume 10 1 ; 
of ban herda flinke 129 — (gen. dat. and ace. sing.). 

J)Os blaca tadden 53 ; ba isibsumma 113 — (nom. pi.). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

For examples of the nominative singular, see quotation above from 
xxv. 6. 

ba rihtwisa xiii. 43 ; swa beo^ ]>a fyrmestan ytemeste 1 ba ytemesta 
fyrmesta xx. 16 — (nom. pi.). 

mid hera brada handen xxvi. 67 (dat. pi.). 

C. From Peri Didaxeon. 
ba aiver^eda adle 94 ; ]>a yfela wseta 130 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 

D. From the Rule of St. Benet. 
3eond ba sylfa tida 84 a (ace. pi.). 

Examples of the Third Form. 

A. From the Homilies, 
bes lialyan gastes to cume 99 ; to ban ileaufullen hirede 89 ; bene 
heouenlichen ebel 113 — (gen. dat. and ace. sing.). 

1 In the Homilies the nominative masculine in -e is by far the most common. 


pa iudeiscen men 89 ; pa untrummen 91 ; pa synfulhn 95 ; pa so^ew 
ileafen 97 — (nom. and ace. pi.), 
pan sunfullen 95 (dat. pi.). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

pani wisen were vii. 24 ; pan desien men vii. 26 ; to pam lamen 
ix. 2; on pare towearden xii. 32; on pinen swv&ren xx. 21 ; emie 
lamen ix. 2 ; pane strangen xii. 29 — (dat. and ace. sing.). 

pa goden xiii. 48; ofer pa yfeleny. 45; eale je desigen xxiii. 17 
— (nom. and ace. pi.). 

C. From the Eule of St. Benet. 

psere halgen cyrican 89 a; pes arfesten ~] pes mildheorten 90 b; 
paere regollicen styre no a; pses halgen gastes in a; paere strSesten 
discepline 117a; pses awyri^eden gastes 131a; paes haliyen reo^eles 
132 a — (gen. sing.). 

of pare ealden 3ecydnesse 76b ; of pare eedden se 137 b — (dat. sing.). 

poane e^fullen cwede 89 a (ace. sing.). 

)>a unstrangen sy 130b (nom. pi.). 

Jmrh pa halgen fcederes 125 b (ace. pi.). 

D. From Peri Didaxeon. 
on pan manniscen lichama 82 (dat. sing.). . 

Examples op the Fourth Form. 
A. From the Homilies. 
pes hedie gast 93 ; pes ficd^e gastes 99 — (gen. sing.), 
fram pam halie hesterdei 87 ; on pere aide \a^e 87 ; on pere ilhe 
nihte 87 — (dat. sing.). 

pa rede se 87; pa aide se 87; purh pe halie fullht 87 ; pane un- 
rihtwise mon 117 — (ace. sing.). 

\>asfa$e neddre 53 ; pes riche men 53 — (nom pi.), 
bi pan gastliche wrecchan 113 — (dat. pi.). 

B. From the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

panne ytemeste ferpyng v. 26 ; panne strange wind xiv. 30 ; panne 
sereste fisc xvii. 27 ; on mine swv&re xx. 23 ; on his nywe berienne 
xxvii. 60 — (dat. and ace. sing.). 

pa gastlice pearfan v. 3 ; pa sibsume v. 9 ; pa unclcene gastes viii. 
16; pa fermeste xxiii. 6; pa blinde ix. 28; pa manfidle xiii. 38 ; pa 
blinde ~} pa healte xxi. 14 — (nom. and ace. pi.). 


wa eow blinde xxiii. 16, 19, 24 — (clat. pi.). 

C. From the Rule of St. Benet. 
)>are halite J>reonmesse 75 b; Jjere regollice stere 115 b — (gen. sing.), 
to )?an egfulle godes dome 74a ; of ]>are nyioe se 75 b ; of \>&re niwe 
se 137b; on liali^e Jjeudome ; of )>am yldeste 117 b — (dat. sing.). 
]>a crcefti^e menn 118 a; \>a.yldre swustre 127 b — (nom. pi.). 
J>a yngre swusti'e 127 b — (ace. pi.), 
mid hyre yfele dedan 91a; J>am seoce 93 a — (dat. pi.) 

D. From Peri Didaxeon. 
on jjan middemyste sedra 112; of J>are mycle hastan 128; of )>an 

scearpe bane 140 — (dat. sing.). 

}>& yfele wseta 130 ; )>e ealde lseces 130, 138 — (nom. pi.) 

In Peri Didaxeon we have the indefinite instead of the definite form 

in ' ]>ces seocys mannes eare' 88 ; ' J>ses yfeles waetan' 130. 







f God-e, 


\ God-en, 

L God-um. 








God-re, God-ere, 












Masc. Fern, and Neut. 

Nom. and Ace. God-e. 

Gen. God-i*e, God-ere, God-e, God-ra. 

Dat. God-e, God-en, God-an, God-um. 


godes cunnes 5; alles j>inges 7, 13; names godes 9; mennisses 
metes 11; \>ines di'ihtenes 11, 37; o*Sres monnes 13, 29; \ines 
eorSliches louerdes 2 1 ; anes em^Sliclies monnes 33 ; sunfulles monnes, 
alles cunnes 79, 95; liuiendes godes 83; elches monnes 99; monies 


cuiines 103; enies monnes 121; alles ileffulles moncunnes 121; ures 
lichomes 127 ; liuiy,ndes godes 131 — (gen. sing. masc. and neuter). 

of elchan hiwscipe 87 ; ewilcum 93 ; uwilchen 97 j on elche huse 
87 ; to ane gode witege 97 — (dat. sing. masc. and neut.). 

godne ileafe 5 ; elcne herm 1 3 ; muchelne teone 1 5 ; uwilcne nion 
17; hine seol/ne 17, 95; wrS o\erne 19; sioilcne lauerd 213 godne 
red 71 ; glesne ehburl 83; haline 99 ; sari?ie, blindne, unliable, ill j 
minne gast 113; on erwe ma^en 115; snoterne 117 — (ace. sing. 

mid godere heorte 3 ; under mire onwalde 13 ; mid muchele blisse 
13; for halie cbirche 17; mid gode heorte 23; pire sunne 25; of 
\>ire misdede 33; mid mildere steuene 45; mid edmode heorte 71 ; 
mid muchlere blisse 87 ; godere hele 57 ; of elchere beode 89 ; mid nane 
la^nesse 95 ; on muclielere sarinesse 101 ; of nane lichamliche pinunge 
97 ; of elchere wohnesse 103 ; on sd'Sre annesse 99 ; to elchere du3e^e. 
103; on gastlicliere blisse 105; in eche pine 143; mid worldliche 
ehte 149 — (dat. sing. fern.). 

feole 6%re godere werke 9 ; aha kinge king 33 ; alra swrSest 33 ; 
aire welene mest 33 ; alra lengest 49 ; summe \ine sunna 37 ; alia 
sunfulle 1 51 ; lefidle monne lauerd 77 ; godra gaste 97 ; heore beire, 
heore beira 99 ; aire sunnen 97 ; unrihlwisra 117; \inra welena 1 1 1 ; 
alls sunfulle monne leddre 149 — (gen. pi. 2 ). 

mid mislichen spechen 89 ; mid furene tungen 93 ; to ateliche 
deoflan 103; bi dftran rihtwise 105; mid irenen neilen 121 ; oferan 
bingan 125; us alien 125; of twam bingen 135 — (dat pi.). 

The indefinite article follows the indefinite declension : — 

Masc. Fern. 

Nom. an, are. 

Gen. anes, are, ane (anre). 

Dat. ane, are, ane (anre). 
Ace. anne, enne, 1 

[an, neuter). J 

We find n dropping off occasionally before neuter nouns ; as, a lutel 
ater 23 ; a seep 121. 

1 In the text of has been inserted before alia by the scribe. 

2 In the older Homilies, pp. 216-245, we find forms in -ra and -re; cp. alra 
217, 219, aire 231, beire 219. 




The comparative degree of adjectives ends in -re (of adverbs in -er), 
the superlative in -este (of adverbs in -est) ; cp. fulre 25 ; deoppre 49 ; 
sof teste, wunsumeste 35. 

Irregular Forms. 





bet, betre, 





lute, luttle, 










pes, pas, 
pani, pan, 
pon, pa, 

- pene, pane, 
pone, pen, 

L panne, pe, 2 .. 

(i.) Definite Article — pe, peo, pat. 1 


Fern. Neut. 

pa, po, peo, pe, pat, pet. 

pare, pere, per, par, pes, pas. 

pere, pei*, 

pa, po, peo, pe, . 

pam, pan, pon, pa. 
pet, pat, pe. 2 


Masc. Fern, and Neut. 
Nom. and Ace. pa, pe, peo, po. 
Gen. pere, pera. 

Dat. pam, pan, pon. 

1 In the older Homilies, pp. 216-245, we have still kept up forms in s, as 
se (masc), si, for seo (fern.). The earliest use of Se, Sio occurs in the Northumbrian 
Gospels (tenth century). 

2 This form (be) occurs most frequently after prepositions, and may be con- 
sidered as an objective case. The same usage is found in the latter part of the 
Saxon Chronicle (ed. Earle) : cp. mid pe cyng 256 ; of pe temple 257 ; on pe circe 
263 ; o pe land 262 ; of pe castles 262. Of an indeclinable \>e, said to be in use in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, see Cockayne's remarks, in St. Marherete, p. 
85, on Sir F. Madden's assertion. 



pes flesces 9; pes deofles 17 ; pas fulhtes be^e 23; pas kinges hus 
51 ; pes . . . monnes 95 ; pes . . . godes 123 — (gen. sing. masc). 

pam deofle 37 ; et pan est 3ete 5 ; to pam setteresdei 9 ; to pan 
sinagoge 9 ; on pam la^e, 1 on b«ra la3e 9 ; to pan preoste 1 7 ; to pan 
blisse 1 11 ; of pam o^er 23 ; fi*om pan helle and fram pan pine 1 25 
et pam fulhtbeda 37 ; biforen pam ilke stude 43 ; mid pan fedre 47 ; 
efter ban . . . word 75 ; of pan . . . atter 75 ; of pan gast 81 ; of pam 
folche 87 ; fram pan estertid 87 ; on pam pentecoste 89 ; of pen hali 
gast 81 ; pon moiine, pon deofle i 5 ; of pon licome 35 ; on pon deie 
41, 91 ; for pan eie 97 ; of pa fredorne 41 ; uppon pa chese 53 ; to 
pa de$e 121 ; for pa re£a dome 15 2 — (dat. sing. masc. and neut.). 

in pane castel 3 ; pane weye 5 ; 03ein pene castel 5 ; burh pene 
gast 7 ; penne sunnedei 1 1 ; pene mon 31 ; pene gnast 81 ; pene nome 
83 ; on pene helend 77 ; pene mon 113; pene stan 141 ; pone de^ 109 
— (ace. masc). 

inne pe weye 3, 5 ; on pe godspel 5 ; mid pe licome 2 1 ; J)urh pe 
lust II j in be castel 23 ; mid pe feder 41 ; mid pe suue 41 ; mid pe 
halie gast 41 ; bi pe hefede 41 ; in pe putte 49 ; in pe uenne 49 ; mid 
pe wetei'e 51 ; mid pe streme 51 ; jjurh pe . . . smel 53 ; of pe chese 
53 ; for pe luue 65 ; |>urh pe witega 71 ; ine pe . . . godspel 73 ; ine 
pe sune 77 ; bi pe weye 77 ; i pe wetere 79 ; i pe lufte 79 ; of pe . . . 
fure 8 1 ; burh pe glesne eh)>url 83 ; to pe . . . gast 101 ; of pe sede 133; 
anuppe pe stane 133 ; bi pe weie 133 : Jmrk pe treo 129 ; to pe sede 
135 — (ace. masc. and neut.). This modern form occasionally occurs 
after a transitive verb, as piuen pe licome 2 1 ; habbeb pe nome 53. 

pe chirche 9 ; pe boc 21 ; pe sunne 77 ; pe mihte 105 ; pe clenesse 
in j peo eorSe 53 ; peo e 89 ; peo heorte 109 ; pa assa 9 ; pa saule 35 ; 
pa boc 37 ; pa sunne 39 : pa clennesse in ; pa tunge 109 — (nom. 
sing. fern.). 

et J>an est 3ete pere burh 5 ; jjere saule 19, 35 ; per orj>e 79; per 
saule bihove 85 — (gen. sing. fern.). 

toward pare burh 3 ; to pere dune 3 ; of pere burh 3 ; in pere 
strete 7 ; mid pere [la3e] 9 ; for pere saule 9 ; to per ilke chirche 3 1 ; 
in pere sunne 33 ; bi per heorte 41 ; in pere prvh. 51 ; in pare Jjruh 51 ; 
in pere sea 51 ; into pare eche pine 53 ; in pere eorSe 53 ; into per 

1 In A.S. la^e, blisse, hclle and pine were feminine. 

2 Cp. on \>a heafedan (on the head), Peri Didaxeon, p. 100. 


strong pine 53 ; to berg saule 63 ; of \ere mihte 79 ; of bere wunde 83; 
on bere la3e 87; on bere nihte 87 ; of bere se 87 ; on J>«re se 89 ; 
under ]>ere e 89 ; on ]>ere boc 89 ; wrSinne bere buruh 89 ; mid bere 
annesse 93 ; to pare blisse 99 ; on bere . . . weorlde 135; niid ]>ere 
elmesse 137 — (dat. sing. fern.). 

be cbircbe 9 ; \a blisse 7 ; b« wrake 9 ; \a sunne 2 1 ; \a> godnesse, 
be elmesse, \a dedbote 23 ; \eo deopnesse 49 ; b« welle 41 ; \>a se 87 ; 
on bo, breoninesse 99; bee- elmesse 135; be sunne 143 — (ace. sing, 

ouer al be burh 3 ; uppon ba fole 3 ; ouer pe cbircbe 7 ; on \>a 
la3e 9 ; into J>e beosteraesse 61 ; et be dure 73 ; ine be rode 147 — (ace. 
sing. fern.). 

b« apostles 3 ; ba men 27 ; bi b« bonden 41 ; ba wepne 83 ; ouer 
ba apostles 93 ; beo men 31 ; Keo sterren 133 ; bo engles 63; be 
saulen 41 ; be rapes 47, 51 ; be ureisuns 51 ; be apostles 89 — (nom. 
and ace. pi.). 

uppon be . . . treowe 5 ; bi be eyen 41; of be sunnen 5 1 ; ine be e^en, 
ine be eren 153 ; mid be e^en 157 — (ace. pi.). 

imundie bera appostlene lare 89 ; bere apostlan 91 ; burh bere 
apostlene muSe 133; et )>ere apostlan fotan 101 ; bnrh bere clerkene 
muSe 133; on ^ere monne heorte 135; ]>ere heftene monnan heor- 
tan 95— (gen. pi.). 

of pan floe manna 3; for pan deoflan 27 ; et pon monnen 29 ; 
uppon pan treon 4 1 ; of pon . . . heSene 87 ; to pan apostlan 91 ; pain 
apostlam 91 ; of pon apostlum 93 ; bufan pam apostlas 95 — (dat. pi.). 

(ii.) pes, beos, bis (this). 


Fern. Neut. 

beos, bos, bas, bis. 

bisse, bissere, bisser, 2 pises. 

jnsse, Jnssere, |>isser, pisse. 

beos, bas, bis. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 
Nom. bas, beos, bes, bis. 
Gen. bisse, bissere. 
Dat. bis-an, bis-en, bise, bisse. 
Ace. bas, beos, bes. 

> For )>ise = )>>is-en = \>is-um . 2 Sisser occurs in the N, Gospels, John xx. 30. 







bisse, 1 bese, 


bisne, besne. 



\>es put 49; ]>es mon 79, 81 ; \>es wreche 81 ; \>es prest 81 ; pes 
diakne 81 ; pes dei 87 — (nom. sing. masc). 

hisses deijes 97 — (gen. sing. masc). 

in pisse putte 51 ; of pisse mon 81 ; on pisse deie 89 — (dat. sing, 
masc). (If 'bi 'pis mon,' p. 83, be not an error of the scribe for ' bi 
pisse mon,' we have an instance of the modern form of ' this ' ; cp. 
pis putte 5 1 ). 

\>isne lofsong 5 ; pesne, mon 27 ; pesne red 63 — (ace sing. masc). 

]>eos world is 7 ; nis pas weorld 35 ; ]>eos elite turned 53 ; \>eos tide 
is 89 ; pos godnesse mihte 81 ; pos world wende 81 ; pas wrake is 15 
— (nom. sing. fern.). 

pisse woreldes 35 ; ]>isse worlde sarinesse 103 ; ]>issere sterke worlde 
105 — (gen. fem.). 

on pissere tid 91 ; efter pissere bisnunge 93 ; inne pisse \&ye 9 ; 
on pisse worlde 33, 89 ; mid pisse fluhte 81 — (dat. sing. fem.). 

luue^ pas muchele prude 49 ; he erest astalde peos woreld 19 — 
(ace fem.). 

pas da3es be^ 1 1 ; wei'en pas )>reo la3e 1 x ; pas la3en weren 1 5 ; 
hwet bo^ pas j>eues 79 ; peos weord 47 ; peos men doS 49 ; peos wim- 
men beo^ 53 ; pos men habbe^ 53 ; pos word 65 ; pos blaca tadden 
bitacne^ pes riche men 53 — (nom. pi.). 

on ]>isse da^en 1 1 ; of ]>isse limen 23 ; of pisse )>inge 37, 73 ; to 
pissan . . . 3euan 99 — (dat. pi.). 

ne forswerie \>re pas bebode 1 3 ; pas ruperes and pas reueres and 
pas J>eues \>u a3est luuan 15 ; breke pas word 79 ; of pas pinen 43 ; 
to peos weordes — (ace pi.). 

pes is used pronominally, as pes mihte speken 83. 


1. The hard and soft (the ancient and modern) forms of the 1st 
person are seen in ic and ich, of which another variety is ih. 

Ic occasionally coalesces with mey and mot, as mahtic 31, mostic 35. 

2. The 1st and 2nd persons have a dual number, as wit, we two ; 
•$it, ye two. 

3. Some new forms begin to make their appearance, as his, I (1. 223, 
p. 173) ; ha, she, her, they, them ; hes, them ; es, is, his, her. 



4. When the pronouns are used reflectively they are put in the 
dative case. 

5. Seolf (self) is often added to the reflective pronoun, as ' Ic me 
seolf,' = I myself. The reflective pronoun is sometimes omitted, as 
' Ic seolf,' = I (my) self. 

Self is usually declined like the indefinite adjective ; but we find 
seolf e or seolue as well as seolf ne in the accusative, while the dative 
singular and plural -um dwindles down to -an or -en, -e. Cp. hine 
seolfne, hine seolue 25 ; hine seolf e 29; mide gode seoluan 107 ; to 
him seoluen, mid him solue 61 ; eow seluen 35 ; on us seluan 123. 

The Personal Pronouns are : — 

1st Pers. 

Nom. Ic, ich, ih 3 

Gen. min, 

Dat. ine, 

Ace. me, 


2nd Pers. 


3rd Pers. 



Fern. Neut. 

heo, hi, ha, hit. 

hire, here, his. 

hire, him. 

heo, hi, ha, \ ^ 

hine, him, j ^o In, ha, j 

' ' I es, his, J 

Dual. Plural. 
Nom. wit, we. 
Gen. ure. 

Dat. us. 

Ace. unc, us. 




3c 1 

eower, euwer. 
hine (inc), eow. 

Masc. Fern, and Neut. 
hi, heo, ha. 
heore, hore, here. 
. hem, heom, ham. 
hi, heo, hes, heom, ham, ha 2 . 

The Possessive Pronouns are formed from the genitive case, 
those of the 1st and 2nd persons being declined like adjectives of 
the indefinite declension, while those of the third are indeclinable. 

Mi and ]>i are occasionally found for min and pin. 

The Relative Pronouns are— be=Se (=A.S. se£e), be, and \et 
(or pat). 

\>et has often the force of our compound relative what : — ' he wule 
herkien pet be preost him lerS on' 31. 

The Interrogative Pronouns are hwa (who) ; hioet (hwat) ; hioilc 
(which) ; liwi&er (which of two, whether). 

1 In the older Homilies, pp. 216-245, we have3te = ye ; 3i«re=your ; 3m = you. 

2 In some of the Midland dialects we find hise as the plural of his. 


Masc. and Fern. 


Norn, hwa, 

hwet (hwat). 

Gen. hwas, 


Dat. hwem, hwarn, hwan, 

hwem, hwam. 

Ace. hwem, hwam, hwan, 

hwet (hwat). 

The Indefinite Pronouns are me ( = A. S. man, one ; cp. Ger. man, 
Fr. on), and hwa, who (cp. 'as ivho says'), as in the phrase ^if hioa 
is,' = if any one is, 9. 


Voice. — The verbs beon, em, and weoiftan are employed along with 
the perfect (or past) participle to form the passive voice. 

Mood. — There are four moods distinguished by inflection; namely, 
the Subjunctive, Imperative, Infinitive, and Indicative. 

Subjunctive Mood. — The present subjunctive has frequently the 
force of the imperative. Cp. ' hwa efre benne ilokie] = let each one 
then observe, 47 ; herien we = let us praise ; luuian we = let us 
love, 123. 

Imperative Mood. — Strong verbs have no inflexion in the 2nd 
person imperative, unless the root ends in a double consonant, which 
then takes a final -e. 

Weak verbs have the 2nd person singular in -e if the infinitive 
ends in -ien, -ie, 1 or if the base terminates in a double consonant. 

The plural imper. ends in -e$> (-aft, -et), or in -e when the pronoun 
follows the verb. 

Infinitive Mood. — The infinitive mood ends for the most part in 
-en or -an; as, milcian, iverian, luuan 15; \enchen 15; lokien 17. 
Sometimes the n is dropped, as fere 5, hene 13, wundie 15, sawe 2 

1 In Saxon English the 2nd imp. sing, of verbs in -ian terminated in -a, of 
which we have an example in the present Homilies, cp. esca, p. 35. 

2 In the older Homilies we find an infinitive in -a, habba, 221 : cp. 'sile him 
drinca,' Peri Didaxeon, p. 128 ; 'seel he hobba? p. 116. In the Northumbrian 
Gospels we find infinitives in -a and -e : cp. gefraigne, John xvi. 19 ; ivyrce, John 
xv. 5. 


The gerundial or dative infinitive usually adds -e to the ordinary in- 
finitive, as hetiene i 7 ; but we have many instances of the older and 
fuller form, as wurchenne 117. 

It sometimes takes the form of the ordinary infinitive ; as, he him 
5efe : S lutel to etene and lesse to drinke 147 ; bet is to under stondan 
127. ' 

We find it taking the participial inflexion -hide, as ' to swimminde,' 
for 'to swimmenej 1 51 ; to teolie7ide,=to teoliene, T33. 2 

Participles. — 1. The imperfect (or present participle) ends in -ende 
(the older form), or in -hide (the modern form). 3 The earliest in- 
stance of participles in -hide occurs in Peri Didaxeon, p. 84. 

2. The perfect (or past) has the prefix i- (occasionally y,- or hi-), 
except in verbs commencing with the following prefixes : a-, at- (et-), 
bi- (be-), for- (nor-), of, to-, un-, wi}>-. 

The perfect participles of strong verbs end in -en, (Occasionally 
the n is dropped, as in La3amon's Brut. Cp. inume 140 ; ifalle 149 ; 
mr&erfonge 149; )>urhstonge 151). 

The perfect participles of weak verbs terminate in -ed, -d, -t. 

Indicative Mood. — The present tense has often the force of the 
future. Shall (seal) is not alwaj r s a sign of the future tense, but must 
often be rendered must, ought, should. 

1. Present Tense. — The 1st pers. sing, ends in -e, the 2nd in -est 
(-ast), 3rd in -e% (-«$, -et). The plural 1st, 2nd, 3rd ends in -e£ (-«$, 
-et), or in -e when the pronoun follows the verbs. 

Verbs ending in -d or -t have -t for -dd% or -teft, as bit, bids, asks ; 
fret, eats ; hat, commands ; halt, holds. 

2. Past Tense. — A past emphatic is sometimes formed by gan, gon 
= did. 

The past tense 1st and 3rd sing, of weak verbs tenninate in -ede 
(-ode, -ode), -de, -te. Strong verbs form the past tense by change of 
the root vowel. 

The 2nd pers, sing, of weak verbs ends in -est. In strong verbs the 
inflexion is -e. 

1 In the Lindisfarne Gospels we find losige = losanne, Mark i. 24. 

2 This corruption is very common in the Northumbrian Gospels. 

3 In the fourteenth century participles in -inde are a very good mark of a 
Southern dialect. 



The plural ends in -en (-uri). Some strong verbs have a change of 
vowel in the preterite plural, as — 

Past sing, band, past pi. bunden. 
„ „ sang, „ „ sungen. 
„ „ swam, „ „ swummen. 

The following is a list of the strong forms in the present Homilies, 
pp. 1-183, 216-245:— 

Present Tense. 

Past Tense 

Past Plural. 

Perfect Participle. 


ber 39, 131, 

i-boren 7, 33. 


abelh 1 1 1 . 


i-boi'3en 171, 169. 


beot 121. 


i-bide, "1 

i-bad 35. 


bed 85, 

i-beden 45. 

fi-bunden 7. 
1 3e-bunden 3. 


bond 79, 

bunden 121, 

Li-bunde 69. 


fblou 75. 
•i a-bleow 99. 


a-brea^ 219, 

235, . . . . 

a-broden 239. 


brec 19, 79, 

i-broken 83. 


bu3en 91, 2: 


a-bii3e, f 

fa-beh 45. 
1 a-beah 227. 

• • • • 


ceose, ""i 

fiches 97. 
[jecas 235, 

i-coren 45, 55. 

a-ceose, J 

a-ceas 229, 

i-core 7 1 . 


to-chan 141. 

. . . . 


i-cnawen 137, 169 


com 5, 

• • • 

i-cumen 1 19. 
fi-que^en 161, 


cweS 3, 


<, i-cwede 269. 
Licwe^en 103. 



i-dolven 49. 




idre3en 51. 


Present Tense. 










under- fo, j 

















Past Tense. 

fet 231. ~] 
) seat 233. >■ 
laet. J 

ffeol 61, 79. " 

feoll 93. 

fol 223. 

uol 61. 

Past Plural. 

Perfect Participle. 

fond 139, 141, 

fflehSi, 1 
juleh 79, J 

underfeng 73 91, 

flu3en 129. 

gef i7, 75,] 

3iaf2 23, j 

bi-gon 43, 
glad 91. 

heold 9, 

bet 5, 97, hebt 11, 
abef 1 1 3. 

help 79, 
lei 33,81. 

bi-falle 149. 
for-faren 141. 

f i-funden 35. 
^i-funde 69. 

bi-fongen 1 5 f . 
underfonge 149. 
unfoi'-3olden 41. 
bi-3eten 29, 35. 
a-3even 31. 
i-3even 83. 
i-3efen 79. 
for^euen 37. 
on-gunnen 89, bi-gunne 77. 

i-halden 87. 
3e-balden 229. 
a-bonge 41. 

i-baten, i-hate 3, 
49> 97- 

for-bolen 165. 
i-bolpen 81. 

i-lo3en 9 1 . 

Present Tense, 







a- rise, 



gescape, j 






si3 e > 






stinge, i 


Jjurh-stinge, I 

Past Tense. Past Plural. 

. . . . for-lureno3, 129, 
for- let 15, .... 

be-leac 225, .... 

be-lamp 219. 

nom 31, 

3e-nam 223, 
rad 3. 

aras 123, 
[sow 161, 
\seow 133, 

scop 165, 

i-scope 77, 129, 

3escop 2 1 9, 


scean .43. 

scriven 2 

sell 123, 

seh 121. 

set 5. 

SI03 39. 

slep 223. 

smat 141. 
fspec 73, 

a -sprang 227, 

sungen 7 


sprangen 141, 

stnrfe 233. 


Perfect Participle, 
for-lore 71. 
for-loren 21. 
for-leten 151. 
i-loken 14 r. 
be-locen 231. 
i-lnmpen 93. 

i-numen 29, 33. 
i-nnme 149. 

a-risen 141. 
3e-sawen 24 r. 

1-sceapen 219. 
3e-sceapen 219. 

i-scrifen 27. 
i-scouen 129. 
i-se3en 87, 93. 

i-speken 5 1 . 

i-sprunge 171. 
i-stolen 31. 

i-stungen 121. 
f})urb-stongen 121, 
< J)urb-stunge 149. 
L)>urh-stungen 147. 



Present Tense. Past Tense. 

Past Plural. 

Perfect Participle. 

Sti3e, "~l 

sti3en 5,115. 

a-sti3e. j 

f asteh 17. 
1 astah 91, 229. 


stod 47, 

i-stonde 47. 


swealt 225. 

for swe^e, 

for-swealh 123. 

swice, "1 

be-swice, i 

be-swicen 229. 


ge-sweac 223, 

i-swicon 227. 


swam 51, 

swummen 129. 


a-swond 133. 

teo, ") 

teh 129, 

i-to3en 31. 

bi-teo, J 

bi-to3en 31, 107 
fi-]>ungen 107. 


[i-J)03en 107. 


. . . . 

. . . . 

i-jjorschen 85. 


f wesch 7 9, 
pvosch 157, J 

3e-wasse 239. 



f~a-wesscen 37. 
1 un-iwasse 237. 


wex 241, 

3e- waxen 13. 


fweop 43- 
|wop 157. 



Twerp 129. 
1 warp 4 1 , 

i-warpen 143. 


bi-wunden 51. 


bi-won 41. 

. . . . 

. . . . 


i-wat 93. 

write, "1 

wrat 13, 75, 

writen 75, 

3e-writen 1 1 . 

a -write, J 

a-wrat 87, 

i-writen 1 1 . 


i-wra^ 123. 


yrne, 1 
eorne, f 

urnen 3. 


Negative Forms : — nam, am not ; wis, is not ; nes, was not ; nefde, 
had not ; nulle, will not ; nalde, would not ; nuten, know not ; nast, 
knowest not ; nusten, knew not. 



Indie, pres. sing, ah, ay, ought ; 2nd, a$e, a^est ; 3rd, ah ; pi. a%en. 
Past ahte. 

Inf. beon, be. — Indie, pres. sing. 1st, beo ; 3rd, bv6 ; pi. 1st, 2nd, 
3rd, becfe. p. p. ibeon, ibon. 

Inf. cunnen, be able. — Indie, pres. sing. 3rd, con ; pi. cunnen. Past 
sing, cw^e ; pi. ci&en. p. p. ictfe. 

Indie, pres. sing. 1 st, der, dare ; 2nd, derst ; 3rd, </er. Past sing. 
durste, pi. dursten. 

Inf. cftm, do; ger. donne. — Indie, pres. sing. 1st, e?o; 2nd, dest ; 
3rd, c/e$ ; pi. dd&. Past sing. t/ec/e, dide, dude ; pi. duden. p. p. tcfow. 

Indie, pres. sing. 1st, em; 2nd, ei't, eart ; 3rd, is. Past sing, wes, 
pi. weren. 

Inf. grem, </om. — Indie, pres. sing, ist, go ; 2nd, gest, gast ; 3rd. (/as, 
geS ; pi. <7c#>. Past. sing, eode, pi. eoden. Imp. (/crS. p. p. rgw*. 

Indie, pres. sing. 1st, mei, may; 2nd, miht, maht, meht ; 3rd, mei ; 
pi. ma$en, mu$en. Past sing, ist and 3rd, mahte, mehte, mihte ; 2nd, 
mihtest, mahtest. 

Indie, pres. sing, ist, ??io£, must, may ; 2nd, most; 3rd, too<; pi. 
moten. Past sing, moste, muste. 

Indie, pres. sing, ist, seal, sceal ; 2nd, scalt, scealt ; pi. ist, sctden, 
sceolen, scule. Past sing, ist and 3rd, sculde, sceolde, scolde ; 2nd, 
scoldest ; pi. scolden, sadden, scolde. 

Indie, pres. sing. 3rd, \erf, need ; pret. \>er/te. 

Indie, pres. sing, ist, wat ; 2nd, toast; 3rd, wat ; pi. witen. Past, 

Indie. pi*es. sing, ist, wille, watte; 2nd, undt, wilt; 3rd, wile, wide ; 
pi. vjulleS. Past sing, walde. 


1 . Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the suffix -e, as so%, true ; 
sofee, truly. 

Adverbs in -fo'ce or -liche are formed from adjectives in -lie or -fo'c/u. 
Occasionally -luker is found in the comparative and -lukest in the 
superlative degree. 

2. The suffix -tim is for the most part attenuated to -e, as selde = 
seldom, and hwile = formerly, whilom ; one, alone ; foi^Se, even. 

3. In Lajamon's Brut a final n is often added to adverbs in e, 



as ino^en = ino^e, enough. We have examples of this in heren, here, 
29 ; and twi^en, twice, 37. 

4. To adverbs in -en (-on) an e is sometimes added, as heonen-e, 

5. Of adverbs in -es (genitival) we find alles, altogether, 103 ; deies 
and nihtes, by day and by night, 7 > cuces, lives, alive, 225; ponkes, 
freely, willingly, 2 1 ; un]>onkes, unwillingly, 1 7 ; tmwaldes, accident- 
ally, 23. 

The following, although in -es, are from older forms in -e, as 
alrihtes, 133; perihtes, immediately, forthwith, 33 ; alunges, altogether, 
31 ; enes, once ; anundes, anent, 55 ; togederes, together, 81 ; upwardes 
59 ; twies 227. 

6. Compound adverbs are formed by the prefix on-, an-, or a-, as 
on-imis, amiss ; on-ende, lastly ; abac, adun, ariht, anon ; mid, as 
mid iwisse, with certainty, certainly. 

7. A pet,for-to, until, 23, 119, are used instead of the older d'S-pozt. 

8. Wet or ivat 1 1 is used for ' while,' ' as long as :' cp. huet, until, in 
Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 52, 1. 13. 

9. Swa and alswa become se, alse (whence by dropping of I our as, 
O. E. ase). 

10. pes is used before comparatives, as pes pe mare 5. 


1. In the present Homilies prepositions have the same government 
as in the earliest stage of the language : cp. in pane castel 3 ; o^ein 
jjene castel 7 ; ]>urh jjene halie gast 7 ; wv& o^erne 1 9 ; uppon pa 
assa 5 ; ^eond pa eorSe 9 1 ; of J?ere burh 5 ; toward )>are burh 3 ; Jor 
jjere saule 9 ; et pan $ete 5 ; mid \>ere e 9. 

2. Prepositions that formerly ended in -an, now terminate in -an, 
-a, -en or -e ; as, biforan 15, 89, in; bufan 95; innan 27, 43; 
bitwihan 37 ; wi¥>inna 43 ; wiftinnan 95; butan 95, ioij anuppon 
42; abuten n, 43; biuoren 5; ivvSinnen 25, 413 bi-eften 39; 
bitwenen 41; etforen 41; bihinden 53; 6w£ew 89; buuen, binopen, 
165 ; a&Mfe 23 ; mwe 27 ; fotte 43 ; anuppe 133 ; bitwene 65, 141 ; 
wi^ffe 83 j wifiinne 89. 

3. Betweox becomes bitivuxe 105, bitwixen 115, bitwixan 25, 
bitwuxan 91. 


4. 0\e, i\e, occurs for on \e, in \>e, 79, 85. 

5. \urh and \uruh, through and thorough, 99. 


We have many of the older forms still in use ; as, ev&er 30 . . . $e 
= both . . . and, 23 ; ncnvSer . . . ne = neither . . . nor, 9 ; swa . . 
swa = so . . .as, 31. (Cp. alse . . . alse; alse . . . se; swa . . . alse ; 
alswa . . . se; swa . . . se, 15, 49, 51, 153, 159). 

hwat . . . hioat = both. . . . and, 145; v&er . . . a&er = or ... or ; 
ne . . . ne = nor . . . nor ; \>a hwelper, nevertheless, 37 ; no^eles, nathe- 
less, 23; \>e, oi-, 149; \e, than, 133; to-hwon, for-hwon, forhwet, 
wherefore, 81, 85, 165; for-^Si, because; for-hwi, wherefore ; swilce, 
as if, 41 ; uri)>-\>et, provided, 3. 

Ac often becomes ah ; while \ah, peh, though, becomes ]>ach, \>ech. 


As I have already stated, there are some grammatical peculiarities 
in the Wohung and the other treatises contained in the Cotton MS. 
Titus D 18, which we do not find in the oldest MSS. of the Ancren 
Riwle ; or, in other words, there is an intrusive element that has been 
introduced by the transcriber of the Cotton MS., and which furnishes, 
as one might expect, some clue to the dialect in which the treatise is 

In the Ancren Riwle the plurals of the present indicative end in -eth ; 
but in the Wohung we have, in addition, plurals in -en, pointing to 
a Midland dialect; as winnen 273, singen, Jlhten, 275, reden 277, 
hauen 281, driuen, habben, eken, leden, 283. 

In the Ancren Riwle the inflexions of the present singular are 
2nd -est, 3rd -eth ; but in the Wohung we have frequently 2nd -es, 
3rd -es : — ne wrehes tu ]>e nawt . . . bote longe abides, &c, 275; 
Jji derue dea^ o rode telles riht in al mi luue, calenges al mi heorte, 275. 

1 pp. 268-287. 


These forms, taken with the plurals in -en, indicate a West Midland 

In the Preface to Alliterative Poems I have shown that the West 
Midland dialect terminated the 2nd pers. sing, past indie, of weak 
verbs in -es instead of -est (the Northumbrian dialect drops the in- 
flexion), and of this we have numerous examples : — ' pu modes al J>is 
werld and dides hit under mine fet and mahedes me lauedi,' &c. 271. 

Like the fourteenth-century compositions in this dialect the Wohung 
has numerous Northern forms : — 

1 . Strong verbs drop all inflexion in the 2nd pers. past indie. : 
]m com me to h.elpe,feng to fihte, p. 277. (See Preface to Genesis and 

2. Imperfect (or present) participles end in -ande ; see p. 277. 

3. The prefix i- is dropped in the perfect (or past) participle ; see 
p. 285. 

4. I occurs frequently for ich, p. 269 ; ]>ai, tai for heo (they) ; see 
p. 283. 

5. Adjectives and adverbs end in -li and like, see pp. 269, 273, 279, 
283. (See Preface to Genesis and Exodus.) 

6. In the Wohung we find_/ra, from, p. 271 ; and in other parts of 
the Titus MS. D 18 we find hethen, thethen = hence, thence, &c. 





I. The Simple or n Declension, (p. xxi.) 

i. In our Homilies we find oblique cases in -a and -e caused by 
the falling away of n from older forms, in -an, -en. 

This change commenced before 1 150, and we find traces of it in 
the Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels, as well as in the 
latter part of the Saxon Chronicle. 

2. Instead of -a, -e the Northumbrian Gospels substitute -0 -u. 1 

3. In the present Homilies we have only one example of the sub- 

stitution of the genitival -es for -a, -e ( = -an, -en), in lichomes, 
a noun of the masculine gender ; but in the Northumbrian 
Gospels -es frequently replaces the genitive suffixes -a, -e in 
nouns of all genders. 

4. No examples of plurals in -es for -a, -e {-an, -en) occur in our 

Homilies, but here again the Northumbrian Gospels and the 
latter part of the Saxon Chronicle exhibit a tendency to adopt 
the inflexion of masculine nouns of the complex order in pre- 
ference to the ordinaiy form of the n declension. 

5. The following table may be compared with that on p. xxii. of the 

present work : — 


Masc. Fern, and Neut. 

Nom. -a, -0, -u, -e, -e. 

Gen. -a, -0, -u, -e, -es (-as). 

Dat. -a, -0, -u, -e, -e. 

Ace. -a, -0, -u, -e, -e. 

1 This substitution is found in adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. 





and Neut. 




-a, -o, -u, -e, 

-es (-as). 


-ana, -a. 


-a, -o, -u, -e, 



-a, -o, -u, -e, 

-es (as). 

Examples of the First Form. 

N"om. — sterra Matt. ii. 9 ; lichoma Matt. v. 29 ; willo Matt. vi. 10 ; 

geleafo Matt. ix. 22; ego Matt, xviii. 9 ; eorSo Matt. v. 1 8 ; 

eor^Su Matt. ii. 6 ; witge Matt. xiii. 57. 
Gen. — licJioma Matt. vi. 25; geleafa (L. and R.) Matt. viii. 26; 

hearta Matt. xii. 34 ; w%o Matt. xii. 39, Luke xvi. 16, xi. 

29; eorHo Matt. xii. 42, xvii. 25; witgu (R.) Matt. v. 13, 

x. 41 ; eorftu Pref. to Matt. (eel. Kemble) p. 14, Matt. v. 13 ; 

eorSe (R.) Matt. xii. 40, 42. 
Dat. — hearta Matt. v. 28, xii. 40; noma Matt. vii. 22 ; eor6a (R.) 

John vi. 21 ; ego Matt. vii. 5 ; witgo Matt. xxiv. 15 ; eorSw 

John xxi. 8, Matt. (R.) ii. 20; eor&e John vi. 21, Matt. xii. 

1 5 ; /o/e John xii. 1 5 ; ege (R.) Matt. vii. 5 ; cirice Matt. xiii. 

17 ; heorte (R.) Matt. xii. 30, 33. 
Ace. — noma Matt. i. 25 ; steorra Matt. ii. 2 ; neddra (R.) Matt. 

vii. 10 ; lichoma Matt. x. 28 ; cirica Matt, xviii. 17, Luke vii. 

5 ; fola (R.) Mark xi. 4, 5, 7 ; w?%o Matt. ii. 5, iii. 3 ; eorSo 

Matt. v. 4, x. 29; oxo Luke xv. 23; witgu (R.) Matt. ii. 5, 

iii. 2, viii. 17, x. 41 ; eorSw. (R.) Matt. v. 4; culfre, culfrai 

Matt. iii. 16; t«%e Matt. ii. 17, x. 41, xiv. 5; eorSe Matt. 

ii. 20 ; neddre Matt. vii. 10. 

(ii.) PLURAL. 

Nom. and Ace. — mtga Matt. ii. 23, xxi. 26 ; noma Matt. x. 2, 
xxiii. 23; wedra (R.) x. 16; cw£/m (R.) x. 16, xxi. 12; 
heorta (R.) Mark vi. 52 ; w%o Matt. v. 12, xiii. 7 ; ego Matt. 
ix. 29, 30; nedro Matt. x. 16, Mark xvi. 18; sido Mark i. 6, 


Matt, iii. 4 ; wikju (R.) Matt. ii. 23, xiii. 17 ; culfre Matt. x. 

16, John (R.) ii. 13 ; witge Luke xiii. 34. 
Bat. — heorta (heorto) Mark ii. 8, iv. 15; uritgo Luke xxiv. 44; 

eare Luke xii. 2. 
67ett. — nedrana Matt. xii. 34 ; witgana Luke xi. 50 ; weala (and 

wealana) Mark iv. 9 ; a'rica Pref. to Matt. (ed. Kemble) p. 9. 

Examples of the Second Form. 


Gen. — sterres Matt. xii. 7 ; eor^es Matt. v. 1 3, xii. 40 ; brydgumes 
Matt. ix. 15 ; witges Matt. x. 41, Luke iv. 17 ; heartes Matt, 
xix. 8, Luke xvi. 14 ; tunges Mark vii. 35 ; lichomes, lichomces 
John i. 13, ii. 21 ; lichomas Matt. xiii. 2, Pref. to Matt. p. 15 ; 
gelea/as Luke xii. 29. 

(ii.) PLURAL. 

Nom. and Ace. — stearras Matt. xxiv. 29, Mark xiii. 25 ; culfras 

Mark xi. 15, Luke ii. 24 ; witgas Matt. vii. 12. 
In the Saxon Chronicle (ed. Earle) we find nadres, p. 262 ; sterres 
260 ; swikes 261. 

II, Feminine Nouns (Complex Order). 

Division II. — Classes i. and ii. (xxvii.) 

The genitive singular of feminine nouns of the complex order in 
our Homilies terminates in -e, but in the Lindisfarne Gospels we often 
find -es, as cehtnisses Pref. to Matt. p. 14; witigunges ibid. p. 183 
hreonisses Mark i. 4 ; nedles Mark x. 25 ; saules Matt. vi. 25, Mark 
viii. 36; costunges Mark xiii. 19; helles Matt. xvi. 18. 1 

The plural (nom. and ace.) of these nouns in our Homilies ends in 
-e (-a), but in the Lindisfarne Gospels -as (-es) occurs frequently 
instead of the older forms ; cp. burgas Matt. ix. 34, Mark v. 13 (R.) ; 
ebolusungas Mark iii. 28; lustgiamisses Mark iv. 19; smeaungas 
Luke xi. 17. 

1 The Rushworth text has the ordinary suffix -e in all these examples. 


In the Saxon Chronicle (eel. Earle) we find pines p. 262 ; shines 
p. 263. 

III. Neuter Nouns (Complex Order). 

Division I. — Class i. (p. xxx.) 

In our Homilies this class of nouns has either no inflexion in the 
plural, as in Saxon English (singular hus, plural hus), or forms the 
plural in -es, as singular wif, plural wifes. 

In Gothic we find plural forms in -a, as worda, &c, which are 
certainly older than the 0. E. forms word, &c. 

In the Lindisfarne Gospels we find traces of the older form in 
the following examples : — worda, wordo Mark xiii. 31, Luke i. 65, 
xxi. 3; husa, huso Mark x. 30, Luke xvi. 19; >6ingo Mark v. 26, 
x. 32 ; londo Mark x. 29 ; hnetta, netto Mark i. 16, 19 ; wifo Mark 
xv. 40 ; cildo Luke xviii. 15 ; suino Luke xv. 15 ; scipo Markxiv. 27. 

A few nouns of this class form the plural in -es (-as), as cildes, 
cildas, Pref. to Matt. p. 14. 1 

Neuters belonging to Class ii. (p. xxxi.) in our Homilies form the 
plural in (1) -e, -a, -en, (2) -es ; in the Northumbrian Gospels we find 
plurals in (1) -a, -0, (2) -es (-as): — fato Mark iii. 27; tacnas Pref. 
to Matt. p. ii. ; seatlas Mark xi. 1 5, Luke xx. 46 ; nestas and nesto 
Matt. viii. 20. 

IV. Masculine Nouns (Complex Order). 

Division III. — Class ii. (p. xxix.) 

In the Northumbrian Gospels we find an occasional plural in -es 
(-as) instead of a vowel-ending, as diobles Matt. iv. 24 ; diablas Mark i. 
34, 39 ; freondas Luke vii. 6 ; fiondas Matt. v. 44. 

Stems in r frequently remain uninflected in the plural, as broker 
Matt. iv. 21, xii. 45, 46 ; braSor Luke xiv. 12, 26, xvi. 28 ; swoester, 
swester (L. and R.) Matt. xiii. 56; Luke xiv. 26 (R.) ; lombor (R.) 
Luke x. 3 (L. has lombro). 

In the genitive singular the r stems for the most part, in the oldest 
period of the language, remained uninflected, but in the Northumbrian 

1 husas, hnses occurs in Saxon Chronicle (ed. Earle), p. 246. 


Gospels we find the genitive in -es, as brc&res Matt. xiv. 3 ; /adores 
Matt. xxvi. 29 ; modres Matt. xix. 12. 

In the Northumbrian Psalms we have calfur as a genitive singular — 
'in gelicnisse calfur' = in similitudinem vituli (Ps. cv. 20): this 
form demands a nominative singular in -er, and I have no doubt that 
in the Northumbrian dialect lomber 1 (lombor), cilder, cegger, ccdfer 
were treated as stems in -er, the r being no part of the plural 

The chief points to be noticed in the declension of nouns in the 
Northumbrian Gospels are (1) a tendency (earlier than is generally 
supposed) to adopt a uniform inflexion for the genitive case singular 
and for the plural of nouns (nom. and ace. cases) in conformity with 
modern usage; (2) the loss of plurals in -n ; (3) a tendency to 
adopt the suffix -ana as the genitive plural for all nouns. Cp. 
treuana Matt. iii. 9; %eqfana Mark xi. 17; fscana Luke v. 9; 
tofcana Luke xiii. 28. 


1. The definite form of the Adjective conforms very closely to the 
n declension of nouns: cp. se blinde Matt. x. 51, Mark x. 50; Sa3s 
heista Mark v. 7, Luke viii. 28 ; ^aes blinda (Pi.) Mark viii. 23 ; ^jes 
heiste Luke vi. 35; Sone blinde Mark x. 49; Sone stronga Matt. 
xii. 29 ; ^one blindu (R.) Mark x. 49 ; Sone blinda Luke vi. 39 ; 
$one neesta Mark xii. 31, ^one nestu (R.) ; Ssem niua Luke v. 36 • 
'Ssem unclaine Luke viii. 29 ; ^ara neoive gewitnisse Matt. xxvi. 28 ■ 
in ¥a Tiesto lond Mark i. 38; Sa celdesto Mark xi. 27; ¥>& forma 
Matt, xxiii. 6 ; la blindo Matt, xxiii. 19 ; Sa cerestu Matt. xx. 10 (R.) • 
in ¥>a eco huso Luke xvi. 9. 

We have instances of the indefinite instead of the definite in Matt, 
viii. 23, %ces blindes ; >6cem Icetmestum wrS Kami forKmcestum Matt. xx. 
8, Mark viii. 23. 

2. In the indefinite declension the dative singular masculine -um 
frequently becomes -e, as 'in gast unclcene' = in gaste unclcenum (R.) 
Mark v. 2; and *6isse, -a is often put for ^isum. (See Lindisfarne 
Gospels, ed Waring, p. exxiii.) 

1 lomber, a lamb, occurs in the Exeter Book. 


In the dative feminine, as in our Homilies, the -r often falls away, 
as stefne micla Luke viii. 28, Luke xix. 37 ; stefne miclo Mark iv. 7 ; 
mid micelo fyrhto Mark iv. 41. 

3. In the nominative and accusative plural we find -0, -e, as dumbo, 
blindo, healto, unhale, Matt. xv. 30. 

4. Occasionally we get a plural in -s, as tuoege blindas for twcegen 
blinde, Pref. to Matt. p. 18, Matt. xx. 29. 

I take the present opportunity of calling the attention of Members 
of the Early English Text Society to a convenient little treatise on 
Early English Dialects, entitled 'Some Notes on the leading Gram- 
matical Characteristics of the principal Early English Dialects,' by 
Wm, T. P. Sturzen-Becker, Ph.D. The author has done me the 
honour to adopt my classification and to accept my statements on all 
points of dialectical differences, but has added nothing to our previous 
knowledge of the subject. The little work, however, will be found 
useful on account of its arrangement and numerous illustrations. 












VII. CREDO ....... 

























XXV. AN BISPEL ........ 






III. ROYAL MS. 17 A 27, FOL. 70 . 


P. 21. 1. 6. For swiclne read swilcne. 
P. 85. 1. 29. For ut read us. 
P. 129. 1. 3. For at reads}. 
P. 247. side-note 3. For murS read nurS. 
side-note 13. Dele horn. 


P. 8. 1. 22. For may read need. 

P. 16. 1. 1. For might read canst. 

Pp. 16, 22, 28, 34. 56. 11. 33, 36, 3, 17, 55. For mightest read mayest. 

P. 26. 1. 26. For perishes read draw. 

For if were it mine read though it should be mine. 

Read ever before with. 

For feather -footed read four-footed. 

Cry aloud. See Notes and Emendations. 

For embers read live coals. 

Dele more. 

For love read thus love. 

Christ. See Notes and Emendations. 
Read sins and misdoings against us. 




































P. 84. 1. 7 from bottom. For man read men. 

P. 86. 1. 13. Dele again. 

P. 88. 1. 15. For apostle's read apostles'. 

P. 94. 1. 9 from bottom. For shall remove read must restrain. 

P. 128. 1. 2. For draweth read drew. 

„ 1. 25. For forsook read disregarded. 

„ 1. 34. For three read four. 
P. 134. 1. 6. For seed read words. 
P. 142. 1. 10. For e read a. 
P. 152. 1. 3. For wonders read advent. 
P. 172. 1. 208. For hell-fire read hell-pain. 

„ 1. 228. For therefrom read from harm. 
P. 178. 1. 319. See Notes and Emendations. 

„ 1. 340. ' For little read few. 
P. 182. 1. 2 from bottom, teach. See Notes and Emendations. 
P. 183 head-line. For oure read ure. 

„ 1. 384. Hali boc. The line seems corrupt. Does it mean 
'wholly, as in a book, they shall see' ] etc. 
P. 184. 1. 15 from bottom. Dele my. 
P. 186. 1. 34. For makest read mad est. 
P. 190. 1. 8. For the read thee the. 
P. 208. 1. 3. For sinful men read sinners. 
P. 224. 1. 12. For in safety read alone. 

„ 1. 29. For men read mankind. 
P. 232. 1. 13. For prophets read prophet. 

„ 1. 19. For created read ordereth (or directeth). 

„ 1. 21. For as read as his. 

„ 1. 28. For showeth and blesseth read cheers and gladdens. 
P. 238. 1. 14. For together read for ever. 
P. 240. 11. 14, 15. For speaks to us read signifies house. 

„ 1. 1 6. For and the read Judas and the. 

„ 1. 5 from bottom. For the read our. 
P. 242. 1. 5. After knightship add or warfare. 
P. 250. 1. 32. For even read ever. 
P. 252. 1. 14. For woe read weeping (or whining). 
P. 262. 1. 11. For form read glory. 


P. 264. 1. 19. Dele the before God. 

P. 266. 1. 4. Deh the and of. 

„ 1. 30. Read here after may. 

P. 270. 1. 32. For clivideth read distributed . 

P. 272. 1. 30. For lord read love. 

P. 284. 1. 14. For love read blood. 

1. 17. For hadst read hast. 





f\uu7n appropinquasset Jesus Ilierosolymis, &c. Good men, it is a, 
^^ holy day to-day which is observed every twelve months. The 
gospel tells how the Saviour came nigh towards the city of Jerusalem 
to-day, with his apostles, and also with other companies of men. When 
he came to the hill called Olivet, then sent he his two disciples, saying 
to them, Go unto the city that is (over) against you, and ye shall straight- 
way find there an ass bound with her colt, unbind them and lead 
them to me. If any man saith ought to you, say that the Lord hath 
need thereof, and immediately they shall let you depart therewith. 

Euntes autem discipuli fecerunt sicut precepit Mis Jesus, &c. The 
Apostles went and did as the Saviour commanded them. They took 
the ass and her colt and led them to him and put their clothes upon 
the foal of the ass, and our Lord, afterwards, rode thereon up towards 
Jerusalem. When it was known over all the city that the Saviour was 
(coming) thitherward then ran towards him all the Hebrew men, some 
with good hearts and others with evil intentions. Many of the multitude 
that had previously followed our Lord, and also (the faithful of the 
city) those who believed upon him, took their clothes, and the best 
they had, and stoewed them under the ass's feet, in the way wherein 




xxum appropinquasset ihesus ierosolimam <k cetera. Gode [Foi. la.] 
men hit is an heste dei to dei be is on .xii. monbe. bis The Gospel 

— ' ' ' for the day. 

godspel sed hu be helend nehlechede to-ward ierusalem bare 

burn to dei mid his apostles and ec mid o^ere floe manna, 

ba he com to bere dune oliueti his ihaten. ba sende he is .ii. Our Lord 

' > I ' sends two of 

leornicnihtes and obed 1 to heorn cod in bane castel bet is on- bis disciples 

i > » for an ass 

sein eou and \e finded redliche bar ane asse se-bunden mid andlt8foa >- 

5 r > So in MS., 

hire colt,unbinded heo and leaded heo to me. 3if eniman seid ? cwed. 

eawiht to eou^ segged bet be lauerd haued bar-of neode and 

redliche heo eou leted fere ber-mid. "* Euntes autem discipuli 

fecerunt sicut precepit Mis ihesus & cetera, pa apostles eoden 

and dedeun 2 alswa be helende heom het.heo nomen be asse and 2 sic. 

here colt and ledden to him and heo duden heore clabes huppon 

be asse fole and ure drihten seodban i-ad ber-on uppen toward Our Lord 

rides upon wes hit cud ouer al be burh bet be helind wes thefoai. 

biderward. heo urnen on-3ein him al ba hebreisce men mid 

godere heorte and summe mid ufele beonke. Moni of ban 

floe manna be earbow fulieden ure drihten and ec ba 3e-leafulle 

of bere burh heo nomen heore clabes and be beste bet heo their clothes 

. 7i. f i "i l- under the 

hetde and strehiten under ba assa let bcr drihten rad mne be ass's feet. 


the Lord rode, for love and honour of him. The other men who had 
no garments climbed upon goodly trees and took the twigs and blossoms 
thereof, and put them under the ass's feet and bestrewed all the path 
in his honour. 

And all the Hebrew folk that went behind and before him sang this 
song of praise specially for his honour, thus saying, Hosanna filio David, 
benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini; that is, He is blessed, he 
that cometh here in the name of the Lord. Thus they praised him 
until he rode in at the east gate of the city that is still called Speciosa 
porta, that is the fair (beautiful) gate, as it is still called ; and since 
Christendom was never over (abe^e-enee-m) twelve months is it opened, VfCs^c 
-But to-day all the people went forth in procession to mount Olivet, and 
(entered) also in (to the temple). Now, dear brethren, I have in the 
first place repeated to you the gospel, now ye shall understand secondly 
what it betokens. Ye heard erewhile in the gospel, how our Lord 
sent two apostles, Peter and John, towards the city that they should 
unbind the ass, and her foal with her ; and how our Lord sat upon 
the foal of the ass. Dear brethren and sisters, ye have heard how 
much humility our Lord exhibited . for us. He might ride, if he 
desired, on rich steeds, and palfreys, mules, and Arabs, but he would 
not, nor even upon the big ass, but upon the little foal that was still 
suckling — nor had ever borne any burden, nor had ever been defiled 
by any other ass. In so great humility did God Almighty place 
himself for us, and moreover set us example, that when we have 
wealth in abundance in this life be ye not therefore proud, nor wild 
(elated), nor stark (haughty), nor wayward, nor highminded ; but the 
greater the prosperity we might have in this life the meeker ought we 
to be, and the more temperate, as if it were not our weal, and thank our 
Lord for it who hath given it us, and give thereof to those men who 
have it not. Good men, when the believing Hebrews went and strewed 
with twigs the Lord's path wherein he rode, then was fulfilled what 
Isaiah the prophet foretold many hundred winters ere this should be, 
thus saying, Parate viam Domini rectas facite semitas ejus. Raise up 
the Lord's way and make his paths straight. That betokeneth, that 
we shall incline our hearts and have good belief towards our Lord. 


weye. him to luue and herhinge. ba otSre men be reil nefden others be- 

J J ° ' f strewed the 

heo sti3eii uppeon be godes cunnes treowe and nomen ba twigga path with 

and )>a blostme and duden under pe assa fet and bistreweden blossoms. 

al bane weye him to wurpscipe* and al be * hebreisce folc be ' MS. wm-b- 

eode efter him and biuoren him suwgun bisne lofsong hehliche * [Foi. 16] 

to heri/ige and CAveben. Osanna filio dauid benedictus qui ^l , T sang . 

° > J •* ■ ' Hosanna to 

uenit in nomine domini. bet is he is iblesced ]?e 2 be her cumet ftfjjlpj * 
on drihtenes nome. pus ha hine hei'eden a be be 3 rad in et 2 ?he. 

3 ?h e# 

ban est 3ete Jjere burh bet 3et me hat. Speciosa porta, pet his andaecom- 

bet faire 3et me hat hit and seodban pe cristindom wes '. nefre ^the east" 3 

ouer .xii. monbe nis hit undon bute to dei al )>at folc eode c it y . 

bar ford to processiun to munte oliueti '. and in al swa. Nu 

leoue bro^re nu ic eou habbe bet godspel iseid an.£aldeliche,nu ^^ c 

scule 3e understonden twafaldeliche bet hit bi-tacnet. 3e The interpre- 
tation of the 
iherden er on j>e godspel hu ure drihten sende his .ii. apostles gospel. 

petrum and iohannem. on-3ein bene castel \et heo unbunden 

)>at assa and hire fole mid hire, and hu hure drihten set uppen 

^a assa fole. Leoue bnrSre nm4 snstr c. 30 hi hered hu muchel 

edmodnesce ure drihten dude for us. he mihte ridan sif he Christ's great 

humility in 

walde on riche stede and palefrai and mule and ar aJLusz^ nalde the'mtie foal 
he no. na forbon uppon ba muchele assa.a^c uppon pa lutthle 
fole bat 3et hit wes sukinde ne ber hit nes nefre nane burSene 
ne hit nes nefere ifuled of nane o'Sre assa. In swa muchele 
edmodnesse godalmihti hine dude for us and ec sette us bisne We ought to 

1 imitate his 

ba3 4 habbe wele to ouer stohwennesse on bisse Hue, ne beo bu example. 

bereuore prud ne wilde ne sterc ne wemod ne ouer modi- an 

pes pe we heoueden mare wele on pisse Hue. pes we ahte to 

beon pe edmoddre. and pa mare imete al swa hit ure wele 

nere and ponkien hit ure drihten pe hit us lende and don 

pan numna perof \at hit nabbet. Godemen pa 3e-leafule 

ebreisce folc eoden and streweden mid twigan in drihtenes 

weye per he rad. pa hit wes ifullet \et ysaias }>e prophete ™, e s £™f hecy 

iwitegede ueale hund wintra er pis were and cwed. fulfilled. 

Parate uiam domini rectas facite semitas eius. RereJ^lip 
drihtenes wei and makiet his weo3es rihte. pet tacnet \et we 
sulen habben ure heortc and habben godne ileafe to ure drihten. 


The prophet commanded that we should make his paths (straight) ; we 
make them straight then if we keep his commands, and if we are under 
true confession (shrift), and are God-fearing wholly in all things ; and 
if we each of us have love among us one toward another, as if we 
were brothers and sisters ; and if we thank our Lord for all things that 
he sends us, the good and the evil ; if we do this, then do we make 
right and clean God's ways and his paths that God Almighty may ride 
therein. If we do this then will God Almighty dwell in us. Also I 
erewhile said how, when our Lord rode to Jerusalem, the Hebrew folk 
sang their song of praise in honour of our Lord. Some sang it 
through the Holy Ghost, whether they would or no ; and the children 
played in the street praising our Lord and said, Hosanna filio David. 
David, the psalmist, foretold this in the psalter long before, the 
while he lived ; and said, Ex ore infantium et lactantium. He pro- 
phesied this of our Lord through the Holy Ghost. " Lord, out of milk- 
drinking children's mouths thou bringest forth praise ; thou castest 
down the old enemy because of thy foes, and thy foes thou avengest." 
Now we will say more as to what this gospel betokens : The city which 
was over against the Saviour's two disciples betokens this world, which 
is transitory and evil, and very treacherous and irksome. Toil thou 
ever so much, always shall it be undone ; and sometimes divers storms 
come, and war, and famine, and disease of body, all for our guilt ; and 
when thou weenest that thou shalt live best of all, then goest thou 
forth (diest) and another cometh ; wherefore let no man trust too much 
to this life. She deceiveth us where we least expect. We are not born to 
have pride, nor even any other vanities ; but we are in this life that we 
may earn the eternal bliss in the kingdom of heaven. Ye have heard 
how God Almighty sent his apostles towards the city after the ass's 
foal which was bound, and afterwards unbound. The Apostles denote 
the teachers, that is, the wise teachers who are now over holy Church 
and lead a spiritual life ; they shall ever unbind God's people from the 
devil, and tell them God's lore ; how they shall lead their lives and 
earn the everlasting bliss through prayer and through shrift, repenting 
with fasts and with alms ; and pray for them day and night that Christ 


be wite^a het bet we scukle makien his sti3es benne make we now to make 

God's ways 

ham rihte 3ef we haldet his beode and 3ef we beod under sod straight. 

scrifte and god fructe burh-ut of alle binge, and we luuien ure 

efree o^r us bi-twenen swa we weren Jbro^re and sustre and 

3if we bowkiet ure drihten alles binges be he us sent, bet 

gode mid bet ufele. ^if we bis do^ f benne make Ave rihte and 

clene godes weies and his sties bet god almihti mei riden on. 

3if we bis do^ benne wunet god almihti in us. Al swa ic er 

cwet hu hure drihten rad to ierusalem bat ebreisce folc sungen 

heore leof song ure helende to wurSinge, sumine hit suwgen 

burh bene halie gast walden heo naldden heo 'and ba children 

plo3eden in bere strete heriende ure drihten and cweben. Osanna. The prophecy 

of David 

jilio dauid. bis wite3ede dauid be be salm scop in be saltere fulfilled. 
muchel erdbon ba wile he liuede and cwet. Ex ore infancium 
& lactancium. bis he wite3ede bi drihtene burh bene halie gast, 
Drihten bu dest be lof of mile drinkende childre mub'ewu 1 ' ?J> U - 
warpest bene aide feont for bine feonden and bine feond bu bi- 
scildest. ' Nu we wulle^ seggen mare wet bis godspel itacnet; 
be castel be wes a3eines drihrtlnes twa leornikenehtesf he bi-tacnet Tiie city 

L J _ m denotes the 

beos world is whilende and ontful and swiSe lewe. and swmc- deceitful 


ful . Ne swmcke bu nefre swa muchel f a hit brS undon and 
misliche wederes comet o^er while, and unfrit. and huwger. 
and licome un-hele al for ure gulte ■ and benne bu wenest bet Let no man 

' trust therein. 

bu scalt libben aire best, benne gest bu foi^S and oSer cumed*for- 
bi ne litmie namon to swrSe to bisse Hue. al "heo us truket 
ber we lest wenet. Ne we ne beo5 iboren for to habbene nane 
prudu ne forSe nane o^re rencasah we beo'5 on bisse Hue for 
to ernien ba eche blisse in houeneriche. 3e habbet iherd hu 
god almihti sende his apostles 03ein bene castel efter be assa 
fole be wes ibunden and seo^an un-bunden. ba apostles itacned The Apostles 

' * x denote the 

ba leorneres bet beoS ba wise witega be beoS nu ouer be halie f e: \ oll ^ sin n 

chirche and libbed gastliche heore lif'heo sullen eure un-binden 

godes folc from bam deofle *and heom seggen godes lore ; hu *[Foi. 2a.] 

heo sculen leden heore lif and ernien ba eche blisse mid ibede 

and mid scrifte^ to betende mid festene and mid ehnesse; and 

bidden for heom deies and nihtes bet erist heom milcie of heore 


may have mercy on their misdeeds. The ass denotes the Church, or 
the synagogue ; she was bound under the old law, and now is she 
unbound, under this new law. Good men, learn what this synagogue 
was in the old law ere Christ was born. Just as the Jews had their 
synagogue after Moses' laws, so have we now a church after the Lord's 
law ; and ever on the Saturday Jewish folk came at set time to the 
synagogue and praised their Lord, according to their law. That 
was their Sunday, and they kept their day of worship better than we do ; 
and they still observe it wherever they are. Beloved, all the believing 
Jews who observed faithfully their laws and obeyed their Lord ere he 
came to this world, were called synagogue, just as all Christian folk, 
who keep Christ's behests, are now called [Church]. The ass that was 
bound and afterwards unbound betokeneth the synagogue that was 
bound under the old law, that was all the believing folk of the Jews 
who were strongly bound ere our Lord came to this life. They had 
different laws to what we have. That was the law (then) — the same 
injury that I did thee thou shouldest do to me ; and if thou sinnedst 
towards thy Lord, and it became known, neither gold nor silver might 
avail thee, but they should take thee and draw thee asunder with horses 
or dash thee to pieces with stones. Wherefore, dear brethren, there is 
much need that we thank our Lord who hath helped (us to fulfil) the 
severe old law with the new. Now no man may atone for his sin with 
a penalty, but towards Christ alone with shrift, as his priest teacheth 
him ; also with his fasts which quickly overcome the waywardness of the 
flesh ; and church-going, and to do good (for the Church), 'and many 
other kinds of good works which would take too long to enumerate to 
you at present. But how then if a man is so sinful and possessed 
of the devil that he will not either for his highmindedness, or for his 
pride, or for the wilfulness of his foul heart, observe his shrift 1 Then 
verily I say unto you that there is no need that any one here in this life 
should pray pater noster for his soul, nor sing mass, nor do any other good 
thing. Ah ! how should another man's good deeds profit him who never 
in this life took thought of any good thing 1 Ah ! who is he that may 
water the horse that will not drink himself? No more may any one do 


misdede. pat 1 assa itacned be chirche o^er be sinagogaheo wes '?!>*■ 
iburalen on ba ealde lase ara<2 nu?a heo is unbimden in bisse denotes the 

. Clmrch. 

newe la3e. Godemen. wite $e hwet bes sinagoge on bam aide 
\&$e ere crist were iboren.alswa hefden be giwis beore sinagoge 
efter moises k^e, alswa we babbet nu chirche efter dribtenes 
laae and efere to bam set tere s dei heo comen ba iudeisce folc The Jewish 

> -— ' Sabbath was 

to settes tima to ban sinagoge and hereden heore drihten swa strictly kept. 
heore la3e wes. pat wes heore sunedei and bet heo heolden 
heore wurSmg dei bene we dtrS' and yet doS ber be heo beoS. 
leofemen, alle ba ileafulle iudeisce men be heolden wel heore 
la3e and hersumeden heore drihten her he come on bisse 
middelerd heo weren iclipet synagoge al swa is nu iclepet al 
cristen folc. ba ilke ba haldet cristes heste. pa assa be wes 
ibunden and seod^an unbunden \et itacned be sinagoge be wes 
ibunden on ban aide la:e. bet wes al bet ileafule folc of iudeus Tiie essence 

' . of the old 

heo weren strowgliche ibunden er ure drihten come to bisse 1; ' w - 

liue. heo heofden od^re la3e benne we habbet. pet wes * ba * [F<fl. 26.] 

Ia3e;ba ilke wrake be ic dude bef bu scoldest don me and 3ef 

bu sungedest to-ward bine drihtene and me hit mihte witen 

nouber gold ne seoluer ne moste gan for be. ac me be sculde 

nimen and al to-teon mid horse o^er be al to-toruion mid 

stane. For-bi leofe bre^re hit is muchel neot bet we bonkien 

ure drihten ba 2 haued ba stronge ealde la3e auulsed mid bere 2? j> at - 

newe. Nu ne berf 3 na mon bis sunne mid wite abuggen 3 ms. j*if. 

bute towarfd] crist ane mid scrifte .swa him his preost leredj i, e atoned for 

al swa his festen, be swi^e ouerkimet bes flesces wlongnesse. new law. 

and chuc 4 3ong and god to donne beruore monie and feole * ?chirc. 

oSre godere werke be nu were long eou to telle. A. hu benne 

3if hwa is swa sunful and mid deofle biuon bet nulle for his 

ouer-moS. o^er for his prude, o^er for his fule heorte wil his 

scrift ihalderi. benne segge ic eou to so^e bet nis hit nan berf No use to 

. . . . pray for the 

bet me her on bisse liue for his saule bidde water noster. ne souis of those 

who die 

messe singe ne nan o^er god don. A. hu scolde ofterrnonnes impenitent. 
goddede ccmen him to gode be nefre on bisse liue nanes godes 
ne rohte .' A. hwa is bet mei ]>et hors wectrien be him self nulc 
drinken '. Na ma ne mei me her god don for bere saule be 


good for their souls who in this life would not begin to do good. Great 
need have we then, dear brethren, as long as we live in this life, of true 
shrift, and greatly to dread our manifold sins, and earnestly to beseech 
our merciful Lord that he may grant us so to live in this brief life 
that we may depart hence to the eternal bliss wherein dwell the 
Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, ever without end, per 
omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 



ffcce nunc tempus acceptabile ecce nunc dies sahdis, &c. Good men, 
now are the acceptable and holy days come upon us, if we ourselves 
desire it, that is, that we may in these spiritual days repent of our 
sins that we have previously done through the lust of the body. These 
days are appointed us and all mankind for great help and comfort. 
Moses also, who instituted them, fasted these days upon the Mount 
of Sinai, and never ate human food, for the love he bore to God ; 
and Christ also would have done it. After that the Lord gave him 
two tables of stone on which God Almighty had written the ten laws 
which the Israelitish folk should observe, when he led them from the 
land of Egypt. There were in one of the tables separately three 
commands, which were — Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus unus est. 
Secundum. Non habebis nometi Dei tui in vanum. Tertium. Observa 
diem sabbati. That is, in English, Hear, ye children of Israel, that 
there is but one God in heaven and in earth ; and above all things 
ye shall honour, obey, and love him with all your heart. The 
second behest was, Take not thy Lord's name in any oaths, nor in any 
idle speech, (nor) in any idle boasting. And the third behest of God 
was written on the table, Take heed that ye keep holy the Sunday, and 
that ye honour it and abstain from every kind of toil. Now, good 
men, these three laws were severally written on the one table, as Christ 
himself had directed it. And the other seven laws were also severalty 


on bisse liue god bi-5mnen nalde. Muchel is us benne neod Great need 

r ° J ' have all of | 

leoue bre^ren wet we on bisse middelerd liuien sod scrift and * ru e con. 

* fession. 

swi^e adreden ure monifolde suwne. and 3erne bidden ure 
milciende drihten bet he us leue swa libben on * bisse scorte * t FoL 3a -l 
liue bet we moten heonene feren to ban echeblisse be hon 
wunet. be feder. and be sune. and be halie gast a buten ende. 
per onmia seewla secuXoxum amew. 



cce nunc tempus acceptabile ecce nunc dies salutis et The Gospel 

for the day. 


cetera. Gode men nu beo$ icumen ba bicumeliche da3es 

and ba halie da3es uppen us 3if we wullet us seolue bet is bet 

we majen on bisse gastliche da3en ibeten ure sunne bet we abbet 

idon erbisse burh be licome lust bas da3es beoo" iset us to The accept- 
able days. 
muchele helpe, and to frefre al moncun, al swa moyses be hehte 

heoni feste bes da3es uppon be numte of synai bet he nefre ne 

ete mennisses metes for drihtenes luue and ec crist hit walde 

habben idon. Efter ban drihten him bi-tahte twa stanene tables The ten 


breode on hwulche godalmihti heofde iwriten ba ten la3e be ba ments. 

isroelisce folc sceolde halden ba he heom ledde of egipte londe 

ber weren in ber o^res tables sunderliche .iii. ibode ba weren. Three behests 

on the first 

Audi Israel. Dommus deus tuus unns est. /Secundum. Non table. 

habebis nomen dei tui in uanum. Tercium. Obserua diem sab- 

bati. bet is on englis Ihere^ 3e israelisce bem 1 bet nis buten an > ?bem. 

god on heofene and on eorSan and over alle bing hine 3e scule 

wurbian and hersumen and luuian mid al euwer heorte. pe 

oSer heste wes. Ne haue bu bines drihtenes nome in nane aoa 

ne in *nane idel speche. in nane idel 3elwunge 2 . And be bridde *[Foi.3&.] 

2 ?3Glpunffe. 

godes heste wes iwriten inne ba table. "VVite 3e bet 3e 3emen 
benne halie sunnedei. and \>et ye hine wurSien and halden from 
uwilche swinke. Nu godemen nu weren bas breo la3e 3e-writen 
inne ba o^re 3 table breode sunderlipes alswa crist hit hefde idon are!* 


written upon the second stone table, teaching us how each man should 
act towards his neighbour as he would that men should act towards 
him. Honora ])atre?n tuum et matrem tuam, that was the fourth 
behest that God Almighty commanded — to honour first of all thy 
father and thy mother above all earthly things, then shall thy days 
be prolonged in great bliss upon earth. Be thou not a manslayer, 
nor defile thou thyself with drunkenness. Be not an adulterer. Commit 
no theft. Speak not false witness against thy neighbour. Be not 
a liar, neither for fear nor for love. Desire not any other man's wife, 
nor anything that other men possess more than thou. Forswear 
not these behests which God Almighty himself ordained and wrote 
with his own fingers and gave to Moses. The Lord again spoke, 
and strictly commanded that each man shall do to others as he would 
that one should do to him. Our Lord spake to Moses that he should 
teach his folk, and particularly warned him, and thus spake to him : 
If ye observe my behests then send I you propitious seasons, and 
I will give you riches and fruits abundantly, and mirth shall dwell 
in (your) land, which shall be in peace and in freedom under my govern- 
ment, and I will protect you from every harm, so that neither invasion 
nor famine shall hurt you. Your enemies shall not harm nor harass 
you, but I will give you victory and strength that ye may overcome 
your enemies. Moreover, our Lord spake to Moses and said, If ye 
turn your hearts from me and break my lore and my laws, and dis- 
regard or despise my behests, then shall there soon come upon you great 
vengeance, discord, invasion, and famine, so that your hearts shall 
be sore afraid, and your enemies shall wax strong ; and ever and 
anon destructive tempests shall destroy the produce of your land ; 
rapine and pestilence shall quickly consume you, and ye shall be given 
as captives into the hands of your enemies, so that they shall cause 
you to undergo torment and toil ; your land they shall lay waste and 
your cities shall they burn and your goods they shall destroy, and 
they shall mar your land. Then shall your sins destroy and utterly 
ruin you. Then will ye be sorry for it, and bewail your sins and 
repent you. And then shall my anger cease and the scourge also, 
when ye call upon me and entreat for help, and when ye put away 
that unrighteousness and turn to righteousness, and I will succour 


to him seoluen. on ba o^re souen laje weren iwriten alswa sund- On the second 

table were 

erliche inna o^re stauene table brede hu uwil [cl mon seal his seven cora - 

L J mandments. 

euenexta beodan alswa he walde bet me him bude. Jwnora patrem 

tuum et matrem tuam. bet wes be beofe^e 1 heste bet godalmihti 'So in MS.; 

? feowerfte. 

het wurSian aire erest bin feder and bin moder ouer alle eorS- 

liche bing. penne beoS bine da3es ilenged mid muchele blisse 

in eorSan. Ne be bu monsh^e. Ne bi sunt 2 bu be mid 2 ?smit. 

drunkenesse. Ne beo bu eubruche. Ne do bu beofSe. Ne spec 

bu a3ein bine nexta nane false witnesse. N[e] beo bu Ulcere, ne 

for eye ne for luue. Ne wilne bu o^res monnes wif 3 ne nanes 3 ms. yif. 

bulges be o^re mon a3c uhtre benne bu. Ne for-swerie bu be 

bas .x. bebode be godalmihti seolf idihte and a\vrat mid is 

a3ene fringres 4 and moyses bitahte. Drihten cwe^ eft and 4sic - 

•i lii iiM Each man 

3erne lerde bet uwilc mow seal beoden o^re alswa he wde bet was com- 
manded to 
me him beode. Vre drihten cweS to moyses bet he scolde wissien i°ve his 

' neighbour. 

his folc and wernede him 3eorne and him to * bus cwe^. Gif 3e * [Foi. 4a.] 
mine bibode healded. benne sende ic eou rihte widerunge and ic mises S and 
eou wille 3euan wela and westme ino3e and murfihe sculen to the 
wuniare on londe bet brS on grrSc and on frrSe under mire 
onwalde. and ic eou wulle werien wrS elene 5 herm. Ne bet eou 5 ?eicne. 
ne seal derien nou^er here ne hunger. Euwer feond eou ne seal 
derian ne swenchen. Ah ic eou 3ife si3e and streinbe bet 3e 
ma3en ower feond ouer cumen. 3et cwe^ ure lauerd to moyses. 
Gif 3e cherrat from me ower heortam 6 and to-breca^ mine lare 6 sic - 

The evils that 

and mine la3e and mine heste fo^emeS o%er for-ho3iet benne would follow 
seal eou sone 3e waxen muchele wrake and sake here and 
hunger and bet eower heorte e^ian swrSe and eower feond 
stro^ian and westmes borS uuele wederas oft and ilome seal 
for-wurSan. stala and steorfa. swrSe eow 7 seal bene and 3e beoS 7 ms. cow. 
iseald 8 eower feonde to pWsune. Swa bet heo eow tint^ed " MS - iscaid. 
and heow iswenchet. lond heo eou aweste^ and eower burh heo 
for-berna^ and ehee 9 heo aspilla^ and eard heo amerrad and 9 ?ehte. 
benne eower sunne forwor^on and eou seolfan al fordon. benne 
wille 3e hit bireusian and sunne bimenen and to boto 10 gan. and 10 ?uote. 

These evils 

iswica benne be org ba lswingla se me benne denial and helpes woaid be 

. ' . removed by 

me biddafc and bet unriht for-leta¥ and to rihte ib^a^ and ic penitence. 


you and have mercy upon you ; and your land will I deliver, and 
yourselves I will strengthen and protect ; and joy and freedom I will 
send upon men who love and honour me aright. These are God's 
words which God himself wrote and gave unto Moses. All this may 
be profitable and instructive to us if we desire it. Assuredly it appears 
to me, good men, that all this vengeance is come over all nations. Ye 
may know for cei'tain that it is wholly on account of our sins. What 
man is there that hath not each clay broken these laws of God which 
I have just now declared unto you t These laws lasted from Moses' 
time until the Lord came upon this earth for to deliver us from the 
devil's power ; and after he came upon this middle earth he set the 
law of his mildheartedness (mercy) over us and over all mankind, so 
that notwithstanding we sin now in this life, no one shall punish us for it 
(if we repent). If we will not repent and cease, it is right that they 
trouble and put us to shame ; not the man, but the devil that reigneth 
in him. Ye have heard what laws were ere Christ was born. Many men 
say that those were severe laws, and if those were now (in force) no man 
would trespass against another — neither man, nor woman, nor maiden. 
Truly they say, many abstained for fear of the Lord and many for 
the fierce doom (judgment) that then was. Dear men, we should now 
think this if we were prudent — so high a Lord and mighty over 
heaven and earth would see us. Wherefore it was the law (then) 
that the same evil that I did thee, thou shouldst do to me, that 
was, if thou woundedst me I ought to wound thee in return. If thou 
thrustest me in the eye, I in thine also. Blow for blow also, of ne- 
cessity, except thou were manslayer or thou broke compact or committed 
adultery, they were punished (with death). But God hath set the 
law of his mercy for (our) good. Thou shalt not return evil for evil 
now, but God Almighty biddeth thee do thy good for his evil ; let 
him do thee ever so much annoyance or harm in this life, be not 
thou once wrath therefore, but forbear for the Lord's love. If thou 
returnest evil for evil so much the greater shall be the wrath between 
you ; and each of you sinneth before the Lord, and moreover ye are the 
later reconciled. These housebreakers (marauders), robbers, and thieves, 
that will never cease from their evil ways, thou oughtest love their 
souls for Christ's love, and the evil that they do thou oughtest to hate 


wulle eow ireden and milcian and eower lo/td ic wulle fribian 

and eow selfe mejhan and bi-* werian. and blisse and lisse ic * £ Fo1 - 4b -l 

sende uppon niownen be me luuieS and irihte iheraft bis beo^ 

godes word be god seolf idihte. and ruoises bi-tahte. Al hit mei 

us rede and to lare aif Ave wulleS. SoSHche me bunched gode ah nations 

-* are now 

men bet al bas wrake is icumen ouer alle beode. se hit ma3en suffering 

>> ' * similar ven- 

witen iwis bet hit is al for ure sunne. hwulc mon is bet nauet fj; a " r c ° m ° r 
to broken elche dei bas godes lase be ic eou nu cwe^. pas la3en The duration 

' & -" r t of the old 

weren from Moyses. a bet drihten com on bis middilert for us to tow. 
alesnesse of deofles onwalde and seod^an he com on bisse mid- 
delert f he sette his mildheortnesse la3e ouer us. and ouer al 
moncun. bet wes ba3h we suneghie nu on bisse Hue ne seal us na 
mon uuelien ber uore. Gif we nulled gan to bote and iswican 
hit is riht bet me us nede and isegge bet sceamie. Nawiht bon 
monne ah bon deofle be rixlaS in him. Ge herde wilche la3e Tl >e laws 

1 ' J before the 

weren er crist wes iboren. Monimon seiS bet ba weren strotige 1 time of Christ 

> > a were very 

lase and jif ba lase weren nu nalde na mon mis-don wrS trSre severe - 

5 ° ' ■> ' ? stronge. 

ne wepmon ne wifmon ne meiden. fulsofc hit serS moni hit for-let 

for drihtenes eye. and moni hit forlet for ba reSa dome be ba 

wes. Leofe men bet we sculden benchen nu 3ef we weren iseli. 

Swa heh lauerd and mihti ouer heuene. and eorSe bet he walde 

us iseon forSan hit wes ba la3e bet ilke uuel be ic dude be. bu 

scoldest don me bet wes 3if bu me wundedest ic sculde wundie 

be ber * on-3ein. 3if bu me puttest in bet e3e '. ic bin alswa. dunt * [Foi. 5aj 

a-3ein dunt. Alswa of neate bute bu were Monsla3e o^er bu 

to-breke wed durge 2 . o^er for-le3en heo weren 3e tintra3ed 2 ?burge. 

• -vt God Iiatn 

ah god haue^ iset his mildhert-nesse lase on gode. Ne scalt given us 

b . . the law of 

bu 3elden vuel on3ein uuel nuSa. ah god almihtin be hat don His mercy. 

. i • i • i -vt i i i_ i We are to 

bm god on-2ein his uuel. JNe do lie be neure swa niucnelne return good 

... » for evil. 

teone ne wite on bisse Hue ne beo bu nefre ene wratS ber fore, ah 
forber for drihtenes luue. Gif bu dest bin uuel on^ein his uuel. 
Swa muchel ba wred^a bid be mare bi-twenen eow and eour 
eyber sunega^ bi-foran drihten and ec leter 3e beo^ sahte. bas 
ruperes and bas reueres and bas beues bet nulleS nu nefre swike 
heore uueles bu asest luuan heore saule for cristes luue and ho \ e t '}® 

> J souls of the 

heore uuel be heo doS bu a3est to hetiene and wrS-stewen 3if bu wicked doers - 


and put a stop to if thou might, according to the law of the land. 
If they will never abstain nor repent, it is right that they should be 
punished ; for it is better that they be punished in their bodies than 
withal perish in the devil's hand. If thy nearest friend (neighbour) tres- 
pass against thee, be it of one thing, be it of another, as many do, 
entreat him lovingly that he act right towards thee. If he will not, take 
two of thy friends and go yet and beseech him, and if he will not 
then, complain thee to holy Church, that is to the priest and to 
the congregation. If he will not act rightly for the priest nor 
for holy Church, hold him then such a one as is without law and 
like a heathen man. Thy friend thou lovest for the good deeds he 
doth thee, and he thee also. That is nothing. But thou wouldest 
indeed be his friend before Christ if, when thou sawest him about 
to fall foolishly into the devil's hand, thou checked and restrained 
him as far as thou wert able ; and Christ hath commanded that thou 
shalt love thy enemy for love of him, and restrain his sins if thou 
wert able, and pray for him daily that Christ may cause him to turn 
from his wickedness before the day of his death. What availeth wrath 
since God Almighty, having come upon this earth, hath commanded 
each Christian man thus (to love his enemies). And, moreover, if thou 
offendest or sinnest against the Lord, thou shall repent and receive 
shrift thereof, as the priest teacheth thee. Do not return evil for 
evil, as was formerly done. As I previously stated, if any man sinned 
against Christ under the law of Moses, he was grievously tormented to 
death, and moreover his sin was (not expiated) nevertheless before God. 
But Christ, through his great mercy having descended from heaven, 
humbled himself so that he was born of our Lady Saint Mary ; and he 
afterwards lived two and thirty winters in this world, and then suffered 
death for all mankind, entirely for our sins and not for his own. And he 
gave us moreover afterwards a great gift, through his great humility, 
and ordained this law : If thou sinnest against thy neighbour unwillingly, 
make amends for it willingly whatsoever way thou canst, for I know 
full well that thou mightest offend against thy neighbour (unwillingly). 
Then will Christ forgive thee who hath commanded thee to act to- 
wards each man as thou wouldest that each should act towards thee 
in accordance with thy will. And moreover he gave us a high gift, 


miht al swa hit is nu La^e a londe. 5if heo nullum nefre iswiken 

ne ffan to bote '. hit is riht bet me hem spille. forban betere better de- 

° s •■ ' stroy the body 

hit is bet heo beon ispilled of heore licome benne mid alle fordou than the soul - 

to bes deofles hond. Gif bin nexta freond agult wrS be beo hit How to deal 

' > . . with th - v 

of ane binge beo hit of o^re alsvva mom de^ '. bide hine luueliche s uilt >' nei s h - 

> ° hour. 

bet he be do riht. Gif he nulle f nim tweien of bine freond and 

ga 3et bi-sec hine. and gif he nule be 3et ' men be to halie 

chirche. bet is to ban preoste and to ban folke. * Gif lie him * [Fol. 5b.] 

nule rihtlechen for preoste na for halie chirche .' hald hine benne 

swilche mon be beo bute la3e and he^enne monne %e ilic. bine 

frond bu luuest for J>am goddede be he be de^ and he be alswa. 

bet nis noht. Ah benne were bu wel his freond toward criste f K eep thy 

* ' ' friend out of 

Gif bu hine ise3e bet he wulle asottie to bes deofles hond and to * e '' aIul of 

his wei'kes. bet bu hine lettest. emcZ wr5-stewest ^if bu mihtest 

anc£ crist hafe^ ihaten bet bu scalt luuan bine feond for his luue 

and wrS-stewen his uueles ^if bu mul^e. and bide for him 

deihwamliche }>et crist hine bringe bet he icherre from ban 

uuelnesse ear his ende dei. Hwet halt be wredSe seod^an bus 

god alniihtin hauet ihaten uwil[c]ne cristene mon seodftan he 

com on bis middelerd and ec 3if bu agultest. o^er sunegest 

toward drihten bet bu scalt gan to bote and niman scrift ber 

of al swa be proest be techet. Ne do bu bin uuel on-gein uuel Return not 
' 1 ' . evil for evil - 

swa me dude hwile. Al swa ic er seide. 31'f eni mon touward 

criste isunegede on Moyses la3e. he wes ipinet ermiliche to 

de^e and ec nes his sunne nobelesse to drihten. Ah crist burh riirist instl - 

' r tuted tlie law 

his muchele mildheortnesse seodftan he a-steh of heuene riche. of mercy. 

and eadmode hine seolfne bet he wes iboren of ure lefdi Zeinte 

Marie, and he wes seod^an twa and britti wintra on bisse Hue. 

and seod^an brouwede de£ for al moncun al for ure neode 

nawiht *for his. and ec 3ef us seod^an ane muchele 3ef for his * L Fo1 - 6u ] 

muchele eadmodnesse and sette bas lase. Gif bu agultest wiS The golden 

' J jo rule of action. 

}mie efen-nexta un^onkes f bet hit bin bonkes hu se bu miht 
wft> him for-bon ic wat fulwel \et bu miht agultan wrS bine euen 
nexta. pa wile crist be haue^ ihate bet bu beode eilcmon al 
swa bu waldest bet me dude be bines bonkes. and ba 3et he 3ef 
us ane he3e 3efe. Gif we sunegie^ towaarS him. Ave sculen gan 



If we sin against him Ave must repent and leave off our misdeeds ere 
our lives end, and then we shall not be punished for them, as was 
formerly the case. But thou shalt repent as thy shriver teacheth thee. 
Now, good men, Christ gave us many free gifts when he came upon 
this earth, not on account of our merits, but for his great mercy. 
Previously we were all doomed to hell through Adam our old father, 
because he broke God's behests ; and wholly for the necessities of us, 
sinful wretches, Christ descended to this life and suffered death 
for us, and delivered us out of the abyss of hell, through his precious 
flesh and blood ; and moreover he hath prepared for us the eternal 
bliss, if we strive to merit it, in the kingdom of heaven. Take heed 
now, dear men, what great gifts he giveth us, he that aforetime dearly 
ransomed us ; and moreover he established the law of his mercy for 
us, when he came among us — that if we sinned we should repent, and 
mortify the wretched body meetly in return, because the body loveth 
much sloth, and much eating and drinking, and lust and pride, and 
highmindedness, and unlawful possession of other men's goods, because 
it pleases him not to labour honestly (for his living) in this life. 
All that the body loves, that the soul hates, and woe is her therefore ! 
Now shall we therefore abstain from the lust of the body, and labour 
for the soul's behoof while we may — while Christ may give us respite 
in this life. Because Christ has given us much greater bliss and liberty 
in this life to obtain the kingdom of heaven than he did the men of 
whom I previously spake, (who lived) before he was born, for then many 
a man abstained from sinning against others, on account of the awful 
doom and for fear of the Lord ; and they knew not so much of him as 
we know, except they knew, through the holy prophets, that he was 
holy and mighty, and exalted above heaven and earth and above all 
things, and that he should come upon this earth for our necessities ; and 
though they then observed his laws and behests faithfully and believed 
in him truly, we sinful wretches do not so, but daily add sin to sin. 
We should love and obey him and observe his behests wholly on account 
of our own necessities, for we have heard through wise teachers how 
he first created this world wholly for our need, and suffered death 
for us ; and each day we hear it related, and we know it for truth, 


to bote and forleten ure misdede er ure Hues ende ne seal us We shall not 

be punished 

nan mon pinian ber for al swa me dude hwile. Ah bu scalt nit for our sins, 

if we repent 

ibetere al swa bin scrifte be techet. Nu godemon crist us %ef of them. 

moni freo 3eue x seodSan he com on bisse midelerd nawiht for ure ' MS- 3ene. 

ernunge bute for his muchele mildheortnesse. er we weren al for- 

gult in to belle burh adam ure aide feder for-bon be he to-brec 

godes bebode and al for ure neode wrecche sunfule he asteh to Christ died 

° for sinners. 

bisse Hue. and brouwede de^ for us and alesde us of belle grunde 
mid bis derewurSe flesse and mid his blode and ba 3et be haueo" 
us i3arket ba ecche blisse 3if we wulleS hit iernien in heuene 
riche. NimaS 3eme nu leofemon hwilche 3ife he us 3efe : $ bet 
bet ear us bohte deore. and ba 3et he us astalde his mildheort- 
nesse la3e seodSan he com a-mong us bet is xif we suneged we The body is to 

be punished. 

hit sculen beote and pinian bene wrecbe licome *imececheliche 2 * [Foi. 66.] 
ber a-3ein. for-bon be licome luua^ muchele slauSe 3 and muchele 3M ™ e slail c $ e '. 
etinge 4 and drunkunge. and glanesse. 5 and prude, and ouer- "Ms.ecinge. 

'■> ? galuesse. 

modinesse and o^ermonnes istreon mid woh^e for-bon be him 

ne lust swinken mid rihte on bisse Hue. Al bet be licome luue^ The body 

loves what the 

bet ba saule hete<5 and wa is hire ber fore. Nu sculle we for-lete soul hates. 

•i" -i e*s i m ForsaUe the 

bes licome lust for-bon. and tihan to bere saule binof¥e ba hwile body's lusts. 
we ma3en ba hwile crist us wule 3efen furst on bisse Hue. for- 
bon crist us haue^ i3efen muchele mare blisse and forla3e on 
bisse Hue to bi3eten heouene riche. benne he dude ban monne be 
ic er cwe^ er he were iboren. for-bon monimon hit forlet bet he Those under 

' _ ' the old law 

ne misdude wiS o^erne for bon eisliche dome, and for drihtenes observed 

> God's laws. 

eie and bat nusten heo nawiht swa muchel of him swa we witen. 

bute bet heo wisten ^urh be halie witege bet he wes hali and 

mihti and heh ouer heouene and ouer eorSa and ouer alle bing 

and bet he sculde cumen to bisse middeleard for ure neode and 

bah heo heolden wel his la3e ba and is heste. and bi-lefden wel 

on him. we wrecche sunfulle ne do we noht swa. Ah sette^ we do not, 

deihwamliche sunne uppon sunne we hine sculde luuian and but daily add 

sin to sin. 

hersumian and balden bis heste al for ure a3ene neode. forSon 
we habbe^ ihereden burh wise witega hu he erest astalde beos 
woreld. Al for ure neode. and he breowede de^ for us. and 
uwlche dei we ihere^ siggen. * and we hit witen to so^e. and *[Foi.7a.] 


and we see what marvels and joy he did and doth daily. Wherefore 
we should observe his behests among us. Great is thy earthly lord's 
awe, and a hundredfold more is Christ's awe ; for the earthly lord 
may do no more than put the wretched body to death, but God Almighty 
may destroy both thy wretched body and thy soul. Such a lord we 
ought to dread, that is God Almighty. Now, good men, some of us 
through this world's treachery and also through the body's lust, as 
I have before said, are unable in any wise to observe Christ's behests ; 
that is the greater harm to us, for this world ever striveth against us 
and we against her with great difficulty, so that we sin against the 
Lord's will more often than we should, but I say unto you for truth 
the more tribulation thou hast in this life of thy body, the better 
thou shouldest obey thy dear Lord and keep his behests. If it befalleth 
that thou breakest God's behests unwillingly, repent of it willingly 
— that is, thou shalt go to shrift and punish thy body that causeth 
thee to do so, and destroy the devil. For first of all thou thinkest the 
sin with thy thought. The devil may not be aware of the sin never- 
theless until thou hast committed it with the body — then cometh the 
devil therein and perceiveth it, and moreover he writes it in his 
tablets, and ever he (Satan) dwelleth in the foul sin until the man's 
day of death, unless he drive him away with true repentance, by 
sorrow for his sins. The wretched sinner should not delay to repent 
the while he may — to-day he may, to-morrow it fails him. Dear 
brethren, distrust not Christ's mercy nor his compassion as do many 
a man that saith and thinketh, " How may I ever repent ; I have 
done such great and so manifold sins, I can never repent of them in 
my lifetime." The Book saith thus : " O alas ! that he ever will so think 
in his mind." Be it (the sin) ever so mean or ever so high, ever so 
great or ever so small, though one of us had done the sins of you 
all, if he would go to shrift and be sorry for them and renounce them 
evermore, Christ is willing to shew mercy for his great mildhearted- 
ness (compassion), except to the man that so thinketh, as I previously 
said, and distrusts God's mercy. If he remaineth in that sin and 
thought he is utterly lost in hell pit, and the men also who will not 


we hit iseoS hwilche wunder and murine he dude, and deS 
deihwamliche. for-bi we scolden halden his heste us bitwenam 
Muchel is bines eorSliches louerdes eie. and hunfold mare is a hundred- 

' fold more is 

cWstes eie. forSon be eorSliche lauerd ne mei don na mare bote Christ's awe 

' than any 

pinen be wrecche licome to dea^e. Ah godalmihtin be mei for- earthly lord's. 

don erSer $e bine wrecche licome and bine saule. Swiclne lauerd 

we asen to dreden. bet is godalmihtin. Nu godemen sunmie of The world and 

' ° the flesh cause 

us for bisse weorlde lewnesse and ec for ba licome lustfulnesse. us to sin. 

al swa ic ear cweS we ne ma3en aire coste halden crist bibode bet 

us is be mare herrn. forSon a bis worPS whrS on3ein us. and we The world 

, ever fights 

on-sein heo mid muchele earueSnesse 1 for-bi we sunegiet on^ein against us. 

D -v 'MS.earne'S- 

drihtenes welle ofter bene we scolde. ah ic eow segge to so^e bes nesse. 
bu hefdest mare deruenesse on bisse liue of bine licome f bes bu 
scoldest hersumian be bet bine leofe drihten and balden his 
bibode. Gif hit itit bet bu brekest godes heste unbonkes be 2 hit 2 ? bet. 
bin bonkes. bet is bet bu scalt gan to scrifte and pinian bine Punish the 
licome be hit be make^ don. and scenden bene deofel forSon aire caraeth thee 

> > ' to sin. 

erest bu benchest ba sunne mid bine bonke. Ne mei be deofle The devil 

. . .... knows not of 

ba sunne iwitew ba ;et er bu habbe heo idon mid be licome benne the sin hefore 

r ' r r f it is done in 

kime^ be deofel ber on and wit heo. and ec he writ heo in his the body, 
tables, and a he wune^ mne fule sunne to bes morales ende dei. 
bute he hine driue a-wei. *Mid sod^e dedbote his sunne bi * [Pol. 76.] 
reowsumnesse. be wrecche sunfulle ne elde nawiht bet he ne ga Let not the 

' * sinner delay 

to bote be wile he mei to dei he mei. toma^an hit him is to repent. 

awane : Leofe bro^re ne ouertrowi3e cWstes milce ne his mild- 

heortnesse al swa monimon serS and wene^. Hu mei ic efre 

ibete ic habbe idon swa muchele and swa monifalde ne bete ic 

hit nefre on mine liue. O. serS bus be boc. wei bet he eure hit 

wule ibenche m his bonke. Ne beo heo nefre swa frekel. ne swa Christ is able 

to forgive all 

heh. ne swa muchel. ne swa e^elic. bah ure an heofde idon eower sins, great and 


aire sunne and he walde gan to scrifte and bi-reusien ha. and 

forleten ha a mare, bet crist almihti nule 3 milcie for his muchele 3 ?wuie. 

mildheortnesse bute ban ilke monne be swa benched, swa ic er 

cwe^. and ouer-treowe^ godes milce. Gif he bid^ed 4 mna ba 4 ? biddeft. 

sunne. and in bon bonke. he is al for-loren into helle gru?ide. 

and ba monne ec ba nulled ileuen. bet he waPS 5 beon iboren of » ? waide. 


believe that Christ should be born of our Lady Saint Mary and suffer 
death for us — and also the sinful man who continues ever in evil deeds 
and thinketh, " Herein I will ever lie (stay) until I be older or I be sick, 
then will I be sorry and repent, for the Lord is exceedingly merciful, 
he will forgive me." Thus the devil will destroy the wretch, and that, we 
believe assuredly, as quickly as Adam our forefather first doomed us 
by his trespass to hell. So no man may say how much more God 
Almighty's mercy and compassion is towards the sinful man if he will 
beseech him with good heart and with true penitence, and if he will 
throughly forsake his sins and make confession thereof and repent ever- 
more. Dear brethren aud sisters, if we make confession of one or of two 
sins and yet follow one, God Almighty will not be well pleased. The 
priest may not shrive thee, unless thou wilt entirely forsake thy 
sins. How may the physician heal thee whilst the iron sticketh in 
thy wound 1 Never. Neither canst thou be shriven sufficiently well 
to please God Almighty, unless thou forsake all thy sins, both the 
one and the other. Know well that one sin will mar all the goodness 
and the alms, and the amends that thou dost for the other. A little 
poison envenometh much sweetness ; and though a castle be well gar- 
risoned with men and with weapons, yet if there be a single hole 
whereby a man may creep in, is it not all in vain 1 What betokeneth 
the castle but man himself? What are the men who are in the castle 
and defend it but man's eyes, feet, hands, mouth, nose, and ears 1 
These are the limbs that a man sometimes sinneth with. Thou shouldst 
keep them as purely as Christ gave them unto thee in the bath of 
baptism. Natheless sometimes thou sinnest with these limbs more 
often than thou shouldest. It is no wonder if a man sin occasionally 
through weakness, but it is much more wonder if he will never cease. 
As I have before stated, What mean the weapons *? — thy alms that thou 
dost, that is, that thou goest gladly to church, and feedest, and lodgest, 
and clothest poor men, and every other good that it ma} r be in thy 
power to do. And moreover when thou art obedient to sin, that 
betokens the hole (breach) that I previously spoke of. Who creepeth 
therein ? The accursed devil. Because when sin is committed he comes 
thereafter and dwells ever therein, except thou repent of it. How 
mightest thou perform thy alms and please the Lord while thou art 


ure lefdi sancte marie ne bolien de? for us. and ec ba sunfulle 

monne be dre3e? a heore uuele werkes. and benched her on ic Some delay 


wille lig<?en a bet ic beo ealdre o?er bet ic beo sec. benne wulle ic tui they are 

00 r ... old and sick. 

birewsien. and beten. forSon drihten is niildheorte? inob lie wule 

hit me fo^euen. bus be deofel wule bilesnien be wreche. and ec 

we ileue? to sobe alswa redliche swa adam ure eldre feeler us 

forgulte erest in to belle. * Swa ne mei nan mon seggen hu * [ Fo1 - 8a.] 

muchele mare godalmihtines milce and bis mildbeortnesse is ber say how great 

a3ein. bon sunfulle monne be bine wile biseche mid gode beorte mercy. 

and mid so|>e dedbote bis sunne 3if be wile heo burhut forleten 

and nimin scrift ber-of. and beten a mare. Leofe breo?re and 

sustre bab we numen scrift of ane sunne o?re of twa. and be 1 '?we. 

fulie ane nis bet icweme godalmibti. Ne be preost be ne mei thy sins. 

scrife bute bu wulle heo alforleten. Hu mei be lecbe be lechnien 2 2 MS, lechi- 


ba hwile bet iren sticat in bine wunde. Nefre. Ne bu ne mi3t 
beon wel iscrifen god almibti to cweme. bute bu heo alle for-lete 
ei?er ye ba ane ye ba o?er. wite be wel bet be an sunne wule one sin mars 

all the atone- 

amerran al ba eodnesse. and be almesse. and ba dedbote be bu mentmade 

r ° r r r r for the others. 

dest of f>am o?er. A lutel ater bitteret muchel swete. And bah 
an castel beo wel bewoned mid niowne and mid wepne. and ber 
beo analpi holh bat an mon mei crepan in. Nis hit al unnet. 
hwet itacnet be castel be mon seolf. hwet ba men be beo? in be Man sins with 

eyes, hands, 

castel and bin 3enie?. bet beo? bes monnes e3an. and his fet. feet, &c. 

and his hondan. and bis mu?. and his nesa. and his earen. her 

beo? ba limen bet suneGet uwilene mow. bu scodeldest 3 heo bi- 3 ? scoidest. 

witen al swa clenlicbe swa crist ha be bitahte on bas fulhtes be?e. 

Nobeles o?erhwile bu sunegest mid sumrne of bisse * limen ofter * [Foi. 86.] 

benne bu scoidest. hit nis nan wunder bah mon sunegie o?er 

hwile unwaldes. ah hit is muchele muchele 4 mare wunder ^if he 4 sic 

nule nefre swiken. Al swa ic er ewe? hwet tacne? ba wepne Aims, &c— 

1 • 1 • 1-111T1 tDe Wea P° nS 

bine elmisse be bu dest. bet is bu gast to chirche blubebche and to be used 

against sin. 

fedest wreche men and herebure3est and scrudest elles al bet bu 
mabt don to gode. and ba 3et bu hersumest bere sunne )?et is bet 
holh }>et ic er ewe? hwa creope? ber-in f be awariede deofel. 
forSon j^enne be sunne bi? idon. Seod?an bicumet he. and 
wunet )>er-on abute j?u bit bete, bu mibt bu don bine elmesse and 


a slave to thy sin 1 And after thou wilt promise God Almighty and thy 
confessor that thou wilt forsake thy misdeeds, and takest shrift thereof 
and departest afterward and dost the same sins, then followest thou 
the habits of the hound that now spews and afterwards eateth its 
vomit, and becometh much fouler than it erewhile was. Such becomes 
the man ; he at first had one sin and afterwards hath two, if he 
knowingly does this ; he who will frequently repent and frequently 
sin he displeaseth our Lord. And again, many a man continues in 
his foul sin, and ever it appears to him that he is guilty of very 
little wrong when he has unlawful possession of another man's pro- 
perty ; and even though he impute to himself any deadly sin, he will 
not nevertheless repent of it, but thus thinketh, " I am whole and 
sound and strong and stalworth, I may yet live long and repent in 
good time of all my sins." Then cometh hereunder the devil treacher- 
ously withal and cutteth short his days and casteth him into hell 
pain, where he shall dwell ever endlessly ; and from that hell and 
that pine (torment) preserve us God the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, dwelling and ruling in the world ever without end. Amen. 



Tn Lenten time each man goes to confession ; there are some to whom 
there is greater harm in going (than in abstaining), as I will now 
tell you. He saith with the mouth what is not in his heart. " I will go 
to shrift for shame, as other men do ; if I neglect the priest will ask 
me on Easter Day who shrove me, before he administer to me the 
sacrament, and also for the sake of man's esteem." He does not go 
to shrift as other [good] men do, but acts like the cheat who at last de- 
ceiveth himself, and is as a rosy apple — fair without and rotten within. 
Alas that he will ever dare or think with his foul heart to receive 
so high and so holy a thing as is Christ's flesh into his sinful body, 
and thinketh that it will help him. Nay truly not ! but when the 


icwemen drihten. ba hwile bu beowest bire sunne and eft bu wult Thou canst 

' ' ' ' ' not please God 

bi-hateu god almihtin and bine scrifte \et bu wult forleten bine and serve sin. 

misdede. and nimest scrift ber-of. and ferest be eft and dest ba 

ilke sunne benne hafest bu bes hundes lase be nu speowe^ and ef 1 ' ? eft - 

T r 3 ' m The sinner is 

lilt fret, and brS muchele. fulre bene he wes earSon. Swa brS like the hound 

' that eateth his 

be mon erSon he hefde anfalde sunne and seod^an he hauef 2 vomit 

2 ? nauet - 
twafald gif he hit de^ in his witscipe. be be wule ilome ibeten. 

and ilome breken. he greme^ ure drihten and eft moni mon 

dre3et his fule sunne and efre him bui^e^ 3 al to lutel bat he de^ 3 ? J'inge'S. 

to unrihte \et he habbe o^er monnes [istreon] mid wohe. and bah 

he wite mid him seolf eni heafsunne he ha *nule beten ba 3et ah * [Foi. 9a.] 

The sinner de- 

benchet ic em hal. and fere, and strong, and stelewurSe 3et ic mei lays repent. 

ance until he 

longe libben and alle mine sunne timliche ibeten. ben-ne cume^ her shall hecome 

° ' old, but the 

under be deofel swican¥liche mid alle and him scorteft his dases denieute 

' J short his days. 

and awerpe^ bine in to belle pine ber he seal vvnian 4 abuten ende 4 ? wunian. 
from ban belle and from ban pine us bure^e be lauerd be is feder 
and sune and hali gast wuniende and on worlde a buten 
ende. Amen. 




n leinten time uwile mon fjao" to scrifte ; ber beo¥ summe Lent, the 

° ' ' time for con- 

be mare herm is be ga^ al swa ic nube eow tellen wulle. fession - 

He serS mi% 5 ba mu^e bet nis naut in his heorte. ic wulle gan 5 ? mid. 

. Some men go 

to scrifte for scome alswa doti ofter men. 311 ic forlete be to confession 

merely to be 

preost me walde eskien on ester dei hwa me scriue er he me iii<e other 


3efe husul and ec for monne weordes ¥.inge. he ne gad naut to 

scrifte al swa do^ o¥er men. Ah al swa he doft 6 swa be swica *<gxymaiiy 

be bi-swike^ hine seolfe on-ende and bi¥ al swa is an eppel He is like an 

, . # apple, fair 

iheowe^. he bi^ wrS-uten feire and frakel wrS-innen. Awah without and 

corrupt with- 

\>et he efre wulle bristelechen o^er bi-benchen mid his fule in - 
heorte be heo wulle underfon swa he3 bing and swa hali swa Christ's flesh 
is cWstes licome in his sunfulle buke. and wene^ \>et hit wulle hj'm." 01 avai1 


priest putteth it in his mouth, then cometh the Lord's angel and taketh 
the holiness with him toward heaven-kingdom. As for what remaineth 
there in his mouth, if any man were able to perceive it, he might 
see a burning gleed that consumes him all to coals. Dear men, if thou 
hast been very guilty towards thy earthly lord, he will forbid thee 
his presence, and moreover thou durst not come before him on account 
of thy guilt. How dare the wretched man receive God's flesh and 
blood in his body 1 How durst thou, man, there again receive God's 
flesh and blood in thy body along with vile sin and also with the 
devil that dwelleth in him 1 It does him more harm than good, for 
it draweth him to the bitter death of hell more than to everlasting life. 
The devil dwelleth in the sinful man until he hath brought him 
wholly to his will in all things, and the devil indeed so reigneth in 
him that he will never forsake his sin. The devil thus thinks, " This 
man I have taken to my own behoof — more men should I so obtain 
[through him]." By (of) such men saith the Lord in his Gospel thus 
speaking, Cum inmundus spiritus exierit ab homine, ambulat per vias 
inaquosas, querens requiem et non invenit. The unclean spirit goeth 
out from the sinful man and goeth from place to place and seeketh 
rest where he may dwell, but he may not dwell in any good man ; 
for if he be well shriven and God-fearing, the devil may never come into 
him because of his good works. Then saith he after — Revertar in domum 
meam unde exivi — now I must [dwell] in the same house in which I 
erewhile was ; and then goeth he and taketh him seven devils which are 
much worse than he. They go as I ere said, and dwell in him 
ever more, and so perishes his wretched soul in everlasting torment 
in the pit of hell. Ere that he had but one devil, now he hath seven. 
Now though he were willing to forsake his evil sins, he is not able, on 
account of the devils [within him]. But to what men does this that 
I have mentioned happen 1 By Christ ! it befalls those men that go 
to shrift more for the world's shame than for to repent of and be 
sorry for their sins. Wherefore will a man go to confession unless he is 
willing to forsake and repent of his sins 1 Of a truth if thou accusest 


him helpe/i i NeisoSliche nawiht ah benne be preost hit deS in The housei 

1 . . . sha11 lie taken 

his mube. benne cumeS drihtenes engel and binimeS ba halinesse out of ins 

> > ° ' mouth by 

mid him toward heouene * riche. bet per bilef^ in his mnSe. God ' s an s el - 

ah 3if eni nio» hit muste isean. he mahte iseon ane bermnde 

glede \et hine al for-berna^ burnt to cole. Leofemen ^\i bu 

ert swrSe for-gult wK bine eorSliche lauerd he be wule for- 

beode of his esane on siht. 1 and ec bu ne derst cumen bi-foren ' ?a3eneon- 

. sint - 

him fore bine gulte. Hu der be wrecche mon underfon drihtenes 

fleis and his blod in his licome. hu derst bu mon ber on^ein 

underfon drihtenes [fleis] and his blod in bine licome imong 

ban unwreste sunne and ec imong ban deofle be wune^ in him. 

Mare hit him deS to herme benne to erode for hit hine trS it shall do him 

> ° more harm 

to ban bittre de^e to helle mare benne to ban eche Hue. Swa than good. 
lonere be deofle wuna$ swa inne be sunfulle men a bet he hine The devil 

& r r ' dwells in the 

haue^ al ifonded to his wille burhut. and be deofel bet to sobe sinner, 
be rixat m-nan him bet he nulle nefre forleten his sunne. He 
ben-che^ be deofel. besne mon ic habbe itaken to mine a3ene 
bihofbe. 2 Ma monna ic scolde bi3eten swa bi hulche monna 2 ms. bi. 


ser5 drihten in his spelle. ba he bus ewef Cum inmundus spiritus 
exierit ab homine ambulat per uia[s] inaquosa[s] querens requiem 
& non inuenit be unclene gast be geo' him of ban sunfulle mon 
and geS him of ban stude to stude. and seche^ reste hwer he 
mei wunian. * ah he ne mei in nane gode men. forSon 3if he * [Pol. 10a.] 

1 •*- i • T 7 lrij. i-iri c but not in him 

bro wel iscraen and godiurht ne be aeoiel mey neire cumen who is weU 

m-ne him for his gode werkes. benne cweS he eft. Eeuevtar Godfearing. 

in domum meam unde exiui. Nu ic mot in bet ilke hus bet ic 

er wes. and benne fera^ he and nime^ him .vii. deofle be beoS 

muchele wurse benne he. heo fereS swa ic er cwe^. and wunia^S 

in him a mare and swa dreieS his erme saule in eche pine 

to helle grunde. ErSon he nefde bute enne deofel. nu he haue^ 

sefene. Nu bah he walde ba ufele sunne for-leten f Ne mei he The devil win 

not let the im- 

for ban deoflan. Ah wulche men ilimpe^ swa ic habbe er penitent for- 
sake his sins. 

icwe^en '. witicWst bet beo^ ba men be ga<5 to scHfte mare 
for worl[d]es scome benne for heore sunne to beten '. and to 
reusi[e]n. for hwet wule mon et scWfte bute he wulle for leten 
his misdede. and beten. So^liche 3if bu wreiest be seolfen to 


thyself to thy confessor, the devil may not accuse thee in the other 
life ; for the man who conceals his sins in this life shall never behold 
the Almighty Lord, nor aught of his bliss. How mightest thou see 
thy shadow in muddy water ] What is shrift but to renounce the 
devil, and be sorry for, repent, and bewail one's sins, and have in 
his mind (determine) never more again to commit those sins that he 
goeth to shrift for ; to come to the priest and accuse himself and 
say there what is in his mind, — "Alas, that I ever did with my 
wretched body these sins ! " For God's love repent of your sins 
while ye are here in this short life, and think how little time ye 
shall remain here. With truth thus saith the book, " Robbers, 
spoilers, thieves, murderers, covetous, adulterers, liars, unjust judges, 
jugglers, and other sots shall have a reward full quickly." What say 
they 1 We may follow our will while we are young, and when we 
become older we will repent. Alas wretch ! thus saith the book, 
" Forsooth as easily thou mightest take thine own weapon and smite off 
thine own head and return again to thine own likeness." How mightest 
thou return to thine own likeness if thy head were off? Never ! Also, 
thou mayest never have mercy from the heavenly God if thou art 
taken (or diest) in this same thought. In a single instant a man 
may receive a wound in his body that will be a long time in healing; 
and sometimes it fails to be healed. The little time thou dost it (sin) 
it appears to thee very good and sweet, and afterwards, by Christ ! it 
is very bitter to repent of, and sometimes it happens thou never 
repentest of them in this life. What ! ween these spoilers and 
robbers, that take another man's goods wrongfully, that Christ will 
have mercy upon them, though they have [not] taken and obtained 
the friendship of the men they have wronged 1 Nay ! Lo ! they 
think thus : " I will obtain goods wrongfully while I am able, and 
afterwaixls I will go to shrift, and renounce and fast for it." He that 
ever fasteddi and ever doth evil hath the practices of the devil. Thus they 
think that they will take and nought restore, but assuredly he must 
restore if he hath it ; and if he hath it not let him restore as much as 
he is able and quickly seek forgiveness for the remainder. He will think 


bine scrifte f ne mei be deofel be wreienson 1 ban crSre Hue. for ' ? wreien on. 
be mon be hele? his sunne aiSisse Hue ne siht he nefre almihtin 
drihten. ne nawiht of his blisse. Hu maht bu iseon bine 
sceadewe m worie watere f Hwet is scrift bute forlete bene Shrift is to 

forsake the 

deofel. and bine sunne. and bi-rewsien and beten and wepen. devil and to 

' repent of sin. 

and habben in his bonke be he nule nefre mare eft %e dou beo 

suraien f be he ge? to scrifte * fore and cumen to ban preoste * [Foi. io&.] 

and werian 2 hine seolfe. and cwe^en in his bonke bar hi 3 brS. " ? wreian. 

3 ? he. 

Awah ' bet ic hit efre dude mid mine wrechede licome bas suraien. 
for godes luue bete 1 ?? ower sunnen ba wile ^e beo? heren on bisse 
scorte Hue. and ibenche? hu lutte hw[i]le ye beo? here. Mid 
softe bus serS be boc. Rubberes. 4 and ba reueres. and ba beoues. 4 ? rupperes. 

7 • T ii i Robbers, 

and ba morSsla3a. and 3itteres. and ba eawbrekeres. and ba thieves, mur. 

deters, and 

liseres and ba wohdemeres and b& iuguleres. and ba o?er sottes other sots 

•> r r & r shall have 

alle heo habbe? an bone fulneh. hwet segge? heo. we inoten their reward. 

idre3an ure wil be hwile be we beo? 3unge. and eft benne we 

beo? eldre bete we hit benne weilawei wrecche. bus ewe? be 

boc. So^liche al swa e?a bu mihtest neoman bine asen wepne To dcIa y re_ 

> i j x pentance is 

and smiten of bin a3en heaue?. and gan eft to bin a3ene liche. o» e o n "" 'n^ad 

hu mahtest bu gan to bine a3ene liche 3if bin hefet were offe f to retSnto 18 

Nefre. Alswa nauest bu nefre milce of heofenlic drihten i 3if bu f rm. own 
eart inumen in bon ilke bonke. on enelpi luttele hwile mon mei 
underfon ane wunde on his licome f bet ne mei beon longe 
hwile hal. And o^er hwile hit is on wane of his hele. ba lutle 
hw[i]le bu ha dest ha be bunched fulgod. and ful swete. and eft 

wite cWst heo is ful biter 5 to betene, and oSer hwile hit itit bet i MS - bicer - 

bu heo nefre ne ibettest on bisse Hue. hwet *wene : S bas ruperes * [Foi.iia.] 

and bas reueres bet neme? o?res morales eahte mid wohe. bet Robbers and 

' ' ' thieves delay 

crist heom wulle milcien bah heo habbe? inumen and heom restitution. 
bi^eten freondscipe et bon monnen '. bet heo a-gult habbe? f 
nei. hwet benched heo bus ic wulle bi^eten mid wohe. ba 
hwile ic mei. and seo^an ic wulle gan to scWfte. and forleten 
and festen ber fore, he hauc? bes deofles costes. bet a feste? and 
a deft uuel. bus ha benched bet heo wulle? bi3eten '. and nawiht 
a3efen ah so^liche al he hit mot a3efen 3if he hit haue?. and 
3if he hit naue? a3efe swa muchel swa he mei and foi^euenesse 


it very hard and very shameful that he must repay all, and afterwards 
seek forgiveness of the man of whom he previously stole or otherwise 
wrongfully treated. Joyfully will the man go to shrift and tell the 
priest that he hath bereaved and stolen, and joyfully he will hear 
(the penance) the priest layeth upon him. But when the priest bids 
him give back the goods to the man that formerly owned it, no 
longer will he hear it willingly but he will say with crafty and smooth 
words, " I have naught thereof ; I have spent it all." Thus then saith 
the priest in reply, " Good man, take thou now of thine own goods 
and give instead." It may happen that he will reply, " Though I had 
all that I ever obtained I could not make compensation for the harm 
I have done." By Christ ! he must restore as much as he is able, for 
many a man would be willing to forgive him half or a third part, 
when he sees that he is able to produce no more. It may happen that 
he will say to the priest, " Sir, I know not where are the men whom 
I have wronged. Some are dead, and others have removed ; so that I 
cannot come across them." Truly thus saith the book, he must seek 
them, if he knows for truth that they be alive ; and he must seek 
the priest that accursed him, so that he may bless whereas aforetime he 
cursed him. And if he knows not for certain that they are alive, neither 
the men nor the priest, let him come to the church (of the district) 
where he took the goods and follow the advice of the priest whom he 
findeth there. The priest will bid him that he take that property or 
its value and distribute it among poor men, or (expend) it on bridges 
or on church-work, or in some place where it shall be well employed 
for Christ's love, and for the man that formerly owned it. And more- 
over let him repent before Christ. He that is wise will do this, and 
he is unwise if he is loath to do it, because he must again restore 
aught. Thus the foolish man thinketh, " This priest will have my 
property wrongfully and will do me no other good, but that I must ever 
fast ; and yet it were well enough might I always fast, provided I 
parted not with all my other goods." Of the man that thus thinketh 
thus saith the book — " He will fast and eat, if he is able, as much 
at one meal as he should at two." Truly Christ owes him no thanks. 



weorne 1 bidcle et ban ouereake J>is him wule ]>unche swrSe '?3eome. 

strong and swrSe scondful pet he seal al a^euen and seodSan 

bisechen milce et ban ilke monne pe he haue^ er istolen o^er 

o^er-weis wa idon. BluSeliche be mou wile gan to sc?*ifte and They are will- 
ing to go to 
segge be preoste bet he haueS ireaueS and istolen. and blutSeliche confession 

86 r ! > and listen to 

he wule herkien. pet pe preost him lei5 on i ah benne be preost the P riest > 
hine hat a3efen ba ehte bon monne \>et hit er ahte. pet he nulle 
iheren his bonkes. ah he wile seggen. and foxliche sniejnen mid 
worde. Nabbe ic nawiht ber-of ic hit habbe al ispened bus serS but are un- 

willing to re- 

benne be preost J>er o^ein. God mon nim bu nuSe of bin a3en store what 

ehte and do ]>er on3ein. hit mei ili»ipen pet he wile seggen bah stolen. 

ic hefde al bet*ic efre bi3et ne mahtic 3elden swa muchel swa * [Foi. n&.] 

ic habbe idon to herme. witecWst he mot a3euen al swa muchel 

swa he mei. forSon moni mon hit walde him foi^euen half o^er 

bridde lot benne he ise3e pet he ne mahte na mare 3e-forSian. 

Hit mei ilimpen pet he wile seggen bam preoste. LauerS nat ic They make ail 

sorts of ex- 

hwer heo beorS j?eo men pe ic ]>ene herm to dude. Summe beo<5 cuses. 
deade and summe on o^re stude. ne ic cume to heom nawiht. 

So^liche bus cwej^e^ be hoc he mot ham isecham. 2 3if he wat 2 ? isechan. 

to so%e pet heo beo^ Hues, and )>ene preost he mot isechen be They must 

. . . make restitu- 

hine acursede. pet he hme lbleeie on3ein bet he hine acursede. tion to tho-e 

to whom it is 

and 3if he nat to so£e pet heo beo^ Hues ba men ne be preost i d "e- 

cume |>enne to ber ilke chirche J>er er nom pa, ehte. and do 

efter bes preostes rede pe he )?er uinde^. pe preost him wile 

haten pet he nime ]?a ilke ehte o^er his wur£. and dele hit 

wrecche monne o^er to brugge o^er to chirche weorke oSer 

on sume stude ber hit beoS wel bito3en for cWstes luue. and 

for pene mon pet hit er ahte. and }>a3et nime bote to criste. be 

ilke pet is iselif J>is he wule don. and he his uniseli 3b him 

is la£ to donne bis forSon be he seal asein 2euen awiht. bus be The thoughts 

1 ' > ° > ' of the foolish 

uniselie benched bes * preost wile habben min ehte mid wohe. thief - 

* [Fol. 12a.] 

and ne don me nan o^er bote buten a ic seal festen. and ba 

3et hit were wel god moste ic alunges festen swa bet ic mine 

o^re go^ 3 al ne fors-spende. Bi Jjam men pe }>us benched. }>us 3 ? god. 

serS pe boc. he wule festen. and eaten. 3if he mei et ane mele book says of 

11 ~ .. such men. 

swa muchel swa et twain. bo^Hche ne con c/v'st him nenne 


Think ye not hereto, If thou dost me wrong and we two he servants 
of one master, and I complain of it to my master, first of all thou shalt 
act rightly towards me, and afterwards towards the master ] By Christ ! 
much stronger is the doom of God Almighty. If thou wilt have for- 
giveness of thy misdeeds from the Lord, first of all thou must have my 
friendship, if thou trespassest against me, and afterwards thou must 
ohtain mercy from thy lord. If thou hreakest the behests of an earthly 
man, he will be wroth with thee : a hundredfold more then shouldst 
thou observe Christ's behests, for he is king of all kings. The man 
who lay twelve months in a prison, would he not give all that he ever 
might acquire provided he might be quit of these twelve 1 and though 
thou mayest have lain sometime in a prison, yet thou hadst clothing 
to wear, and something to eat and to drink. But, in truth, in Christ's 
prison — that is, hell — there is none of these various things ; but ever 
there is whining, grief, and gnashing of teeth, hunger, and thirst, 
and cold, and biting of fiends (devils) and tearing of adders. Woe 
is him who shall dwell there that ever he was born into this life. 
For God's love go and get shrift of all your sins, for although ye 
may repent of some sins, but will not forsake whoredoms, and gluttony, 
and drunkenness, your shrift availeth nought ; and these are the two 
sins that men most commonly follow, and ween that it is no sin. 
Except he have shrift he is lost in hell, if he be taken in that sin. 
Truly thus saith the book, " What saith the foolish, To misfortune was I 
born 'if I may not have indulgence in this world." But, so help me God, 
that man who will follow all his sinful lusts, Non intrabit in regnum 
celorum— that is, he shall never come into heaven-kingdom. And again, 
another teacher saith, Nemo potest gaudere cum seculo & in eternum 
regnare cum Christo — that is to understand, No man may have all his will 
and rejoice himself with this world, and also dwell for ever with Christ in 
heaven. Though thou hadst lived from Adam's time until this day, and 
thou possessedst all worldly power, and hadst the greatest of all riches, 
when thou shalt depart this life it would appear to thee no more than as 
if thou hadst but once uncovered (it) with thine eyes. Wherefore this 

behests than 
man '8. 


bone. Ne benche ^e herto. Gif bu me clest woh and wit beon 
anes lauerdes men f ic hit mene to mine lauerde aire erest bu 
me scalt don riht. and seod^an be lauerde. witicn'st muchele God's justice 

' greater than 

strewgere dom is of godalmihtine. Gif bu wilt liabben for- man ' s - 

3efenesse of bire misdede to driliten aire erest bu most liabben 

mine freonseipe x %if bu wiS me agultes. and seodSan bu most j ?fr«md- 

bi3eten milce et bine drihtene. Tobreoke anes eorSHches morales 

heste i be wile wreoe wrS be. hmafald inare bu scoldest halden a hundred- 

> ' fold more 

m'stes biheste for bon be is alra kinge king be mo» be leie .xii. should we 

i ° ° > ' observe 

moneft in ane prisune nalde he ^efen al bet he efre mahte £ 
bi3eten wK bet he moste .xii. beo ^er ut of. and bah bu leie in 
ane pn'sune o^er hwile bu hefdest cla^ to werien. and to etene 
and to drinken. se so^licke on en'stes prisune nis nan of bis Hell is 

J *■ ' Christ 8 

sere '. bet is in belle, ah a ber is waning * and graming. and prison. . 

- , , j. *[Fol. 126.] 

toben grisbating. hunger and burst, and chele. and feonda 
bitinga. and neddre slittinga. wa is him bet he efre wes iboren 
on bis Hue be ber seal wunian. For godes luue gaS to scWffte of 
alia eower sunne. for bah 3e gan of sunne ower suraie to bote. 
and ;e nulled forleten hordomes. and sifernesse and druncnesse. Forsake 

-* ' whoredom 

ne halt nawiht bat scWft. and bis beot ba twa sunne be men and gluttony, 
fulie^ alra swrSest. and weneS bet hit ne beo na sunne bute 
he habbe scrift. he is forloren in to helle. Gif eani mon brS 
inumen in bere sunne. So^licbe bus serS be boc. hwet serS be 
dusie to ufele hele wes ic iboren 3if ic ne mot habben on bisse 
weorlde 3euenesse. ah swa me helpe drihten. be ilke mon be j5 r f,^ at hi3 
wule fulien alle his sunne lustes. Non intrabit in regnum celo- ^me'lnto"^^ 
rum. bet is ne kime^ he nefre mne heoueneriche. and eft be ^^ 
o^er witege serS. Nemo potest gaudere cum seculo. & in eternum 
regnare cum. Christo. bet is to understondene. Ne mei nan We cannot 

enjoy the 

mon habben al his wil. and blissien him mid bisse wordle and world here, 

and live with 

ec wunian a ytvS crist on heofene. bah bu liuedest of adames Christ 

' ' hereafter. 

frumSe bet come bes dei and bu ahtest al weorld iwald. and 
aire welene mest. benne bu scalt of bisse Hue nalde hit be 
binchen na mare bute al swa bu ene unpr^edest 2 mid bine e3en 2 ?unwrij- 
* forSon nis nawiht beos weorld al heo a^e^ on ane alpi bra3e *[Foi.i3a.] 
berihtes he ne brS wei hwi beo we uule on bisse wrecche 



world is nought. It passeth all away in a single instant, (and) forthwith he 
ceases to exist (lie is not). Alas ! why are we evil in this wretched world 1 
Assuredly she will deceive us when we least expect. Alas ! that any man 
should wrong another, for covetousness of this world's goods. Truly it 
will all pass away, and the wretched soul shall bitterly suffer for it. 

Go to thy father's tomb, or where any of thy kin are lying, and 
ask him what he hath gained by his unrighteous dooms, and by his 
robbery, and by his bodily lusts, and by his other sins while he was 
here in this life. Truly he would say, could he speak, " Woe is me 
that I ever did so much sin and repented not of it ! for I endure 
so great torment that I would rather have, for a single second, some 
cessation and ease than all the world if were it mine. And, moreover, 
were it possible to assume my bodily form and be in the world 
ever more, I would gladly suffer and sit in frost and in the snow 
up to my chin, and yet it would appear to me the softest bath and 
the most winsome that I ever enjoyed, might I be out of this wretched 
life." And, moreover, thou mightest undei'stand when thou standest 
at his tomb that he was proud and haughty as thou art, and thou 
shalt perish also, as he is now, all to nought ; and thou knowest never 
when. While alive he was beloved, but hateful is he now, and his 
wretched soul is forlorn (damned). Wherefore, dear men, understand your- 
selves while ye may that this world is worthless ; ye see it yourselves. 
Be he ever so rich, depart he must when his day cometh. Wherefore 
go joyfully and repent of your sins while ye are able. Unhappy is 
the man that becometh old and his days leave him, and the day of 
his death approacheth, and he will not bethink that his sins increase, 
which cause the death of the soul : because she (the soul) may not 
endure all the sins that man putteth upon her, therefore she will go 
out of the body. Truly thus saith the book, That many thousand 
men might live many more years than they do, if they were righteous 
and God-fearing. Dear men, when ye go to shrift for no shame 
neglect to tell the priest all your sins, be they ever so unimportant ; 
for there is no sin of which he is ignorant : either he knows it, 
having committed it himself, or he hath heard of it, or hath 
found it in books. There is no sin that is not -written in 
books ; wherefore it is better for you to shame yourself before the 


world. SocVSliche heo us truket benne we l est wene^. wei bet The world is 

' treacherous. 

eni mon seal wr8 crSerne misdon for bisse worldes jifsunge 1 . i?3itsunge. 

SoSHche al heo a-ga^. and ba wrecche saule kit seal abuggen. 

Ga to pine feder burinesse o£er ber eni of bine curate IrS in. and Go t0 *y 

' > > father s tomb 

esca kine kwet ke kabbe biseten mid bis woke domas. and mid and ask him 

-> what he 

kis reuunge. mid kis licome lustes. mid kis o^re sunne. kwile f H "' ed ''>' lns 

o lusts. 

ke wes ker on bisse Hue. So^liche ke walde seggen 3if ke mikte 

speken. wa is me bet ic efre dude swa muckele sunne. and keo 

ne 2e bette. for swilcbe pine ic kabbe bet me were leofere benne He would 

D . & ye aU the 

al world bak kit were min most ic kabben an alpi bra:e summe world for ? 

' i I J little allevia- 

lisse and su?»me le^e. and ec mostic underfon minne licome and Jfonofhis 


beon on worlde a mare ic walde fein pinian and sitten on forste 

and on snawe up et mine chinne. and ba 3et hit waPS 2 me buncben 2 ? walde. 

bet softeste be^. and bet womsemeste bet ic efre ibad moste ic 

beon of bisse earme Hue. and ba3et bu makt understonden benne 

bu stondest et kis burienesse bet ke wes prud and wlonc. swa 

bu ert nu. and bu forwur£est. eca swa ke is nu al to noktef and Take heed 

i r lest them 

bu nast neure kwenne ; Leof wes ke on Hue and \(vS is *ke • [Foi. 186.] 

• i c i perish like 

mrSe. and ba wrecche saule forloren ; for-bi leotcmen under- him. 

stondet. eouseluen ba kwile 3e makten. Nis bas weorld nawikt 

3e kit iseo^ eow seluen. Ne beo be nefre swa ricke forS ke 

seal benne is dei cumeS. for-bi ga^ blnSelicbe to bote of eower 

sunne ba kwile 3e maien. Vfel is bet mon aldeS and kis dases. Evil is the 

r j j r ■> man t ] lat 

kim at-ga^ and neklecke^ kis ende dei and nule kim bibencken loads his soul 

° ' with sins, so 

bet kis sunnen waxa^. bat is bere saule de^ ; forSon keo ne **** !t is 

mei abeoren alia ba sunne be be mon uppon hire de^. benne keo ' b e ^' e tl,e 

wulle ut of bon licome. So^licke bus serS ba boc bet moni 

busent monne makte libben fele 3ere mare benne ke do f 3if ke 

were rikt-wis and god-furkt leoue men benne 3e gad to scrifte J . Iake wmfes- 

° * J ° sion to thy 

ne forlete 3e for nane scame bet ^e ne seggen bam preoste alle i> riest - 
eower sunne ne beo beo nefre swa etkelic. for nis nan suraie bet He knows ail 


ke ne con o^er ke keo wat ¥>urk. bet ke keo dude kim seolf o^er 
ke keo kafS i-escad o^er kaf^ ifunden on boke. Nis nan sunne 
bet nis iwriten on boke. for-bi betere eow is bet eow sceamie bi- it is hetter 

' > ' to be ashamed 

foren bam preoste ane '. benne on domes-dei biforen criste. and b , efor ? '!'"'' 

> - 1 i than before 

bi-foren al heuene wara. and bi-foren al eorSe wara. and bi- ^'^day 


priest alone, than on Doomsday before Christ, and before all 
heaven's host, and before all earth's host, and before all hell's host, 
and thy soul nevertheless to go into everlasting torment. Dear men, 
the priest is not able to forgive any man's sins, not even his own, 
but he is ordained between God Almighty and thee to instruct thee 
how thou shalt have forgiveness of thy sins from God ; and he hath 
that same power from St. Peter to bind and to unbind, and from our 
bishop, who is in St. Peter's office ; and since he is unable to be in 
every place, therefore are there priests under him. If thou sinnest 
he shall advise on God's half how thou shalt have Christ's friendship. 
Assuredly thou need ask no more (than this). No man may say 
how easily thou mayest obtain God's mercy. If thou sinnest renounce 
it for ever, and repent it with true confession, as I erewhile said. 
If thou repent and yet hide some of thy sins, that is not to thy 
profit. Christ takes no heed of such leasings, he stands in no need 
of it ; either thou must obey Christ or the devil. Good men, every 
man must be twice washed of his sins : once at the baptismal bath, 
for ere the child is baptized it is the devil's ; the second time thou 
shalt be washed at true confession, when thou renouncest thy sins. 
Assuredly if thou wilt entreat the Lord thou must be free from thy 
sins, for thus saith the book, Peccatores Deus non audit. The prayer 
of a sinful man God Almighty will not hear, except he forsake his 
sins and repent. Dear men, though ye sin and repent, trust not 
wholly to your fasts, if ye are able to do other good deeds. There 
is no man but what can do something more than fast. If he cannot 
give alms of clothes or of meat, as a rich man can, let him do some 
of these things which I will now enumerate. First of all thou shalt 
go to shrift and entirely renounce thy misdeeds, and fast so that 
thy body be the leaner ; that is, fast for thy Lord's love. The man 
who thus fasts Christ shall give him such meat that he will never 
again hunger. The second is to give as much alms as you can afford, 
■ — masses for all Christian souls, to poor men shoes, clothes, meat, 
drink, warmth, and lodging ; to visit the sick, to help to bury the 
dead, and to assist them (the poor) with whatever thou art able. For 
the book saith, Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita et elemosina extinguit 


foren al helle wara. and ba hwebere bine saule feren seal in to 

eche pine. Leofe men ne mei be preost foi^efen *nane men *[Foi.i4a.] 

• i i m j.- The priest 

his sunne ne his a3ene ah he is lset bi-twihan god almihtin. cannot for. 

give sins. 

and be for be wissine hu bu scalt et god seolf habben bine 

sunne foi^euene. and he hauef^ 1 ba ilke mahte of Sancte 'sic 

petre to biralene. and to unbindene. and of lire biscope be 

is on sancte petres stude forSon he ne mei beon on ewilche 

stude for-bi beo^ ba preostes under heom. Gif bu sunegest I lie can advise 

thee how thou 

he be seal reden on godes halfe hu bu scalt habben cristes freond- mayest liave 

' ° r Christ's 

scipe i So^liche ne berft bu bidden namare. Ne mei nan mon friendship. 

seggen hu lihtliche bu maht habben godes milce. gif bu sunegest i 

forlet hit a mare, and bet mid rihte scWfte. and bete a. alswa ic 

er cwe£. b&h b u S a to bote and for-heole summe bine sunna. Hide not thy 

' ' sins from the 

nis bet nawiht to bine bi-heofSe. Ne recche^ cWst nane p™st. 
leasunge. ne him nis na neo^ 2 . o^er bu most hersumian crist. 2?neod - 
o^ier bam deofle. Godemen uwile mon seal beon twisen awesscen Twice shall 

' we he washed 

of his sunne enes et bam fulhtbeda 3 . for er bonne bet child beo from our sins. 

ifubje^ hit is bes deofles. o^er si$e bu scalt beon iwesscen et 

so^ scn'fte f }>enne bu forletest bine sunne. So^liche 3if bu wult 

habben bone to drihten f bu most beon on ward bine suraien for 

bus cweS ba boc. peccatores ofeus non. audit. Sunfulles monnes 

bone nulle * god almihtin iheren bute he wulle forleten ba sunne * [Foi. u&.] 

God will not 

and gan to bote leofemen bah 3e sunegien and gan to bote ne listen to the 


lipnie ye no al to eower festene 3if 3e ma3en eni oSer god don. sinner. 
Nis nan mon bet ne mei mare dow b eue festen. Gif he ne mei i>o something 

1 more than 

don elmesse of chvSe ne of mete al swa mei an riche mon '. do *»t for your 


sufflme of bisse binge be ic wulle nu cweben. Alra erest bu 

scalt gan to scrifte and forleten burhut }>ine misdede and festen 

swa bet bin licome beo be lenre bet is fest for ^ines drihtenes 

luue. be mon be bus fest crist him 3eue : S swilcne mete bet him 

nefre eft ne hungre^. bet o^er is do bine elmesse of bon bet bu give aims, 

maht iforSien. Messen for alle cn'stine saule. Wrecche men hungry.dothe 

the naked, 

sceos and ckvSes. and mete, and dringen. and wermbe. and 
herbur3e. and to seke gan. and ba deden helpen to buriene and ^^ si f u 
helpen heom mid bon be Jui ma3e. for ba boc serS. Sicut aqua Jj 11 ^ the 
extinguit ignem '. ita & elemosina extinguit peccatum. Al swa 


2>eccatum. As water quenches fire so alms quencheth sin. The third 
is that thou shalt bewail thy sins secretly (behind men), and pour 
out thy tears very sorrowfully, for the Lord speaketh thus in the 
Gospel, Beati qui nunc fietis quoniam ridebitis ; that is, blessed are 
those who now weep for their sins, for they shall be comforted before 
the Lord. The fourth is that thou shalt keep vigils for thy Lord's 
love, for the book saith, Non sit vobis vanum surgere ante lucem, 
quia promisit dominus coronam vigilantibus. Be not loth to arise 
before day(light), for the Lord promiseth the watchful a crown that 
shall be seven times brighter than the sun. The fifth is that thou 
shalt forgive those men that trespass against thee ; and as thou for- 
givest the men that sin against thee, so shall thy Lord forgive thee 
thy misdeeds ; and so thou prayest him daily when thou sayest, 
Dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. 
Lord Father, forgive us all our sins as we forgive those that trespass 
against us. Here is a sorrowful prayer to offer unless we truly have 
mercy upon and forgive those men who have angered and injured 
us. The sixth is that thou shalt reconcile thyself with all those who 
are at enmity with thee, as far as thou art able ; for then thou 
protectest their souls, and also thine own, from the evil death, that 
is, from hell torment. The seventh is charity. She perfecteth and com- 
pleteth all other things. By Christ ! the man that loveth not charity 
shall never come into God's kingdom. Now may ye hear what is 
true charity, that each man ought to possess — that is, that thou love 
thy Lord above thy wife and child, and above all earthly things, and 
thank him for all things ; and afterwards do unto each man as thou 
wouldest that one should do to thee : that is true charity. Truly thus 
saith the book, that this shall bear your soul to heaven-kingdom. 

Now, dear men, ye have heard what I have said, and what ye shall 
do if ye can afford it. There is no man so rich, nor none so poor, 
but what he may give something of those things which I have said 
unto you. He who gives alms of his unlawful gains will get no more 
thanks of Christ than he that should slay thy child and should bring 
thee his head for a present. Wherefore, good men, forsake your sins 
and go to true shrift, and leave your stealing and rapine, for there 
is no profit in these things ; and again saith the book, No good 



J>et water acwenche^ bet fur. swa ba elmesse acwenche^ ba sunne Aims quench 

bat bridde is bet bu scalt bi-wepen bine sumie bi-eften nionuen 

<rae? 3eoten ]>'me teres swrSe sariliche for bon dribten cwe^ on 

ban god-spelle. ^ea^i ^m wwnc Jletis qnom&m ridebitis. pet is 

eadi beoS ba ilke be nu wepe^ for beore sunne * for beo sceolen * [Foi. i5a.j 

beon igledeS 1 bi-foren dribten bat forSe is bet bu scalt wakien ' ?>giedede. 

. f • t ■ WatcU al 'd 

for bines dribtenes luue. forSon be boc cwe^. Non sit nobis pray. 

uanuva. surgere ante lucem. quia, promisit dominixa coronam 

uigilantibus. Ne beo eow nobt laS to arisene er dei. for 

dribten bi-hat bon Avakiende ane crune bet seal beon seofesrSe 

bribtre bene ba svinne fifte is bet bu scalt forseuen bon monne be Forgive those 
> > > > J ' ' that trespass 

wr5 be agultet. and swa se bu foi^euest bam monne be wrS be against thee, 
agulte^ i swa bin dribten forjeueS be bine misdede. (mcZ swa bu 
bine bidclest deihwainliche benne bu seist. Dimitte nobis debita 
nostra sicut <Sc nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Laue^ 2 feder 2 ?Lauerd. 

so that God 

foi^ef us alle ure gultes swa we ioi^eueS ban monne be us to may forgive 


agultet. her is ane reowlic bone to biddene bute we inwarlicbe as tll0U 

iinilcien and foirjeuen ban monne be us wre^e^ and sceandet. vatemoster. 

bet seste is bat bu scalt sabtnien. ba be beoS unisabte mid alle J 5e reconciled 

bine mabte. benne bure3est bu bere saule. and ec bine a3ene 

from ban ufele dea^e bet is from belle pine, bet seofe^e is 

cberite. beo fulled alle ba o^re bing and endeS. witicrist be mon 

be ne luueS cherite ne cume^ be nefre in godes ricbe. Nu 3e ° n tr " e 

r ° J chanty. 

ma3en iberen bwet is ribt cberite. bet uwile mon ab to habben 

bet is *\et bu luuie bine dribten ofer bin wif. and ofer child and *[Foi.i56.] 

ofer alle eorSliche bing and him bonkien alles binges, and 

seo^dan beoden uwile mon swa bu waldest bet me be bude. bis 

is ribt cherite. So^liche bus cwe^ be boc. bet bis seal beren it beareth the 

' I 3 > ^ sou , t(( 

eower saule to heuene riche. Nu leofe men habbe 3e iherd heaven. 
hwet ic habbe iseaid hwet 3e sculen don 3if 3c hit nu^en iforSian. 
Nis nan mon swa riche. ne swa wrecche bet he ne mei sum bing 
ifor^ian of ban be ic heou habbe iseid. be de^ bis elmesse of Give not 

' ' ' alms of wealth 

binge mid wobe bneten '. ne con him crist na mare bong 3 bene wrongly 

1 ° J > ° » acquired. 

bah he slo3e bin child mid bere be his heaued to lake, for-bi 3 ?j>onc. 
godemen forlete^ eower sunne and gad to rihte scrifte and lete^ 4 , 
eower stale and eower reaflac. for nis ber nan 4 fewg on. and h""^ 10 " 


that ye may do shall go unrewarded, nor even shall ye do any evil 
without bitterly expiating it. Wherefore, dear brethren, hold brotherly 
love among you, and strive ye now in this short life that ye may 
come to the kingdom above, there to dwell with the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, ever without end. Amen ! 



TPvear men, if ye will listen and willingly understand we will 
speak to you plainly of the privileges that pertain to the day 
that is called Sunday. Sunday is called the Lord's Day, and also 
the day of bliss and of ease and rest for all. On this day the angels 
of heaven rejoice because the lost souls have rest from their torments. 
If you are willing to learn who first obtained rest for the wretched 
souls, I will truly tell you. It was St. Paul the apostle and Michael 
the archangel. These two went once on a time into hell, as the Lord 
bade them, to see how the folk fared there. Michael went before 
and Paul came after, and then Michael showed St. Paul the wretched 
sinful that were dwelling there. Afterwards he showed him high 
trees burning horribly before hell gates, and showed him the wretched 
souls hanging upon those trees — some by the feet, others by the hands ; 
some by the tongue, others by the eyes ; some by the head, and others 
by the heart. Afterwards he showed him a burning fiery oven that 
threw out seven flames, each of marvellous hues, which were all horrible 
to behold, and much harder than any one dare endure ; and there 
within were very many souls anhanged. Moreover he showed him 
a well of fire, and its streams ran burning fire; and twelve master 
devils like unto kings guarded this well and tormented therein 
the wretched and forlorn souls, and yet their own torment was in 


eft be boc serS. Ne scule 3e neure god don unforgolden. Ne ec No good or 

r ? ° ° bad deed will 

ne scule ;e nefre ufel don bet se hit ne sculen mid uuele bitter s° un - 

3 r J requited. 

abuggen. ForSi leofe breoSre balded broberreddene eow bi- 
twenen. and earnie %e eow nu on bisse sceorte liue bet we 1 ' ?3e. 
bicuniew moten to bere upplican riche and bere wunian mid be 
feder and mid be sune and mid be balie gast abuten ende. 



leofemen sef se lusten wule?!. and se willeliche bit under- The privileges 

I . J J J of the Sunday. 

L -*-* J stonden we eow wulle^ * suteliche seggen of ba fredome be * [Pol. 16a.] 

limped to ban deie be is iclepe^ su 2 sunedei. Sunedei is ibaten 2sic - 

. . . Sunday is the 

bes lauerdes dei and ec be dei of bhsse a/?e? of lisse and of alle- Lord's day. 

irest. On bon deie ba engles of heofene ham iblissie^. forSi be ba The souls ° f 

' ' ° y r the lost have 

ermittg saulen habbeS rest of heore pine. Gif hwa Avule witen ^est on this 

hwa erest bi-won reste bam wrecche saule to sobe ic eow segge. 

bet wes sancte paul be apostel and mihhal be archangel heo raui and 

' . r Michael 

tweien eoden et sume time in to belle alswa heowi drihten het obtained it 

for them. 

for to lokien hu hit ber ferde. Mihhal eode bi-foren and paul They both 

once visited 

com eiter and ba scawede mihhal to sancte paul ba wrecche sun- hell, 

fulle be ber were wuniende.ber-efter he him sceawede he3e treon They saw 

. wretched 

eisliche beornmde et-foren belle sete. and uppon ban treon he souls hanging 

J on trees ; 

him sceawede be wrecche saulen a-honge. Summe bi ba fet. 
summe bi ba honden. sumrue bi be tunge. summe bi be e3en. 

summe bi be hefede. su?/ime bi ber heorte. Seod^an he him a fiery oven 

with seven 

sceaude an ouen on bernmde fure he warp ut of him seofe leies flames; 
uwilan 3 of seolcu&re heowe be alle weren eateliche to bihaldene s ?nwflean. 
and muchele strengre ben eani burg to bolien. and ber wrS-iwnen 

weren swrSe feole saule a-honge. sette he him sceawede ane welle a we " of 

° y fire with 

of fure and alle hire stremes 4 urnen fur bernmde. and ba welle yearns of 

> fire ; 

bi-wisten ,xii. meister *deoflen swilc ha weren kinges to pinen "Ms.strenies. 
ber wrSinnen ba earmmg saulen be for-gult weren ; and heore 


nowise diminished, though they were masters (chiefs). After that he 
showed him the Sea of Hell ; and in that sea were seven bitter 
waves. The first was snow, the second ice, the third fire, the fourth 
blood, the fifth adders, the sixth smother (smoke), the seventh foul 
stink, she was worse to endure than ever any of all the other torments. 
In that sea were innumerable animals, some feather-footed, others 
entirely without feet, and their eyes were all like fire, and their breath 
shone as doth the lightning among thunder. These never cease, night 
nor day, to break the wretched bodies of those men who in this life 
here would not complete their shrift. Some of the men sorely weep, 
others cry aloud. Some there groaningly sigh, others there piteously 
gnaw their own tongues. Some there weep, and all their tears are 
burning gleeds (embers) gliding over their own features, and very mourn- 
fully at all times they cry and earnestly entreat that some one would 
release them from the cruel tortures. Of these torments speaketh 
David, the holy prophet, and thus saith, Miserere nostri Domine 
quia foenas inferni sustinere non possumus. Lord have mercy upon 
us, for we are not able to endure the torments of hell. After- 
wards he showed him a place in the midst of hell, before which 
were seven enclosures, near which no living man dare go, on 
account of the noxious vapour, and there within he showed him 
an old man going about, led by four devils. Then Paul asked 
Michael who the old man might be. Then said Michael (the) 
Archangel, " He was a bishop in the other life that never would keep 
nor observe Christ's laws. More often would he treat wrongfully Avith 
his subjects and oppress (them) for a long time than sing psalms or do 
any other good deed." Hereafter saw Paul where three devils led a 
maiden very remorselessly. Eagerly did Paul ask Michael wherefore 
she was so led about. Then said Michael, " She was a maiden in the 
other life that kept her body in all purity, but would never do any 
other good thing. Willing alms gave she never, but very proud she 
was and moody, and a liar and deceitful, and wrathful and envious, 
and therefore is she now dwelling in this torment." Now began Paul 
to weep sorely, and the archangel Michael wept also with him. Then 
came our Lord from heaven to them in the form of thunder and 


a^ene pine neure uere be lesse bah lieo meistres weren. Efter The sea of 

3 l ' > hell with its 

bon he him sceawede be sea of helle and i/man ban sea weren .vii. seveu waves; 

hittere ube. be forme wes swnan 1 . bat o^er is. bet bridde fur. bet l ?snaw - 

feorSe blod. be fifte neddren. be siste smorSer. be seofebe ful 

stunch. heo wes wurse to bolien benne efreni of alle ba o^re 

pine. Innan ban ilke sea weren un-aneomned deor summe fe^er »> winch were 

' all sorts ol 

fotetd. Summe al bute fet. and heore esen weren al swilc swa stni »se 

J creatines. 

fur. and heore ebem scean swa deft be leit a-monge bunre. bas 

ilke nefre ne swiken ne dei ne niht to hrekene ba ermmg licome Tliese ceased 

1 ° not to torture 

of ba ilea men be on bisse Hue her hare scriit enden nalden. ll ^,j. ollom 

Suv^me of ban monne sare wepe^. Su»ime swa deor lude reined. 

summe ber graninde sike^. sumnie ber reowliche gne^eft his a3ene 

tunge. Summe ber wepeS. and alle heore teres beoS berninde 

gleden glidende ouer heore a3ene nebbe. and swrSe reowliche 

ilome ^ei-^eft and 3eorne bisecheS bat me ham ibure3e from bam 

uuele pinan.of bas pinan speked dauid be halie wite3e. and bus David speaks 

serS. Miserere nostri domine quia yenas inferni sustinere won oflie11 - 

possumus. Lauerd haue merci uf us forSon ba pinen of helle we 

ham ne ma3en rSolien. *Seo : 5-ban he him sceawede and 2 stude *[Foi.i7a.] 

i/me inidde-warSe 3 helle. and bi-foi-en bam ilke stude werero seofen 3 '■> !n jd ue - 

clusterlokan bar neh ne mihte nan liuiende mon gun for ban 

ufele bre^e and ber wrS-iwna he him sceawede gan on aid mon t] 

They saw in 
the midst <j 
hell seven 

bet .iiii. deoflen ledden abuten. ba escade paul to mihhal hwet be c ' u ' sters ' 

* j ± j wherein four 

aide mora, were, ba cwe^ mihhal heh anjrel he wes an biscop on de ^? 8 were ,, 

' ox leading an old 

eo^re liue be nefre nalde cWstes la3en lokien ne balden, ofter he mauab " ut ; 
walde anuppon his underlinges mid wohe motien and longe 
dringan benne he walde salmes singen o^er eani o^er god don. 
Herefter iseh paul hwer .iii. deoflen ledden an meiden swrSe a,l(1 three 

1 devils led a 

unbisoi^eliche '. 3eorne escade to mihhal hwi me heo swa ledde. "jf^" 
ba cwe^ mihhal. heo wes an meiden on o$er liue bet wel wiste in this life 
hire licome in alle clenesse. ah heo nalde nefre nan o^er god don. tuous hut not 

. , charitahle. 

h,lmes3eorn nes heo nefre. ah prud heo wes swrSe and modi, and 
M^ere and swikel. and wre^ful and ontful. and forSi heo br5 

. . . . , „ , Paul and 

wumende inne bisse pine. JNu bi-gon paul to wepen wunder- Michael weep 

... . f°r the 

hche. and mihhal heh engel ber weop for§ mid him. ba com ure wretched 
drihten of heueneriche to heora on wunres 4 liche and bus cweS. 4 ?j>unres. 


thus spake, "Why weepest thou, Paul?" Paul answered, "Lord, I 
bewail the manifold tortures which I here see in hell." Then spake 
our Lord, " Why would they not keep my laws while they were on 
earth 1 ?" Then said Paul meekly to him, "Lord, I now entreat thee, 
if it be thy pleasure, that thou give them rest at least on Sunday 
ever until doomsday come." Then said God to him, " Paul, I know 
well where I ought to show mercy. I will have mercy upon those 
that sought my mercy while they were alive." Then was St. Paul 
very sorrowful, and bowed him quickly to his Lord's feet, and besought 
him in these words which ye may now hear. " Lord," he said then, 
" now I beseech thee by thy kingdom, by thine angels, by thy great 
mercy, by all thy works, by all thy saints, and also by thy elect, 
that thou have mercy upon them, and the more so since I have 
visited them, and give them rest on Sunday ever until thy high 
doomsday come." Then the Lord answered him with a more gentle 
voice, " Arise now, Paul, arise ! I will give them rest as thou hast 
asked, from noon on Saturday until Monday's dawn, ever from this 
time forth until doomsday." Now, dear brethren, ye have heard 
who first obtained rest for the souls of the damned. Now it be- 
cometh each Christian man so much the more to hallow and honour 
the day which is called Sunday, for of that day our Lord himself 
saith, Dies dominions est dies Icetitice et requiei. Sunday is a day 
of bliss and rest for all. Non facietur in ea aliquid nisi Deum orare 
manducare et bibere cum pace et Icetitia. Let nothing be wrought 
on this day except to go to church and to pray to Christ, and to eat 
and drink in peace and gladness. Sicut dicitur, pax in terra, pax in coelo, 
pax inter homines. For as it is said, "Peace on earth and peace in 
heaven, and peace among all Christian men." Again, our Lord himself 
saith, Maledictus homo qui non custodit sabatum. Cursed be the man 
who will not observe Sunday. And therefore, dear men, each Sunday 
is to be observed as Easter Day, for it is the commemoration of 
his holy resurrection from death to life, and commemoration of the 
Holy Ghost which he sent upon his apostles on that day which 
is called Whitsunday. Moreover we understand that on Sunday the 
Lord will come to judge all mankind. We ought to honour Sunday 
very much and to observe it in all purity, for it hath in it three worthy 



Ahwi wepest bu paul. paul him onswerde. LauerS ic biwepe bas 

monifolde pine ^e ic her in helle iseo. ba cwe^ ure lauerd. Ahwi 

nalden heo witen mine * la3e be hwile heo weren en eorSe f ba * [Foi. 17&.] 

aeide paul him mildeliche to 3eines. Louerd nu ic bidde be 3ef Paui^entreats 

bin wille is bet bu heom 3efe rest la hwure ben sunne dei a bet &™ them^ 

cume domes-dei. ba cweS drihten to him. paul wel ic wat hwer Doo^sday. tU 

ic sceal milcien. Ic heom wulle milcien be weren efterward 

mine milce ba hwile heo on Hue weren. ba wes sancte paul swrSe 

wa. and abeh him redliche to his lauerdes fet and on halsien 

hine gon mid bas ilke weord be %e ma3en iheren. Lauerd he 

cweS ba. Nu ic be bidde for bine kinedome and for bine engles. 

and for bine muchele milce. and for alle J)ine weorkes. and for 

alle bine hale^en. and ec bine icorene. bat bu heom milcie bes be 

redber bet ic to heom com and reste 3efe ben sunne-dei a bet cume 

bin heh domes dei. ba onswerede him drihten mildere steuene. God grants 

' J his request. 

Aris nu paul aris. Ic ham 3eue reste alswa bu ibeden hauest 
from non on saterdei a ba cume monedeis lihting. bet efre forS to 
domes dei. Nu leofe bre^re 3e habbe^ iherS hwa erest hi -won 
reste b&m forgulte saule. Nu bi-cunieS hit berfore to uwilche 
cHstene monne mucheles be mare to hali3en and to wurSien 
benne dei be is icleped sunne-dei. for of bam deie ure lauerd seolf 
ser5. Dies dominicits est dies leticie # requiei. * Sunne dei is * [Foi. 18a.] 

„ . , « T /• • • 7- • 7 • • Sunday is a 

dei of blisse and of alle ireste. A on jacietur in ea aliquid nisi day of rest 

• • w .for all. 

deum orare manducare # bibere cum pace et leticia. Ne beo in Toil not on 

hire nabing iwrat bute chirche bisocnie and beode to criste and 

eoten and drinken mid grrSe and mid gledscipe. Sicut dicitur. 

pax in terra, pax in celo. pax inter homines, for swa is iset. grrS 

on eorSe. and grrS on hefene. and grrS bitwenen uwilc cWstene 

monne. eft ure lauerd seolf seit. Maledictus homo qui non cus- 

todit sabatum. Amansed beo be mon be sunne-dei nulle iloken. Cursed is he 

' ' that keeps 

And for-bi leofemen uwilc sunne-dei is to locan alswa ester dei ", ot * he . , 

' Sunday holy. 

for heo is mune3ing of his halie ariste from de^e to Hue. and 
mune3eing of bam hali gast be he sende in his apostles on bon 
dei be is icleped wit-sunne-dei. ec we understonde^ bet on sunne 0n Sunday 

r 1 ' shall Christ 

dei drihten cume^ to demene al mon-cun : we a3en bene sunne come to judge 

' ■> > all mankind. 

dei swibeliche wel to wurbien. and on alle clenesse to locan. for 


virtues, which ye may hear. The first virtue is that it (Sunday) on 
earth gives rest to all earth-thralls (slaves), men and women, from 
their thrall-works (servitude). The second virtue is in heaven, because 
the angels rest themselves more than on any other day. The third 
virtue is that the wretched souls in hell have rest from their great 
torments. Let each one then always observe the Sunday, and the 
other holy days which in church we are commanded to keep like the 
Sunday, and let it be a participator of heaven's bliss with the Father 
and the Son and the Holy Ghost without end. Amen. Quod ipse 
prestare dignetur qui vivit et regnat Deus, per omnia secula secu- 
lorum. Amen. 



It/Tissus est Jeremias in puteum et stetit ibi usque ad os. Qui cum, 
aliquandiu ibi stetisset, debilitatum est corpus ejus, et tandem 
dimissis funibus subtractus est. Et cum eorum duritiam, quia debilis 
erat sustinere non posset, allati sunt panni de domo regia et circum- 
positi sunt funibus ne eorum duritia Icederetur. Dear men, we find 
in holy book that Jeremiah the prophet stood in a pit and in the 
mire up to his mouth ; and when he had stood there awhile then 
his body became very feeble, and they took ropes and cast unto him 
for to draw him out of this pit. But his body was so very feeble 
that he was not able to endure the roughness of the ropes ; then 
sent they clothes out of the king's house for to wind round the 
ropes, so that his body, which was (so) feeble, should not receive further 
injury. Dear men, those words which I have here said have important 
meaning, and they are good to hear and much better to retain (in 
mind). Is it a good thing to hear God's words and to observe them ? 
Yea assuredly, for our Lord God Almighty saith in the holy gospel, 
Beati qui audiunt verbum Dei et custodiunt illud. Happy and blessed 
are all who hear God's words and keep them. Now ye have heard 


heo hafS mid hire breo wurdliche mihte be 2e ilieren masen. ^et The three 

J ' J virtues of the 

forcne mihte is bet heo on eorSe ytu&S reste to alle eorSe brelles Sunday. 

wepmen and wifnien of heore brel weorkes. bet o^er mihte is on 

heouene. for-bi ba engles hem heom rested mare benu on sum 

ofcer dei. bet bridde mihte is bet ba errnmg sanle habbe^ ireste 

mne helle * of heore muchele pine. Hwa efre benne ilokie wel * [ Fo1 - 1S6 -1 

Observe well 

bene sunne dei. o^er ba o^er halie dases be mon heot in chirche the Sunday, 

r ' ' let it partake 

to lokien swa be sunne dei. beo heo dal neominde of heofene of heavenly 

' bliss. 

riches blisse f mid ban ferde 1 . and mid ban sunne. and mid ban '?fedre. 
halie gast ahuten ende. amen. Quod ipse prestare dignetur qui 
uiuit <b regnat deus. per omnia secida seculoi-um. Amen. 



|~ Jt/W ~| issus est ieremias in puteum et stetit ibi usque ad os. The text. 
L J Qui euro, (diquandiu ibi stetisset f debilitatum est corpus 

eius. 8( tandem, dimissis funibus subtractits est. Et cum. eorum. 
duriciam. quia debilis erat sustinere nou piosset. allati sunt panni 
de domo regia et circumpositi sunt funibus ne [e]omm duricia 
lederetuR. Leofemen we uindeft in halie hoc. bet ieremie be Jeremiah 

stood in a pit 

prophefe stod in ane putte. and bet in be uenne up to his muSe up to bis 

11 1 ' l mouth iu the 

and ba he hefede ber ane hwile istonde. ba bi-com his licome mir e. 
swi^e feble. and me nom rapes and caste in to him fro 2 to *?for. 
dra^en hine ut of bisse putte. Ah his licome wes se swrSe feble f drawn ouTof 
bet he ne mihte noht ibolie be herdnesse of be rapes, ba sende me 
elates ut of bes kinges huse for to bi-winden be rapes, bet his 
licome be feble wes ne sceolde noht wursien. Leofemen beos ilke 
weord be ic habbe her iseit 3 habbeSS muchele bi-taemmge *and 3sic - 

r . *[Fol.l9a.] 

god ha beo^ to heren and muchele betere to et-halden. Is hit 

god for to hiheren godes weordes and heom athalden f ^e fuliwis. it is good to 

hear, but 

for ure lauerd eodalmihtin serS in ban halie godspelle. Beati qui better to 

& . observe God's 

audiunt uerbum # custodiuut illud. M&ie and blessede beon word. 
alle beo be ihere^ godes weordes and heom athalde^. Nu ^e 


what it is to hear God's words and to observe them. Now we shall 
show you what it is to hear and not to observe them ; for St. Gregory 
saith, Melius est viam veritatis non agnoscere, quam post agnitam 
retroire. It is better for a man not to know the way to God Almighty 
than to know it and afterwards to disregard it. And in another 
place he saith, Qui obturat aures suas ne audiat legem Dei, oratio 
ejus erit execrabilis. The man who shutteth his ears in holy church 
against God's law and will not hear the words which proceed from 
him, his prayers shall be accursed and displeasing to God. Puteus 
est peccati profunditas, quia quam diu stas in luto ; tarn diu jaces 
in mortali peccato. The pit denotes deepness of sin, for as long as 
we lie in head-sins (deadly sins) all that time we stand in the 
pit and also in the mire (fen) up to the mouth, as these men do 
that lie in adultery and gluttony, and in perjury and in pride, and 
in other foul sins. And these are principally rich men who have 
this great pride in this world, that have (beautiful) fair houses and 
fair homes, fair wives and fair children, fair horses and fair clothes, 
hawks and hounds, castles and towns : hereupon they think much 
more than upon God Almighty, who hath sent them all these things 
when they lie in such sins and think not of arising. They do daily 
dig their pit deeper and deeper. TJnde propheta, Non claudit super te 
puteus os suum nisi clauseris os tuum. The prophet saith that the 
pit closes not easily its mouth over us unless we shut our mouths ; 
but if we shut our mouths, then we act as the man that diggeth 
a pit four days or five, and when he hath delved it for a very long 
time, then falleth he therein and breaketh his neck, that is, he 
falleth into hell-pain, from whence he will never again return to repent. 
But, dear men, God Almighty hath shown us very great grace, since 
he hath given us to be free of mouth that we may with our mouths 
bring ourselves out of this pit, which betokeneth the deepness of 
sin, and that through three hard ways, which are thus named — Cordis 
contritione, oris confessione, operis satisfactione. Through contri- 
tion of heart, through opening (utterance) of mouth, and through 
performance of good works. Cordis contritione moritur peccatum, 
oris confessione defertur ad tumulum, operis satisfactione tumulatur 


habbe^ ibercl wulc bit is for to iheren godes weordes and beom 
ethalden. Nu we sculen heow sceawen bwilc bit is beom for to what it is to 

hear and not 

heren and nawibt for to etbalden. for seint gregori serS. Melius observe. 

est uiam ueritatis non agnoscere f qw&m post agnitam reiroire. 

Betre bit is pet mon ne iknawe nobt be wei to godalmibtin be be 

hine icnawe and seod^e bine for-boiie : and on o^er stude be The words of 

~ . . ... St. Gregory. 

sev6. Qui ooturat aures suas ne audiat legem dei ' oratw eius 
erit execrabilis. pe mon be tune^ bis eren in balie cbirebe to- 
3eines godes la3e and nule noht iheren pe weordes be of him 
beo^. his beoden beo^ aweriede and unwurSe gode. Puteus est The pit be- 

. , . . . tokens the 

peccati profunditas. quia qnam diu stas m luto ■' tarn dm laces %n deptii of sin; 

mortali peccato. pes put bitacne^ deopnesse of sunne. for alse 

longe alse we ligge^J in heue^ sunnen '. al ba hwile we stofnjde^ 

in be putte. and pet in be uenne up to be mu^e alse beos men do^ 

be lisrare^ inne eubrucbe and ine glutenerie and ine manaftas. and the mire de- 

\ ** s notes foul 

ine prude, and ine o^re fule sunnen. and pet beo^ ricbe men sin s, 
*alremest be habbeS bas mucbele prude iw bis worldc. be habbe^ *[FoU9&.] 
feire huses. and feire hames. feire wifes. and feire children, feire rich men are 

. , 1 mostly guilty, 

bors and feire clabes. beauekes and hundes. castles and tunes, 
her uppon heo benched mucbele mare ben uppow godalmibtin be 
al bis heom haue% isend ba be ligge^ inne swilc sunne. and ne 
benched noht for to arisen '. heo clelue^ deihwamliche heore put who daily dig 

J * their pit 

deoppre and deoppre. vndepro])heta. iVon claudit super te puteus deeper and 

os smtm nisi clauseris os tuum. be prophete serS. pet be put ne 

tune^ nobt lihtlicbe his mu? ouer us bute we tunen ure mu?. ah 

3if we tune^ ure mu^f bemie do be 1 alse be mon be delue^ ene »?we. 

put feower da3es o^er fiue and benne be haue^ bine alra lengest 

idoluen f benne ualle^ he ber inne. pet him breke^ be sweore. pet. 

is pet he ualleS in to helle pine ber neuer eft ne cume? of bote. 

Ah leofemen godalmibtin haue^ isceawe^ us wel muchele grace. G °d hath 

made ua to be 

benne he haue$ geuen us to beon mud freo. pet we rna3e?i mid mouth-free. 
ure muSe bringen us ut of bisse putte i pe bitacne^ beo deop- 
nesse of sunne. and pet burb breo herde weies be bus beo^ ibaten. ™ r f b hard 
Cordis contricione. Oris confessione. Operis satisfactione. bur5 2 get'ourcVthe 
beorte bireusunke. burb muSes openunge. burh dede wel endinge. p f; . 
Co^xlis contritione moritxxv peccatum. *oris confessione defertur * |Foi.20a.] 



in perpetuum, that is, when we are sorry in our hearts that we have 
sinned, for then we slay our sins. When we repent of sin, then we do 
by our sins as they do by the dead, for after a man is dead they lay 
the body in the tomb, so also thou layest thy sins in the tomb. When 
thou receivest shrift of the sins thou hast done against God's will, and 
when thou repentest of thy sins according to the priest's instructions, then 
thou buriest thy sins and puttest them out of their power over thee. Per 
Jeremiam notatur quilibet peccator qui in suo peccato moram facit. By 
Jeremiah the prophet Ave should understand each sinful man that lies 
in grievous sin, and through true shrift will not loosen his sin-bonds. 
Funiculi amaritudines penitential significant. The ropes that were cast 
to him betoken the hardness of shrift ; for there is no man among us 
that hath done three cardinal sins who is so strong that his body does 
not become very feeble before he has undergone the shrift that thereto 
befall eth. Panni circumpositi funibus, ecclesice sacramenta significant 
quibus penitentim duritia mitigatur. The king's house betokens holy 
church ; the clothes, that were sent out of the king's house for to 
cover the ropes with, betoken the holy orisons that they sing in holy 
church, and the holy sacraments that are consecrated unto the forgiveness 
of all sinful. Dear men, now ye have heard the signification of this 
pit about which I have spoken, and the meaning of the prophet, and 
what the ropes denote, and what the clothes betoken that the ropes were 
enveloped in. Hear now what things dwell in this pit ; therein live 
four kinds of reptiles that are now destroying all this middle-earth. 
Therein live the spotted adders that bear poison under their tongues ; 
black toads that have venom in their hearts ; yellow frogs, and crabs. 
The crab is a kind of fish in the sea. This fish is of such kind 
that the more he endeavours to swim with the water the more he 
swimmeth backwards. And the old crab said to the young one, 
" Wherefore swimmest not thou forward in the sea as other fishes 
do?" and it answered, "Dear mother, swim thou before me and 
teach me how I shall SAvim forwards." And she began to swim forwards 
with the stream, and always swam backwards (against it). These spotted 


ad tumulum. operis satisfactione tumulatur in perpetuum. be we 

be<ys sari in ure heorte pet we isuneged habbe^ benne slage we we siay our 

sins with sor- 

ure sunne ; bene we to sunbote cume^. benne do we bi ure row. 

sunne al swa me dea^ bi be deade. for efterban \et be mon brS 

dead me levS bene licome in bere bruh. Al swa bu leist bine webury 

them when 

sunne in bare bruh f , bwenne bu scrift underuongest of be sunnen we repent of 

r r ' . th em- 

be bu idon bauest to-geines godes wille. benne bu bauest bine 
sunnen ibet f , efter bines scriftes wissunge.^ benne buriest bu 
bine suwnen and bringest beom ut of bine on-walde. Per 
ieremiam notatur quilibet peccator qui in suo peccato moram 
facit. Bi ieremie be prophete we a3en to understonden ulcne Jeremiah de- 

v -c i • notes sinful 

mon sunfulle. \et IrS in beuie sunne and burb so?5e scnft his man. 
sunbendes nule slakien. funiculi amaritudines penitencie sig- 
nificant, pe rapes be weren icast to him f bitacne^ be herdnesse The ropes de- 

note the hard- 

of scrifte. for nis nan of us se strong be hefde idon bre hefsunnen ness of shrift. 
\et his licome nere swrSe feble er he hefde idre3en bet scrift be 
ber to bilimpe^. panni circumpositi funibus ! ecclesie sacr&menta 

significant quibus penitencie duricia mitigatur. bas kinges hus The King's 

bitacne^ bali chirch[e ba] elates \et weren isende ut of b[es church, 
kinges huse] for to binden be rapes *niidf bitacnet be halie *[Foi.20&.] 

ureisuns be me singed in halie chirche. and be halie sacnmiews be are holy 


me sacred in alesnesse of alia sunfulle. Leofemen nu se habbe^ 

iherS of bis putte be bitacnmge be ic habbe embe ispeken. and 

be bitacninge of be prophefe. and ]>et. be rapes bitacnet. and hwat 

ba elates bi-tacne^ be be rapes weren mide biwu?iden. Ihere^ ofthemhabi- 
> . . tants of the 

nuSe whulche binges wunie^ in bisse putte. ber wunie^ fower pi*. 

cunnes wurmes inne. bet fordo^ nuSe al beos midelerd. ber 

wunie^ in-ne fase neddren. and beore^ atter urcder heore tunge. spotted ad- 
ders, black 
Blake tadden and habbeS atter uppon heore heorte. seluwe toads, yeiiow 

A l J crabs, and 

froggen. and crabben. Crabbe is an manere of fissce in bere sea. fr °s s - 
bis fis is of swulc cunde. \>et. euer se he mare streng^de^ him to 
swIYIinminde mid be watere f se he mare swimnWS abac, and be The fable of 

the young 

aide crabbe seide to be simge. hwi ne swimmest bu forSwarS in crab ami its 

r J o r mother. 

bere sea alse o^er fisses do^. and heo seide. Leofe moder swim 
bu foren me and tech me hu ic seal swimmen for&ward and [heo] 
bi-gon to swiwnien forward mid be stremc. and swam hire ber 


adders betoken the deceitful folk that dwell in this world, that 
speak as fair before their fellow Christians as if they would embrace 
them, and as soon as they have turned away from them they slander 
(to-twitch) and detract them with evil words. Hii etiam sunt doctores 
et falsi christiani. These men that thus pull to pieces their fellow 
Christians behind their backs have the name of Christians, but never- 
theless they are Christ's enemies, and are men-slayers, for they slay 
their own souls and bring them into the everlasting pain of hell. 
These black toads that have the venom in their hearts betoken the 
rich men that have much of this world's goods and cannot moderately 
eat and drink, nor therewith do any good for the love of God Almighty, 
who hath given it them all, but lie upon it as the toad does in the 
earth, that never can be so moderate as to eat her fill, because she 
is afraid lest the earth (fail) deceive her. This wealth which these 
men thus overlie turneth to black venom, for they fall thereby into 
the strong pain that no man may describe. These yellow clothes 
[betoken women that make themselves fair to draw lechers unto them], 
for the yellow cloth is the devil's lair (covering). These women that 
love (? live) arc called the devil's mouse-trap, for when a man will bait 
his mouse-trap he binds thereupon the treacherous cheese, and roasteth 
it so that it should smell sweetly : and through the sweet smell of the 
cheese he entices many a mouse into the trap. Even so do many of these 
women ; they smear themselves with blaunchet (fine wheaten flour), that 
is the devil's soap, and clothe them with yellow clothes, that is the devil's 
covert, and afterwards they look in the mirror, that is the devil's hiding- 
place. Thus they act in order to make themselves fair and to draw lechers 
unto them, but they defile themselves therewith. Now, dear men, for 
God's love keep yourselves from the devil's mouse-trap, and take heed 
that ye be not the spotted adders, nor the black toads, nor the yellow 
frogs. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost shield us therefrom 
and from all sins ever without end, per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 


a2en. bas fa:e neddre bitacneS bis fa^e folc be wunefc in bissc Tiie spotted 

7 i 7 ' ' ' adders denote 

weorlde. ,be speket alse feire bi-foren beore eue?<c?-istene *alse slanderers. 

-> r *[Fol.21«.] 

heo heom walde in to beore bosme puten. and swa sone se bi 
beoS iturnd awey from beom f beom to-twicche^ and to-di^e^ 
mid ufele weordes. Hii eciam sunt doctores # falsi christiani. 
pos men be bus to-dra3ed beore euencWstene bi-hinden beo 
babbeS be nome of cn'stene ah bah heo beoS cnstes unwincs and They are 

' ' Christ's ene- 

beoS monslajen for heo s^e 1 ?* beore a3ene saule. and bringeft «•»»• 
heon 1 in to bare eche pine of belle, bos blaca tadden bet habbe^S ' ? heom. 
bet after uppon beore heorte. bi-tacne^ bes riche men be habbeSS toads denote 

... „ tlie rich men 

bes mucheles weorldes elite and na ma3en noht ltimien bar of to who make a 

had use of 

eten ne to drinken ne na god don ber of for be luue of god- their wealth. 
almihtin be haue^ hit heom al geuen. ah ligge^ ber uppon alse 
be tadde de^ in bere eorSe bet neure ne mei itimien to eten hire 
fulle '. swa heo is afered leste beo eorSe hire trukie. beos ilke 
ehte be beos bus ouerligge^ heom turned to swart atter, for heo 
failed ber burh in to ber stronge pine bet na mon ne mei tellen. 
peos 3eolewe clabes. 2 for be 3eolewe cla^ is bes deofies belfter. 3 clothes denote 
beos wimmen be bus luuie^ 4 beo$ bes deofles musestoeh iclepede. women, 
for benne be mon wule tilden his musestoeh he binde^ uppon ba d \ i Yn* r muu '!, t ,. 
swike chese and bret hine for bon bet he scolde 5 swote smelle. ^some- 
and burh be * sweote smel of be chese '. be bicherreS monie mus h g' r "f omitte 
to be stoke. Alswa doS monie of bas wimmen heo snmrieS heom ' ? hekt "- 
mid blancbet bet is bes deofies sape and clabe^ heom mid 3eoluwe 5 ms. sciode. 

' . *[Fol. 216.] 

clabe bet is bes deofles belfter. and seod^an heo lokie^ in be 6?heister. 
scawere. bet is bes deofles hindene. pus heo do% for to feiren 
heom seoluen. and to dra3en lechurs to ham. ah heo filled heom 
soluen ber mide. Nu leofemen for godes lufe wite^ how wrS bes Keep away 

> or from the 

deofles musestoeh and wite^ eow bet 3e ne beo noht be foa3e devU ' s tra P- 
neddre. ne be blake tadde. ne be 3olewe frogge. be feder. and be 
sune. and be halie gast. iscilde us ber wrS. and wrS alle sunnen 
a buten e?ide. per omnia secula secufcruni. Amen. 

54 the lord's prayer. 



~T)ater noster qui es in ccelis, &c. 
Our father that art in heaven, 

That is all truthful indeed ! 

We must to these words look, 
4 That are good for both body (life) and soul, 

That we may be as his begotten sons, 

That he may be our father and we his chosen (darlings), 

That we may do all his behests 
8 And act according to his will. 

Let us take heed lest we offend him 

Through Belzebub's wiles ; 

He hath great envy towards us 
12 All the days of our life ; 

About us he is for to terrify us, 

With all his might he will annoy us. 

If we learn God's lore 
16 Then it grieveth him full sore, 

Except we remain in our evil habits. 

He cares not that we are sons (of God), 

If we then call him father ; 
20 All that is but little joy to us. 

Let us observe God's laws 

That we have in his saws (word) ; 

The behests he therein commandeth, 
24 Except we keep them, we commit sin. 

And let each man receive them 

To observe well anent him. 

For so God commands it 
28 In the Gospel which he wrote, 

That we should love God with our might, 





[yyi Ater noster qui es in cells & cetera. 
J Vre feder \et in heouene is 

\et is al so^ ful iwis. 

weo moten to }>eos weordes iseon. 
4 \et to Hue and to saule gode beon. 

\>et weo beon swa his sunes iborcne. 

\et he beo feder and we him icorenc. 

\et we don alle his ibeden. 
8 and his wille for to reden. 

Loke weo us wrS him misdon 

Jmrh beelzebubes swikedom. 

he haue^ to us muchel nrS. 
12 alle Jja deies of ure si& 

abuten us he is for to blenchen. 

Mid alle his mihte he wule us swenchen. 

Gif we leornrS godes lare '. 
16 |?enne of-jmnche^ hit him sare. 

Bute we bileuen ure ufele iwune. 

Ne kepe^ he noht *]>et we beon sune. 

Gif we clepie^ hine feder }>enne. 
20 al \et is us to lutel wunne. 

halde we godes la^e. 

]>et we habbe^ of his sa3e. 

J>a bodes he beodeS Jjer inne. 
24 Bute weo hes halden f we doS sunne 

and uwilc mon hes undernim. 

to halden wel anundes him. 

for alswa god hit bit ' 
28 and inne )>e godspelle j?c he writ. 

Luuien god mid ure mihte 

Our Father 
which art in 

These words 
are good for 
soul and 

Displease not 

Cod through 

lie is grieved 
when we are 

* [Fol. 22a.] 

Unless we 
keep God's 
behest we 
commit sin. 

Love God 
with all thy 


56 the lord's prayer. 

Above all creatures, 

With our souls, aud with our deeds ; 
32 That we should him both love and also dread. 

This is the first behest here 

That we ought to hold dear ; 

This behest above all others is, 
36 And let us not observe it amiss. 

And the second after this 

Is like to it in truth — 

To love thy fellow Christian 
40 As thyself in all things ; 

With all this have thou charity, 

And true belief and love of truth. 

For God's love forsake what is evil ! 
44 Thou shalt see it turn to thy advantage. 

Be thou not manslayer ; 

Nor be in whoi*edom, day nor night ; 

Nor oughtest thou to steal, 
48 Nor any theft to conceal ; 

A proud man or (false) accuser be thou not, 

Nor envious in thy thought ; 

Be buxom (obedient) toward God, 
52 And keep thou well his behests. 

If thou do this with good entent 

Then art thou God's son. 

Thus thou mightest, if thou wilt, 
56 God's behests well fulfill. 

Sanctificetur nomen tuum. 

Thy name be blessed, that we say, 

And thus by these woi-ds we affirm 

His name is holy and ever was, 
60 Ever alike firm, it is not less, 

That is, and was, and ever shall 

Be blessed everywhere. 

Then ought we to understand 
64 From all evil he shall preserve us ; 












ouer alle cuwnes wihte 

mid ure saule mid ure deden. 

bajje luuien him and ec dreden. 

J>is is J?e furste bode here J 

]>et we a3en to habben deore. 

Jjeos beode ofer alle cySer is. 

Ne habbe we hit noht onimis. 1 

and J>is o^er efter JjIs. 

J)is is ilich fuliwis. 

Luuien \>i cWsten euenling. 

Alswa J>e seoluen in alle }>ing. 

Mid al J?is haue Jju char-ite. 

and so^feste leaue and trow^e lef. 

for god let \>u pet uuele beon. 

Godere hele }m hit scalt iseon. 

Ne beo j>u nawiht mo?islaht. 

ne in hordom dei ne naht. 

Ne ]>u na3est for to stele. 

ne nan Jjefjje for to heole. 

Prud ne wreiere ne beo Jm noht. 

Ne nrSful in J>i J>oht. 

beo buhsum toward gode. 

and wel hald ]m his bode. 

Do )?u )>is mid gode mune. 

J?enne eart ]>u godes sune. 

J)us J)U maht 3b Jju wulle. 

godes heste wel ifulle. 

San[c]tificetur nomen tuum. 

pi nome beo iblecced. \et we seggeS 

and J>us J>a wordes we bi-legge^. 

his name is hali and efre wea 

iliche swrSe hit nis noht les. 

j>et is and wes and efre seal 

beon iblecced ofer al. 

jjenne a3e we to * understonden us 

from alle uuele he seal blecen us. 

Love and fear 

1 MS. onuius. 

Love thy 
neighbour as 


Be not a mur- 
derer, commit 
not adultery, 
and do not 

IJe not proud 
or envious. 

but bo obe- 
dient to God. 

Hallowed be 
thy name. 

God's name 
is holy, 

and ever shall 
be hallowed 

* [Fol. 226.] 

58 the lord's prayer. 

Let us bless (hallow) then enough his name, 

And keep us from harm and shame. 

In the font we were born again, 
68 Cleansed, and by God chosen (adopted) ; 

His holy name we took and bore, 

In the font where we were cleansed. 

Christians are (we) called, rich and poor, 
72 After Christ himself who is God. 

His name that we of him have, 

That he it hallow we do crave. 

Adveniat regnum tuum. 

Thy kingdom come, we do say it, 
76 Hearken all unto this writ ! 

His kingdom is this middle earth, 

Earth and heaven, and each abode ; 

Over all is his great might. 
80 Lord he is called with right ; 

Lord he is of all creatm-es, 

In earth and heaven is his might. 

All the creatures that he formed, 
84 That is the truth, it was for man. 

All things he made to appear 

Before he ever made man. 

He made man in righteousness, 
88 In the form of his own likeness. 

All deer (animals) and fowl of flight 

He made to stoop adownright (downwards). 

Man he loved and cared for well, 
92 And therefore his face upward he wrought ; 

That was all for a good skill (reason), 

If that understand ye will. 

Face upwards he him wrought, 
96 He would that man of him thought, 

That he should love him with thought (in his mind) 

As the Lord that him wrought. 

Think now, men, what honour 











To blecen J>enne inoh his nome 

airS kepen us from hearm and scome. 

In }>e font we weren eft iboren 

iclensed and to gode icorene. 

his halie nome we nomen and beren. 

In \>e font ]>er we iclensed weren. 

Cristen beo^ icleped riche and lo^. 1 

efter crz'st seolf )>et is god. 

his nome. ]>et. we of him hafen. 

he hit hale^e \>et we crauen. 

Adueniat regnum tuum. 

Cume J)i riche we seggefc hit. 

HercnrS alle to }>is writ. 

his riche is al )>is middeleard. 

EorSe and heofene and uwilcherd 

ofer alle is his muchele mihte. 

lauerd he is icleped mid rihte. 

Lauerd he is of alle scafte. 

In eorSe. in heuene is his mahte 

alle Jje scafte \>e he bi-gon. 

}>et is J>et sod^e hit wes for mon 

alle Jnnge he makede a?t 2 agan. 

Er he efre makede mon. 

he makede mon i rihtwisnesse. 

Onlete on his onlichnesse. 

Alle dor and fi^el ifliht f 

lete he makede adunriht. 

)>ene Mow he lufede and welbiJ>ohte. 

and for-]>i his neb upward he wrohte. 

\et wes al mid muchele skile '. 

3if he 3 hit understondon wile. 

Neb upwardes he him wrohte. 

he walde \>et he of him J>ohte 

\et he lufede him mid J>oht[e]. 

Al swa J?e lauerd ]>et him wrohte. 

^encheft nu men hwilch wurSin[g] 

In the font 
were we born 
again and 

1 B1C. 

and are called 
after Christ. 

Thy kingdom 

His kingdom 
is everywhere. 

Lord he is of 
all creatures. 

He made all 
things for 

2 it may be 

He made man 
after his own 

Man he made 
to look up. 


so that he 
might think 
of God. 

60 the lord's prayer. 

100 The king of heaven to yon hath done, 

To be in heaven, full sooth, 

Into the seat of Paradise, 

From which the angels down fell 
104 Into the darkness of hell. 

That seat, as they tell thus, 

Where God shall harbour us, 

Christ grant us thither to come, 
108 And ever with himself to dwell ! 

And Christ will amongst us be, 

Face to face we shall him see, 

And dwell with him night 
112 And day, up in heaven that is so bright ; 

He will be our Father and we his sons, 

For him is all our journey, 

That is our country and our kingdom, 
116 With him to dwell in heaven. 

Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in coelo et in terra. 

Thine own will be, for that say we, 

In earth, and heaven, so let it be, 

As is in heaven thine own will, 
120 That we, Lord ! serve thee all with skill (rightly), 

For to be (like), Lord ! thy archangels, 

And thy beloved holy angels. 

When the angels from heaven fell, 
124 For their pride, into hell, 

The others were strengthened soon, 

That they should never more misdo. 

Afterwards none might ever sin, 
128 Nor from God's will go ; 

They cannot ever evil work, 

Nor even once think to do it. 

God grant us in heart to take (resolve) 
132 That we no evil think to do, 

And grant us towards him good will, 

And to act towards all men with right and skill (rightly 
and reasonably), 



100 eow haueft idon J>e heouenking f 

To bon in heuene fuliwis. 

In touj^e 1 sete of para[d]is. 

from kwonne ]?e engles a-dun follon 2 
104 m to *J>e ]>osteraesse hellen. 

\et secle 3 swa ho radden ]>us \ 

J>er god seal herbe^en us. 

Crist us 3ife }>ider to cumen. 
108 and efre mid him solue to wunen. 

and cWstes wille bo us bitwon. 

neb wr8 neb for him to son. 

and wunen mid him niht 
112 and dei up in heouene J>e is swa briht. 

\et he beo feder and we beo sunes. 

to him is ure al to cumes. 

\>et is ure e^ele and ure riche f 
11G Mid him to wunen in heouene riche. 

Fiat uoluntas tua. sicut in celo <Sr in terra. 

Jjin a5en wille beo for \>et segge we. 

In orSe in heuene swa hit beo 

Al swa is in heouene ]>in a3en wil. 
120 pet we 4 ]>eowen lauerd al mid skil. 

For to beon lauerd j>ine archangles. 

and Jji leoue hali engles. 

|>a J;e angles, of heouene uolle 
124 for heore prude in to helle. 

]?a o^re weren fulfeste sone. 

]>et ho ne mihten nefre mare misdone. 

Sod^on ne mihten sunegenen 5 nan '. 
128 ne ut of godes wille gan. 

Ne mi^en heo nefre ufele swinken : 

ne for men enes hit bi-Jnnken. 

God us 3efe in horte to fon '. 
132 \et we ne }>enchen ufel to don. 

and 3ife us to him god ivvil '. 

and to alle men '. riht and skil. 

God hath 
made us to 
dwell in Para- 

1 ? In to He. 

2 ? fellen. 

* [Fol. 23a.] 
from whence 
the devils fell 
into hell. 

3 ? setle. 

May we see 

Christ face to 

and dwell 
with him for 

Heaven is our 

country and 

Thy will be 

* MS. be. 

May we serve 
thee, Lord, 
and he like 
thy holy 

who are 
and cannot 

5 sic. 

nor even 
think of evil. 

62 the lord's prayer. 

And grant us so his will to do, 
136 That we both please God and man ; 

And that he fill us with his might, 

And us with his Holy Ghost enlight; 

And in charity (make us) dwell therein, 
140 That we fall not into sin ; 

That we have no will to sin, 

When our foes us do tempt, 

No more than the angels had, 
144 That in God's love did abide. 

Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie. 

Give us to-day our daily bread, 

Lord God, helper of us all ! 

Give us our livelihood, 
148 And for the flesh covering and clothes. 

Bread in Greek signifies 

Doctrine to us indeed. 

For as they feed the flesh without 
152 With meat and with clothes all about, 

So behoveth the soul have food 

With God's words, with good mood (mind). 

God's songs are all good (profitable), 
156 To the soul they send food; 

We ought to take heed to them, 

And please God himself therewith ; 

Then may our souls live, 
160 That our Lord hath given us. 

He Avho will not listen to this counsel 

Assuredly he shall die, 

For his soul is lost ; 
164 And sorrow is before him, 

And he shall go into hell, into eternal woe, 

Out shall he come never more. 

But, Lord God, hear our prayer, 
168 Of our sins make us clean. 

May he us give, as he can. 











and 3ife us swa his wil to downe i 

\>et we gode likie and nionne. 

and \>et he fulle us mid his mihte 

and mid his halie gast us lihte. 

and in cherite to wnien inne i 

\et we ne fallen naut ine sunne. 

\et we nabben wil to sunegen. 

jjenne ure unwines us munegen. 

Ne mare }>ene \>o engles *efden 

\et in godes luue heo heom lende. 

Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie. 

Gif us to dei ure deies bred. 

Lauerd god al ure red. 

Gif us ure liuena^f 

and to ]>e flesce scrud and cla^. 

Bred on grikisce is f 

Larspel to us fuliwis 

for alse me fet ]>et fleis wrS-uten 

mid mete mid cla^e al abuten f 

swa bi-houe^ )>e saule fode '. 

mid godes wordes mid gode mode. 

Godes songes beo^ alle gode. 

to ]>ere saule heo senden fode. 

We hit a3en to jeme. 

and god solf }>er mid iqueme. 

jjenne mei ure saule lifen. 

\et ure lauerd us haue^ i3euen. 

Jje luste nulled j>esne red 

wisliche he seal wurSen ded 

for ]>e saule of him f is forloren. 

and Jje so^e is him biforen. 

and fere^ in to helle mid eche wa '. 

ut ne cume^ he nefre ma. 

Ah lauerd god her ure bone. 1 

of ure sunne make us clene. 

Ipet he us 3eue alswa he mei ' 

May God en- 
lighten us 
with his Holy 


so that we fall 
into no sin. 


Give ns this 
day our daily 

and shrouds 
and clothes 
for the body. 
Bread denotes 
the Gospel, 

which is the 
soul's food. 

God's songs 
are all good. 

The soul that 
will not listen 
to (iod's lore 
shall perish in 

Lord, cleanse 
us from our 


64 THE lord's prayer. 

What is needful for us day by day 

For our life's and soul's food, 
172 So that we may love him with a pure mood (mind). 

Et dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut et nos 
dimittimus debitoribus nostris. 

Our sins, Lord, be forgiven us, 

As we do unto all men that live. 

Lord, forgive us our folly, 
76 As we shall forgive all others, 

Our sins and our misdoings. 

And here is a sorrowful petition, 

To God himself we ourselves accuse, 
180 If we these words say, 

When we have envy and wrath 

Against any man that is on land (earth). 

For if any man doth us aught amiss 
184 We desire to have him put to death. 

Here is a very evil boon (prayer), 

If we hate one another. 

If any do us aught amiss, 
188 And will not act right towards us, 

For God's love forgive we them all, 

For He shall requite it well. 

When shall this prayer profit us, 
192 And when will God receive it 1 

When I forgive hatred against me, 

For the love of heaven's King, 

And when I believe and well see 
196 That no guilt may be forgiven me 

Unless I observe these behests 

That we have from our Lord God. 

Love thy fellow Christian day and night 
200 As thyself, and that is right. 

If we these behests observe, 

For (our) profit we it say. 

The Pater Noster availeth me nought 



\>et us bihoueft ulche dei. 

To Hue and to saule ure fode 
172 and him luuien mid clene mode. 

Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicttt et nos 
dimittimus debitoribus nostris. 

Vre gultes lauerd bon us foi^euen 

al swa we do}? alle men \et liuen. 

Lauerd forjef us ure unskile 
176 and alswa we alle oftre wile. 

ure sunuen. and ure misdo?iniwg. 

and her is a roulich moting. 

to gode solf we us wreift i 
180 hwewne we ]>os word seggeft. 

hwenne we habbeft nift and ondef 

*to eni moraie \et is on londe. 

for 3if eni mow mis-deft us oht '. 
184 we wulleft him habben to dcfte ibroht. 

her is swij>e ufel bonef 

5if we hetieft us bitwene. 

3if eni us misdoft awiht '. 
188 and nule us do riht. 

for godes luue for^eue we al J 

for he hit wel foi^elden seal. 

Wenne seal )>os bode 1 us god don f 
192 and god wule hit underfon. 

wenne ic foi^eue min hating i 

for ]>e luue of heuene king. 

Wenne ic ileue and wel isof 
196 \et no gult me foi^cuen bo. 

for hweraie ic i-halde \>a ibode ' 

J>et we habbeft of ure lauerd gode. 

luue Jiine euecWstene dei and nihtf 
200 alswa j>e solue and \>et is riht. 

Gif we ]>os bode Jnis bileggeft f 

ful 2 goderhele we hit seggeft. 

\>e pater nosier bi-halt me nohtf 

Forgive us 

as we forgive 

We accuse 
ourselves to 

if we bear 
* [Fol. 24a.] 

This is a 

petition, if wo 

liate one 


1 ? heode. 

but it will 
profit us if we 
forgive our 

and love our 
neighbours as 

2 ? for. 

66 the lord's prayer. 

204 Unless I have (keep) this In my mind, 
Then may we believe and say thus, 
The other very little helpeth us. 
This behest, truly think, 

208 Of the others is perfect confirmation ; 
Then may we well believe all, 
That whoso will and whoso shall 
Against God do aught amiss, 

212 Assuredly against the behest he sinneth. 
They that bear hatred to another, 
How may they offer any prayer 1 
Forgive wrath and mood (anger) against thee, 

216 For then is thy boon (prayer) good. 
That is true, and God saith it, 
And in the Gospel he writeth it, 
Whoso forgiveth not hatred against them 

220 God will in nowise forgive them. 

Good men, listen to me. Hatred against you 
Forgive ye ; thy sinful fellow man, 
Love him for God's sake. 

224 Thou oughtest to hate well his sin, 
That thou participate not therein. 
For if thou thus dost full truly 
Thou pleasest God most certainly. 
Et ne nos inducas in temptation&m. 

228 Lead us not into temptation. 
That is a kind of trial ; 
For our tempter never ceaseth 
For to tempt us to sin ; 

232 He hath leave to tempt man : 

Where he may full well he can (knows how). 
He tempted God himself with his wiles, 
And desired much to afflict him, 

236 And his apostles in the same way also, 
And many others thereto. 
May God give us might and (good) deeds, 



204 bute ic }>is habbe in mi Jjoht. 

J>enne imi3e we wenen and seggen |>usf 

\et oSer swrSe lutel helped us. 

}jos ilke bode wisliche jjing 5 
208 of o^re is ful festning. 

jjenne mu3e we wel trowen al i 

hwa swa wile and hwa swa seal. 

\et wK gode awibt mis-do^ f 
212 Iwis in \>e bode he misfirS. 

\et hetunge habbe^ horn bitwone f 

hu ma3en heo bidden eni bene. 

for^if J)i wre#Se and \\ mod i 
216 for ]>enne is \>i bode god. 

\>et is soS and god serS hit '. 

and in ]>e godspelle he hit writ. 

hwa swa ne fo^efeS heore hating. 
220 ne god ne fo^eue^ him 1 na J>ing. 

Gode men lusted to me. ower hating 

fo^efe 3e ]nn sunful efenlingf 

luue him for godes J>ing. 
224 and ]>u a3est *to hatien wel his sunnef 

\et ^u ne dele noht \>er inne. 

for 3ef ]ju jms dost wel iwis f 

Jju qwemest god to fuliwis. 

Et ne nos inducas in temptationem. 
228 Ne led us noht in to costnunga '. 

]>et is an cum 2 of fundunga. 

for ure fond nefre ne linnen ' 

for to fonden us mid sunnen. 
232 he haue^ leue to fonden mon. 

]>er he mei ful wel he con. 

he fowdede god solf mid his wrenche f 

and walde bine 301-ne swenche. 
23G and his apostles riht al swa '. 

and monie o^re J>ere to. 

God us 3efe mihte and deden f 

This petition 
is the com- 
pletion of the 

IIow may he 
who bears 
hatred in his 

heart offer up 
any prayer ? 

Oiod forgives 
not the 

1 ? henm. 

Love thy 
but hate his 


Lead us not 
into tempta- 

2 ? cun. 

Our tempter 
is ever busy 
to lead us 
into sin. 

ITe tempted 
God himself, 

and also his 

68 the lord's prayer. 

That we fear not our tempter ; 
240 And give us might through his grace 

That our faith may be our shield 

Against the teinptei^'s trials, 

Through faith and through works. 
244 In other ways I have found 

How we may in sin be bound. 

The first is to be servant (of sin), 

And the other is pleasure (lust) ; 
248 The third is man's will, 

And also, as they say, our reason. 

May Christ give us power over him, 

Better then may we bear the contest. 
252 We may not from us the tempter drive, 

Neither with sword nor with knife, 

But only through God's grace ; 

And may he give us strength and might, 
256 And give us weapons for to bear, 

With good works ourselves to protect ; 

That is, through truth and charity. 

May our right belief, God, come before thee 
260 Through fasting and through good vigils, 

And also through offering of prayer, 

And dwell ever in clean shrift, 

That is, God's own gifts. 
264 And let us keep ourselves from obstinacy, 

And have fair speech and also reasonable, 

And humility and patience, 

Which God esteemeth very good ; 
268 With alms and also with true intent 

The indigent have given advice, 

With lodging and with food, 

And all else that thou might for their good ; 
272 These are the weapons that are good. 

And let us be very patient, 

That we may not fear the tempter, 



yet we [»ene fond nolit ne adreden. 
240 and $efe us mi lite )>urh his held f 

)>et ure leue beo ure sceld 

a3ein Jjes fondes fondunge f 

jmrh trowj>e and jmrh swincuuge. 
244 On o¥er wise ic habbe ifundc 

hu me mei in sunne bon ibunde. 

\et forme is to beon underling. 

and \>et or6er is liking. 
248 \et £ridde is j>es monnes wil. 

and swa us sei^ ure skil. 

Crist us 3eue of him mihte 

betere }>enne we habbeS wrihte. 
252 We ne ma3en j>e fond from us driuc t 

ne mid sworde ne mid kniue. 

bute hit beo jmrh godes 3ifte l . 

and he us 3eue streinSe and mihte. 
256 and $eue us wepne for to boren ' 

Mid gode werkes for us to weren. 

\>et is jmrh troupe I and jmrh choritc. 

vre rihte leue god cume to J>e 
260 jmrh festing and jmrh wacunge. 

and ec jmrh ibodenes biddunge. 

and wunien efre in clene scrifte ' 

\et is godes a3ene 3eifte. 
264 and halde we us from uniwil '. 

and habben feir lete and ec skil. 

and edmodnesse and jmlemod f 

\et jmnche^ gode swrSe god. 
268 Mid elmesse and ec *mid trowe inhed i 

jje node habbe^ 3iuen heom red. 

Mid hereber3e. and mid fode '. 

and mid j>et Jm miht to gode. 
272 J50S beo% j>a wepne \>et beo^ gode' 

a nd lice* we swfye |>olemode. 

]>et we Jjunnc fond noht ne dreden. 

May God give 
us his grace, 
so that our 
faith may lie 
our shield. 

Our lust, will, 
anil reason 
lead us into 


We cannot 
drive the 
tempter away 
with sword or 

Our weapons 
must he truth, 

Easting, vigils, 
prayers, and 

slirift ; 

fair and ra- 
tional speech, 
meekness and 


giving alms, 
good counsel, 

lodging and 
food to the 


So that he may not deceive us through his deeds. 
Sed libera nos a malo. Amen. 
276 But do thou deliver us from all evil, 
And choose us for thine own, 
And keep us from his loss, 
That loathsome spirit, that loathsome thing ; 
280 And from evil men keep us also — 
All that we ask also thereto — 
And from each head-sin (deadly sin), 
That he bring us not into sorrow ; 
284 But if any evil befall us 

Let us thank God in our hearts. 
For we ought then our prayers to sing, 
That God may help us to do good things, 
288 So that life (body) and soul be preserved, 
And both delivered out of sorrow. 
And may he give us his great blessing 
And true shrift at our ending (death), 
292 That we have it so well received, 
That the soul may come to him. 
May he delay the time of our death, 
As he through the prophet promised, 
296 " I desire not that the sinner be dead, 
But that he live and take good advice." 
Lord God we pray thee thus, 
With humble hearts, grant us 
300 That our souls be to thee elect, 

And not through the flesh forlorn (damned). 
Suffer us to beweep our sins 
That we die not therein ; 
304 And grant us, Lord, this same gift, 

That we repent of them through holy shrift. Ameu. 



ne he us biswike jmrh his deden. 

Sed libera nos a malo. Amen. 
276 ac pu from alle ufele us ales. 

and to pin a3en us ches i 

and kep us from his waning. 

pat lape gast pet la^e ping. 
280 and from uuele men kep us swa ' 

Al \et we biddeS ec perto. 

And from iwilch heued sunne. 

\>et he ne bringe us in to unwune. 
284 Ac 3if us eni ufel bitit ' 

ponke we gode in ure wit. 

We ajen pe?ine ure boden to singe. 

Ipet god us hclpe to gode pinge. 
288 \et lif and saule beon iborjen. 

and ba^e ilesed ut of soi^en. 

and 3efe us his muchele blessunge. 

and riht scrift et ure endunge. 
292 \>et we habben him swa wel imune. 1 

\>et pe saule mote to him cume. 

Vre de^ he do in firste %et'. 

swa he purh pe witega bihet. 
29G Ne wille ic noht pet pe sunfulle beo ded i 

ac libbe and nime godne red. 

Lauerd god we biddeS pus 

mid edmode heorte 3if hit us. 
300 pet ure saule beo to pe icore. 

Noht for pe flesce for-lore. 

pole us to bi-wepen ure sunne '. 

\>et we ne stcruen noht per inne. 
304 And 3if us lauerd pet ilke 3ifte i 

pet we lies ibeten purh halie scn'fte. Amen. 

But deliver us 
from evil, 

and cliooso us 
for thy own. 

Keep us from 
the devil's 
loss, from had 
and from 
deadly sin, 
and from 

We ought to 
sing our 

which are 
good for soul 
and hody. 

May Ciodgive 
us time to 

May he adopt 
us for his 

Let us bewail 

and repent of 
our sins. 




r M 1 ria sunt hominum saluti necessaria, fides, buptismus, munditiu 


Three things there are that each man must have that will follow 

up his profession of Christianity ; the first is true belief, the second 

is baptism, the third is to lead a fair (pure) life in this world. He 

is not fully a Christian man who lacks aught of these three things. 

Of belief our Lord hath spoken in the holy gospel, and saith, Qui 

non crediderit condemnabitur — The man that hath not true belief in 

him shall be doomed to suffer woe with devils in hell. In another 

passage the apostle hath spoken of true belief, and saith, Impossibile 

est hominem sine fide posse Deo placere — No man may do anything 

acceptable to God except he have true belief in him. Of holy baptism 

our Lord hath spoken in another place and saith, Nisi quis renatus 

fuerit ex aqua et spiritu sancto non potest introire in rer/num coslorum — ■ 

No man may come into God's kingdom except he be baptized. Of 

clean (pure) life the prophet Isaiah hath thus spoken, Lavamini et 

mundi estate — Wash you and be clean. And David the prophet speaketh 

in one of the psalms concerning clean life, and saith, Asperges me Domine 

iso})o et mundabor — Besprinkle me, Lord, with obedience, then shall I 

be clean ; et alibi, Delecto meo munda me Domine. And in another 

passage he saith, Lord, cleanse me from all my foul sins. And though 

all men be cleansed from their sins at baptism, nevertheless they ought 

to learn their belief. At the beginning of the Clmstian religion each 

man learnt his belief ere he received baptism. But then there were 

many children that died without baptism and perished, therefore it 

was ordained by God's command that children should be baptized 

in holy church, and their godfathers and godmothers should answer 

for them at the church-door, and enter into pledges (covenants) at 

the font-stone, that they should be believing (faithful) men, and know 

their belief when they were able to learn it. And this the godfathers 

CREDO. 73 



t r I T T'"i« sunt hominum saluti nescessaria. fides, buptissmus. Three tin'ncs 
M necessary tu 

J mundicia tiite. eve,v <hris - 

1 1 it u man. 

pro J>ing bod be£ ech .Mom. habbe mot bet wile his cristinclom [Foi. 25&0 
fole3e. j>e< an is rihte ileue. )>ei o^er i fullubt. bet ^riddef feir 
lif to leden on bisse Hue. he nis noht fulliche cristene mon bet 
is awiht wone of bisse breo bing. of ileue spek ure drihten of Ueiief. 
ine be hali godspel and seiS. Qui non crediderit condempnabitur. 
be mon. bet naue^ rihte ileue mid him. he wurh 1 idemed to ' ? wurjj. 
J)olien wawe mid douelen in helle. on o^er stude of rihte ileue 
spec be apostle and serS. Inpossibile est homrnem sine fide posse 
deo placere. Ne mei na man do bing bet beo god iqueme. 
bute he habbe rihte ileue mid him. of be halie fulht spec ure of Baptism. 
drihten on o^er stude and serS. JS T isi quis renatus 2 fuerit ex aJ J" < * . 

1 J ruhljed in 

aqtia <£• spirit?* sancto non potest introire in regnum celorum. MS - 

Ne mei na .Mow. cume in to godes riche bote he beo ifulhted. 

of clene liflade spec be prophete isaias and bus serS. Lauamini of a pure life- 

inundi estote. wasche^ ou ( . and wonie% clene. and dauid be 

prophefe spekeft in an salm of clene lif and serS. Asperges me 

domine isopo & mundabor bi-spreng me laue/'d mid buhsum- 

nesse i jjenne wurSe ic clene. <t alibi. Delicto meo munda me 

■ I undue, and on o^er stude he seift. lauerd dense me of alle 

mine fule sunnen. and beh alle men beon of bore smaien At Baptism 

we are 

iclewsed *et 3 be fulht f nobeles beo a2en for to cumen 4 heore cleansed of 

' ' J our sin~. 

bileue. onforward bos cristendomes ech man leornede his *[Foi. 260.3 
bileue er he fulht underfenge. Ah ba weren monie childre 4 , cumien 
dede fulhtles. and forlorne. ber fore hit wes iloked bi godes 
wissunge ine halie chirche. bet mon scule childre fulhten and Whyy°« n s 

° > children are 

heore godfaderes and heore godmoderes scullen onswerie for ba P tIzed - 
hem et be chirche dure and beo in boi^es et be fonstan bet 
heo sculen beon bi-lefulle .Men. and heore bileue cunneu f 
wenne heo lorne niuje. and bis ne mei be godfadres ne be 


and godmothers cannot do, except they themselves know their belief, that 
is, Pater noster and Creed. No man should himself refuse (to learn) when 
any one for (his) need thereto offers (to teach him). Therefore we will 
begin our lore-spell (doctrine) of (concerning) belief. The true belief was 
committed to writing by the twelve apostles ere they separated and went 
throughout this earth; and each of them wrote one verse thereof; and 
St. Peter wrote the first. And the psalm that they all thus wrote was 
called Creed, after the first word of the psalm. You all, I expect, know 
at least your creed, though you do not all know the meaning of it. 
Attend now thereto, and I will repeat it word after word, and therewith 
what the words signify. This word ' creed' we may understand in three 
ways. The first is Credo Deo — I believe God ; the second is Credo Deum 
— I believe that God is. These two things do all heathen men believe. 
But the third no man believeth except the good Christian and the 
God-fearing and the believing (faithful), Qui credit in Deum — who 
believeth in God ; and to believe in God five things are necessary. 
Sillcet, eum dominum omnium cognoscere, super omnia diligere, pre 
omnibus timere, et venerari, eique 'per omnia obedire. The first is to 
acknowledge him as Lord over all things ; the second is to love him 
above all things ; the third is to stand in awe of him above all things ; 
the fourth is to honour him above all things ; the fifth is to obey him 
before all things. The man that hath these same five things in him 
is a believing (faithful) man, and if he lacks any thereof, he is not 
as faithful as it behoveth him to be. Credo in Deum, I believe in God, 
patrem omnipotentem, the Father Almighty, creatorem cceli et terrce, 
creator and ruler of heaven, and earth, and of all creatures ; et in 
Jesum Christum, and I believe in the Saviour Christ, filiu/m ejus 
unicum, his only Son, Dominum nostrum, our Lord. He is called 
Saviour for he healed mankind of the deathly venom that the old 
devil blew into Adam and Eve and all their offspring, so that their 
fivefold powers were all taken from them ; that is, their hearing, their 
sight, their blowing (breathing), their smelling, and their feeling were 
all poisoned, but he healed them with his five holy wounds when he 
suffered for us on the cross, and gave everlasting freedom to as many 
as would receive it. He is his only Son, not adopted, but begotten ; 

CREDO. / L> 

godrnodres don i buten heo cunnew heore bileue. bet is. -pater 

noster. ami credo. Ne na .Mow. nab. bim solue wernen hewne 1 ' ? ben»e. 

.Mow. bim for node ber to bide. ber fore we widen biginne 

ure larspel of bileue. bet rihte ileue setten be twelue apostles The Belief 

* ' ' was composed 

on write er beo to-wenden in to al bis middelerd. and ec of b J the , twelve 

> Apostles. 

beom wrat ber of bis uers. and sancte peter wrat bet ereste. 

and be salm bet beo alle bus writen wes ihaten. Credo, efter ban why called 

r r r 1 creed. 

formeste word of be salm. Alle $e kunnen leste bet icb wene 
ower credo, beb 3c nuten nawiht alle bwat bit serS. Nume^ 
nu 3eme berto and ic ou wile seggen word efter word and 
bermide hwat bet word bi-queb. pis word, credo. Mow. mei The first word 

' J . . Iias a three- 

understonden. on bro wise, bet on is f Credo deo. lb ileue fold meaning, 

gode. bet oSer is f Credo deum. icb ileue bet god is. bos twa 

bing do^ alle be^ene men. ah bet [bridde] ne leue^ nan i bute 

be gode cristene .Mom. and be godfurhte and be lefulle *qui *[Poi. 2g&.] 

credit in deum. be bileued in god. and to luuene 2 ine god f a ?ieuene. 

mote fif binsr. Silicet. eum dominuva omnium coqnoscere. Five things 

' ° necessary to 

super omnia diligere. pre omnibus timere. & uenerari eique per true belief - 

omnia obedire. pet an is iknawen bim to lauerd ouer alle bing. 

bet o^er is luuien bim ouer alle bing. bet bridde is '. babben 

heie of him ouer alle bing. bet forbe is \ wurben him ouer alle 

bing. bet fifte is I beon him ibucsum ouer alle bing. pe .Mow. 

bet haue$ bis ilke fif bing mid him f he is leful .Mow. and if 

him is eni ber of wane i he nis nawiht alse leful alse him bi-houede. 

Credo in deum. Ic ileue in god. patrem omnipotentem. be 1 believe in 

God the 

fedelYI almihti. Creatorem celi & terre. scuppende and weldende Father 

L J ... Almighty, 

of heouene and of orSe and of alle iscefte & in ihesum christum And in Jesus 

7-1-1 iii /-7- • • 1 • i • Cllrist . & c. 

and ich ileue on be helende cn&t. jihum. eius unicum. his enlepi 

sune. dominum nostrum, ure lauerd he is ihaten helende for he why our 

Lord is called 

moncun helede of ban debliche atter. bet be aide deouel blou Saviour. 

on adam. and on eue. and on al heore ofsprinke. swa bet heore 

fif-falde mihte 3 horn wes al binumen. bet is hore lust, hore loking. *ms. mihte, 

hore blawing. hore smelling, heore feling wes al iattret. ac he 

bom helde mid his halie fif wunden b& he bolede for us ine be Christ ' s five 

* ' ' wounds 

halie rode, and gef bom eche frechipe alle ba \>et hit aide 1 cunnen. J| ealed .man's 

l > ' five poisoned 

he is his enlipi sune. nawiht efter bobnunge. ac efter istrone. ienses - 


for He begot Him as the sun generates light, which he spreads abroad 
into all this wide world. And the Father is in the Son in three 
ways : — in strength, for he is great and mighty above all things ; 
in form (beauty), for the sun and moon darken before his beauty ; 
in virtue, for he is full of all goodness. And though he be the lord 
of all creatures, because he created all things, nevertheless he is 
not the lord of all men, though all men are subject to him, but 
he is lord only of the faithful and God-fearing men and good 
Christians that believe on God ; for all other men that commit 
grievous sins and will not forsake them are under the devil's rule, and 
it availeth them not while in this state to sing pater noster and creed. 
May God give good belief to all those that have it not, and grant 
that we and all others that have it keep it unto their life's end. Qui 
conceptus est, <f)c. We have commenced to tell you the meaning of 
the creed, and have said two verses thereof, and will now pass on to 
the third. And I believe in the Saviour, whom the holy virgin 
conceived in her body, not after the will (desire) of the flesh, nor 
after carnal conception, but even as ye receive the words that I 
speak to you from my mouth, so she conceived our Lord when the 
angel brought her the blissful tidings, thus saying, Ecce concipies in 
utero et paries filium — Thou shalt conceive a child in thy womb, and 
bear a male child and call it Saviour, and it shall be king in the 
everlasting kingdom. And the holy maiden answered and said, Quo- 
modo fiet istud, ihc. — How shall that be, since no man hath touched 
my body nor hath had carnal intercourse with me. Then answered 
the angel and said, Spiritus sanctus, etc.* 

* The MS. here ends rather abruptly, but another version of the concluding 
portion of this homily will be found in the discourse on the Paler noster in the 
Trinity College homilies, in Series ii. of this Collection. 

CREDO. 77 

for ban he him alse be sunne stxeonb be lome bet ho spret in to The Son has 

' ' ' ' the properties 

al bis wide *worlde. and be fader is ine be sune on bre wise, of the Father. 

« * [Fol. 27a. ] 

On wacste '. for he is muchel and mihti ouer alle bing. On 

wlite f for smme ««(/ mone bostrejj for his fairnesse. On bewe. 

for he is ful of alle godnesse. and beS 1 he heo alle ichefte lauerd >? p eh. 

for he alle bing iscop. nobeles he nis nawiht alle mowne lauerd. Christ is not 

' ° L ' all men's lord, 

bech alle men bon on his onwald ( . but lefulle monne lauerS. but only the 

j Christian 

and be godfurhte. and gode cWstene .Monne. lauerd '. bet on god man's lord. 
bileueft. for alle ofcre .men. bet heuie suraien dreche^. and nulled 
heore sunnen forleten f bo^ on be doules on-walde. and bet 
hwile ne studed howi nawiht bet ho singe poter nosier, and 
credo. God 3efe gode leue alle ba bet hit nabbet. and ihalde 
hit us. awl alle o^re ba hit habbeft to hore liues ende. Qui 
conceptus est & cetera. We habbeS bigunnen ou to seggen on xiie second 
englisch hwat bi-qu[e]b be crede. awl habbe'S ou iserS twa uers. creed. 
and wule nube \>et bridde. and ic ileue on bene helend be bet 
halie meide in hire likame underfeng. nawiht efter flesces wille. ofthe 

, . . . . miraculous 

ne efter likames ikunde '. ah alswa alse ^e nime^ be worde bet conception, 
iho 2 speke to ou of mine mube swa ho ifeng ure drihten. ba be 2 Sic , 
engel hire brohtc \>c blisfulle tidinge. bus qwebende. Ecce con- and its an- 

. . • o • n- ~\ e , ... . , nouiiceuieiit 

cipies in utero & partes jmit/m. bu scald underton an child \n pi to the Virgin 
wombe awl bere knaue child f and haten hit helend and hit 
seal king bon on bet endelese kineriche. and bet hali meiden 
onswerede and seide. quomodo Jiet istxid <£• cetera. *hu seal bat *[Foi.27&.] 
bon sobjjen na .Moh. mine likame irineS ne mid me flesliche 
nefde to downe. pa onswerede be cugel and seide. spiritus 
sanctus <£• cetera. 




TTomo quidcvm descendebat ah Jerusalem in JericJio, et cetera. God 
Almighty hath spoken a parable to his people in the holy 
gospel, and saith, A man went down from Jerusalem into Jericho, 
and fell among thieves, who robbed him and sore wounded him, and 
let him lie half alive, and went on their way. There came a priest 
by the way and helped him not, but went on his way ; there came 
a deacon [Levite], &c. Then came there a foreign man [Samaritan] 
and had pity upon him and washed his wounds with wine and 
anointed them with oil and bound his wounds, and put him upon 
his own horse and brought him to an inn and consigned him to 
the innkeeper to be taken care of. On the morrow he gave him 
two pence to spend on him, and said, "and if thou spendest moret 
of thine own, when I return I will repay it thee." Now it behoveth 
us to break these words, just as we break the nut for to get at the 
kernel. This man that went down from Jerusalem into Jericho betokens 
Adam our forefather who fell from an exalted position to a low one. 
Jerusalem denotes " Sight (vision) of peace," and Jericho signifies " ab- 
sence of light." Here we may understand that he fell from high to low, 
when he fell from that blissful abode into the wanting of bliss. He 
fell among thieves. What are the thieves 1 They are those that were 
once angels in heaven, and fell out for their pride. When he fell 
among them and followed their lore, and broke Christ's behests, then 
they robbed him of the great power that Christ had given him, over all 
the earth's produce, over the fishes in the water, and fowls in the 
air, and all kinds of wild animals, and all kinds of reptiles. Adam 
might call all of them unto him and all would come unto him. But 
as soon as he sinned they all fled and shunned him — those that 
before loved him now wounded him. When he felt ashamed before 
his Creatoi-, then he suffered thirst and hunger and cold and every 




Z!7H omo quidam descendebat ab ierusalem in ierico. & cetera. The text. 

L J Grodalmihti sevS an forbisne to his folk in be halie 

godspel and serS. A mon lihte from ierusalem in to ierico. and The parable 

of the G 1 

fol imong boues. ho him bireueden. and ho him ferwundeden and Samaritan. 

let-ten bine liggen half qwic. and wenden for$. per com a prost 

bi be weie ami him nawiht ne help '. and wende for$ ber com an 

diacne. et cetera. ba com Jjcr an helendis .Mon. and heuede roujje How the 

Samaritan, a 

of him. and wesch his wunden mid wine, and smerede mid oli foreign man, 

took care ol 

awl bond his wunden. and brohte him huppen his werue. and him whom 

1 A the thieves 

brohte him to an hors huse. and bitahte hine be hors horde f to left ' I:ilt '- 

> quick. 

witene. A be marten bitahte him twa pene^es to spenen on him 
and seide. and yif bu mare spenest of bine hwan ic a3en cherre f 
al ic be 3elde. Nu hit iburd breke bas word f alse me breke^ 

be nute for to habbene bene curnel. pes Mon. bhet a lihte from The man who 

. . went fnmi 

ierusalem \n to ierico. bet his bitacned adam ure forme federf Jernaaiemto 

p ii* i Jericho 

bet alihte from hehe w to lahe. Ierusalem. bitacned gribes sihbe. denotes 
and ierico f trukinge of lihte. her me mei understonde bet he 

* alihte from hehe to lahe from derewurS wunmge '. in to wone * [Fol. 28a.] 

of blisse. He uol imong beues. hwet bo^ bas beues f bet bo^ bo The thieves 

1 ' r r r are the fallen 

bet weren imakede engles in houene. and fellen ut for hore angels, 

wrechede. be he uel imo?ig bom ami fole3ede hore lare '. and brec 

cWstes heste. ba ho hine bireueden of bere muchele mihte. bet who deprived 

' ' man of his 

cWst him hefde isefen of al ber orbe scrude of be uisces ibe earthly 

' ' ' ' power. 

wetere. and fu3eles ibe lufte. and alles cunnes wilde dorf and 
alles cunnes wurmes. Al adam him mihte to clopie. anil al 

Adam's sin 

walde him to cume. Al se hwat se he foimilte wes f al hit him brou snt upon 

° him 

ulel 1 and scunede '. bet him er luuede ho him for wundeden f ba * ? uieh. 

be he heuede scome a3eines his scuppende. ba he hefde burst and hanger, 

hunger and chele and alle wreche sibe f ho hine bilefde listen and °' tI,er ' 

' °° miseries. 

* For the probable commencement of this discourse, see homily " In 
'lie natalis Domini," in Second Series of this Collection. 


misery. They (the devils) left him half alive ; half alive he was 
when that he had sorrow within himself for his sins. Here we 
ought to understand why it says "half alive" and not "half dead." 
Hereof we may take an example by two brands (torches), when the 
one is aquenched altogether, and the other is aquenched except a 
little spark ; the one that hath the one spark in it we may blow 
and it will quicken (revive) and kindle the whole brand. The brand 
that is wholly quenched, though one blow on it for ever, may never 
again be kindled. These two brands betoken two men : the one 
sinneth and is sorry for his sin, but cannot subdue his flesh. We 
may preach to this man with God's word, through which he will 
forsake his sins and believe and be enkindled of the Holy Ghost, as 
is the brand of the little fire. This other man sinneth and loveth 
his sins, as doth the fat swine to lie in the foul mire. This same man 
is hard to preach to ; but Christ may enlighten him with (a) gracious 
mind. We may understand by this that Adam was sorry for the sins 
that he had committed, and for this sorrow it is said that he was left 
half alive. Now cometh the priest that helped him not : this betokens 
the world that was from the beginning and lasted ever unto the time 
of Moses the prophet. In this world there was neither law nor law- 
expounder, and though the patriarchs, as Abel and Noah, Abraham and 
Isaac, were good men, being enlightened of the Holy Ghost, yet all this 
goodness could not preserve them from going into hell ; and all this 
period elapsed and ever lay this wretch forwounded. Now is the 
priest gone and hath helped him not. Now cometh this deacon : that 
betokens Moses the prophet, who brought the law (of circumcision) — 
that on the eighth day the male child should be circumcised with a 
flint knife ; and he established law and lore among mankind, how 
they should serve God Almighty and perform his will upon earth ; 
and all this could not preserve them from going into hell. Now is this 
deacon gone. Now comes the foreign man and hath pity upon this 
wounded man. He is called foreign for he is from a foreign (uncouth) 
land, (and betokens) the king of heaven who came upon earth and turned 
himself into his (man's) form. Hereof speaketh St. John the Evangelist 
in the Apocalypse, A fowl came flying from heaven into eai'th ; here 
he took covering of fathers and wings. With this flight he flew into 


half q?dc. half q?<ic ho wes ' ba be he sarinesse heuede wiS-innen The devils left 

^ * r ' him "half- 

him f for his sunnen. Her me ah to understonden for-whi hit q ui <*" 
serS alf qwic. and noht alf ded. her of me mei ane forbisne of twa The term 

" half-quick ■ 

brondes. hwanne be an is aqwenched al to gederes. and be o¥er is is explained 
aqitenched al buten a gnast bene bet haued bene ene gnast upen brands, 
him. me mei blauwen. and he wule aq?/ikien and al be brond 
tenden. be brond be is al aqwenched bah me blouwe efre '. ne 
qwike^ he neure. bas twa brondes bitacne^ twein men. be an The two 

brands de- 

sunegeS. and is sari for his sunne. ah he ne mei his flesc awelden. note two sorts 

of men. 

bis rnowne me mei sermonen *mid godes worde. for hwat he *[Foi. 286.] 

seal his sunne uor-saken and bileuen and bon itcnt of ben hali 

gast. Alse is be brond of be lutle fare, pes o^er ,Mo?i. \et 

sunege^ and luue^ his sunnen alse de^ bet fette swin \et fule 

fen to liggen in. bes ilkc .Mow. ia strong to sermonen f ah cWst 

hine tende mid holde mode ber we mu^en understonde bet adam 

wes sari uor be sunne bet he heuede idem, and for bisse sarinesse 

hit is iseidf bet he wes half qwic bileued. Nu cume^ be prest The priest 

TOO helped 

bet him nawiht ne help, bis bitacneS be world bet wes from nottl1 

, the 

biginnegge and eue f bat cume to moises be prophete. In bisse "/^"wortd* 68 

worlde nas na la3e ne na larbeu. and bah bes patriarches alse {'^'of 1 ' 6 

abel and noe and abraham and ysaac. gode men weren burh bet oses ' 

ho weren itemle of ban halie gast. and al bos godncsse horn ne 

mihte werien. bet ho ne wenden alle in to belle, and al bos world 

wende forb cmd efre lei bes wreche for-wunden. Nu is bes prest 

uorbe. and him naueb nawiht iholpen. Nu cume^ bes diakne '. The deacon 


bet bitacne^ moyses be prophete. he brohte be la3e '. bet me Moses the 

sculde in be ehtube dei bet knaue child embsniben mid ane ulint 

sexe. and sette imowg monkunne la}e and lare hu me sulde 

godalmihti serue. and his wille wurche in orSe. and al bis horn 

helpe ne mihte ' bet ho ne wenden alle in to helle. Nu is 

bes deakne forbe. Nu kume^ bes helendisse M.on. and haueS 

reunesse of bisse forwu«dede *.More. elelendis 1 he is icleped for he * [ Fo1 - 29 «] 

• ^ ? L'itiiidis, 

is of unkube bode, be king of heuene be com in to hei'be and Ttie f ore j<,,i 
auenede 2 him in to his iscefte. her of seid I seint Iohan be ew«n- Christ? 
geliste in apocalipsi. A vuhel com flon from houene into orSe. 
her he uette fe)>er-home and wenge mid bisse fluhte he fleh into 




heaven, where he took that form which was not his own, and re- 
linguished nought of what he was. This is to be understood of the 
Son of the living God, the great Loi - d that filleth all the world of 
himself, who enclosed himself in a virgin's womb, as the sun shineth 
through the glass window without breaking or cracking the glass. 
And the sun shineth there through, and receiveth whatsoever colour it 
thereon findeth ; if the glass is red, it shineth red. In like manner did 
the Son of the living God come into the virgin, and she blemished not 
at all her maidenhood. If she were blemished in her maidenhood, then 
her son could not have had the name that was given him at circumcision, 
that was Saviour ; and if he bad marred the maidenhood of his mother, 
then could not the breaker be called healer. [He is called healer] because 
he came and healed, who never broke. He is called foreign because he is 
here and is not from hence. This man who came from heaven into earth 
and took man's nature upon him for man's sake, what need had mankind 
that he should become man 1 Man had lost the right of speaking 
before God ; then came this man who had never sinned and who 
might speak everywhere. This man became spokesman. He recon- 
ciled God and man. He came to this forwounded man. Well ! he 
came to him when he became such as he is, only without sin. 
He was bathed in wine and anointed with oil. We ought to under- 
stand what the weapons are that Adam was wounded with — with 
the same weapons we are wounded — with the spear of pride, of 
covetousness, of greediness, of wrath, of whoredom, with envy, with 
sloth. These are the weapons that Adam was wounded with. Now 
it behoveth the wounded wretch to have a physician (leech). We are 
wounded and stand in need of a leech. Adam was healed through 
God Almighty himself, and it behoveth us to be healed through the 
priest's mouth. He washed his wounds with wine. What is wine 
in a wound 1 Wine maketh the wound smart, but the smarting 
cleanseth the wound, so that it receives no further injury. Just so holy 
shrift shall be in our wounds when we fast and renounce the flesh 
and much of our will (lusts) on account of our sins. What is the oil 1 
Oil hath in itself the properties of lightness and softness and healing. 
Such shalt thou have when thou hast performed thy shrift of thy 
misdeeds, then shalt thou have lightness and softness and healing. This 


houene ber he uatte bet he nes and nawiht ue lefde of bet he wes. 

bis is to understonden bet hit wes bes liuiendes godes sune be The mira- 
culous con. 
nmchele lauerd i bet al be world fulled of him solue. bitunde him ceptfon ex. 


solue in ane meidenes innebe alse be sunne seined burh be glesne 
ehburl. be£ gles ne breke^ ne chined and be sunne schine^ ber 
burh. and ho nime¥> al swuch hou alse ho ber on uint. 3if be£ 
gles is red f ho schine^ red. Alse be liuendes godes sune in to 
be uieidene com. and ho of hire meiden-had nawiht ne wemde. The purity of 

the Virgin 

3ef ho awemmed were of hire meiden-had '. benne ne mihte noht Mary. 
hire sune habbe bene nome bet him wes i3efen at circumcisiun bet 
wes helend. and 3ef he hefde on his moder ibroken hire meiden- 
had I ne mihte nawiht brekere bon icloped helere. for-bi he com 
and bette be ne brec nefre. for-bi he is icleped elclendis. for-bi 
be here he is '. and honen he nis. bes .Mom. bet com bus from Christ took 

* i j j upon him 

houene in to hor^e and uppen him nom morales icunde for man's nature. 
morales node. Hwet node efde moncun bet he .Mom. were I Mon 

hefde uorloren *efre steplme bi-uore gode. pa com bes .Mon. * [Foi. 29&.] 

he nefre ne gulte. bes mihte speken ouer al bes .Mon bi-com He became 

our spokes- 

uorspeker. he isehtnede god and man. he com bi bis forwundede nuin - 

mon. Wei he com bi him J ba he bico??i alswich alse he '. wib- 

ute sunne ane. He wes iwunde mid wine, and smirede mid oli. 

We asen to understowden hwet bo^ be wepne bet adam wes mide The weapons 

' r i r with whic]l 

forwunded. mid ba ilke wepne we bofc forwuraled. mid spere of Adam , w , as 

' x x wounded 

prude, of sitcunsje. of sifernesse. of eorre. of hordome. mid onde. were J ,ride - 

1 r a j covetousness, 

mid aswolkenesse. bis bo^ ba wepne bet adam was mide for- &c - 

wuraled. Nu bihoue^ be forwunded wreche bet he habbe leche. 

we boS forwu?ided us bi-houed leche. Adam wes declined burh ffod healed 

Adam of his 

god almihti solf. and us bi-houeS leche burh prestes mu?. he wounds. 

weis his wunde mid wine, hwet is win in wunde '. Win makeS 

wunde smerte. Ah be smertinge clense^ be wuralc i swa bet ho 

ne seal of bere wunde habbe nan o^er uuel. Al so hali smft h^ e 8h ^ >tea 

brS in mine [urel 1 wuwde hwan we scale 2 festen. and fleis bileuen . ' The words 

L J in brackets 

ami muchel of ure [mine] wille for ure [mine] wrechede. Hwet a [ e W1 '! t 1 ten 

L J L J above the 

is bet oli '. Oli haue^ huppen him lihtnesse and softnessc and oi oT^ u] 

hele. Alse bu scalt habben hweraie bu hauest idon bi scrift of The oil de- 
notes the 

bine misdede benne bu scalt habbe lihtnesse and softuesse and comfort aris- 
ing from 


is the oil, the great satisfaction (reward) that thou shalt have when 
thou hast repented of thy misdeeds. Then he brought him on his own 
beast, that is a rude mare, which denoteth our vile flesh whensoever we 
have made the body subject to the soul. He brought him to an 
inn and delivered him to the innkeeper and bad him take care of the 
wounded man. What is this inn ? It is holy church. What is holy 
church 1 ? All Christian folk. Wherefore? In holy church are better 
and worse. Even so in an inn there are foul and clean. He that hath 
charge of the inn shall make it clean wherever it is foul. That be- 
tokeneth the pi'iest who shall among Christian men cleanse the sinful 
of their sins. He hath on the morrow received two pence which the 
foreign man gave him. These are the two laws, the old and the new 
which the priest shall spend among all his flock. If he spendeth more 
of his own when he again returneth he will repay him the whole of it. 
What is this that he may spend more of his own 1 Good example of his 
own conduct ; also all those that are under him, that take more upon 
them than (is commanded by) the behest of holy church, that is to say, 
the maiden that preserveth her virginity, which is not a behest of 
holy church, and the widow ber widowhood, and a man to forsake 
the world. In the day of award when God Almighty shall winnow 
what was before thrashed out, he will see which are those that can 
withstand the lust of the flesh and have restrained the will of their 
own flesh. That is denoted by the corn that the wind pierceth through, 
[and] by the small chaff that flieth forth with the wind [and] becometh 
rubbish. The corn we put into the garner, betokeneth the good man 
who shall be received into heaven ; those that follow the lust of 
the flesh, as the small chaff doth the wind, shall remain (for ever) 
in darkness. May God Almighty shield us that we be not of the 
small chaff, but that we may be of the corn that shall be placed in 
the garner, that is, in heaven, with the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, per omnia secula seculurum. Amen. 


hele. bis is bet oli be inuchele mede bet *bu scalt habben *[Foi. 30a.] 

hwenne bu hauest ibet bine niisdeden. jjenne be brobte bine 

uppen bis werue bet is unorne mare, bet bitacne^ ure unorne The mare 

denotes our 

fleis. hwense we babbe^ imaked bene licome to ber saule biboue. flesh- 
he bine brohte to ane hors-buse. and bitabte hine ban hors- 
horde. and bed hine witen bene forwundede .Mow. H[w]et is 

bis hors-usf bet is hali chirche. hali chirche bwet is f al cn'stene The inn is 

holy church, 

folc. for hwon '. In halie chirche bo£ betei-e and wurse. Alse in which are 
in hors-buse bo^ fnle and clene. he bet haue^ bet hors-hus te 
witenef seal ber. ber hit is ful f makien hit clene. bet bitakne^ 
be prost bet seal among cristene monkun bene sunfulle of sunne 
clensen. he haue^ obe maiden ba twein pene3es be be helelendisse. 1 ' ? heiendisse. 
Mow. bitabte. bet bo^ ba twa la3en be aide and be nowe bet prost The two 
seal spenen among al his underbede. 3ef he mare spene^i of his f old and the 

new laws. 

hwense he a3ein cherreS al he hit him wule jelden. bwet is bet 

he mei mare spenen of his a3en f feire forbisne of his a3ene How the 

liflade. Alse alle bo bet him bo^ undei'bede. bet nime^ mare spend more 

of his own. 

uppen horn ben be heste of hali chirche. bet is to understonden. 
Meiden bet hire meiden-hat wit. and haldeb so se hit nis noht 
heste of hali chirche. and widewe of hire widewe-had *ne .Mon. * [Foi. 306.] 
be worlde to forsaken. In be deie of liureisun hwense god al- The separa- 

... 1 . .. . tion of the 

mihtin wule windwm bet er wes ibor|s]chen. he wile ison hwicbe good from 

' . the evil at 

bo% bo. bet mu3e stonden a3ein bes fleisces lust and wernen his doomsday. 

a3ene fleisces iwille. bet bitakne^ bet corn bet burled be wind, bet 

smal chef bet Aid ford mid be windef bicume^ wurbinge bet 

corn me de^ in to gerner. bet bitakene^ be gode men be scule 

bon idon in to beuene. be ilke be fo^e^ bes fleisces lust. Alse 

de% bet smalchef be windef bo scule bileuen in bosternesse. 

God almihtin iscilde ut bet we ne bo noht of be smalcheue. 

Ah bet we moten bon of be corne be me seal don in to be Jhe^o™ that' 

gernere bet is in to heuene f be feder and be sune and be halie info'the put 

gast. per omnia secula seculoi*um. Amen. nerf en y gar 




From the holy Easter Day are reckoned fifty days unto this day ; 
and this day is called Pentecost, that is, the fiftieth day of (from) 
Eastertide. This day was established and observed in the old law. 
God bade Moses in the land of Egypt that he and all the Israelitish 
folk whom he had led thither, that they of each family should offer to 
God a lamb of one year old, and mark with the blood their doors 
and lintels, as on that same night God's angel went and killed the 
eldest and dearest child in each house of the Egyptian folk, and 
the Israelites departed from that land that very night, for they had 
there endured great affliction, and God led them dry-footed over the 
Red Sea. Then went Pharaoh, the king of the land, after them 
with a great army, and when they came into the midst of the sea, 
then were God's folk gone up from the sea again, and then God 
sank Pharaoh and all his host. God then bade Moses and the people 
that they should observe this time, with great bliss, each year. Then 
was this season ordained among the people as Eastertide, because God 
rid them of and destroyed their enemies. Then fifty days from 
Eastertide God gave laws to the people. And God's foretoken was 
seen upon a hill, that is, the mount of Sinai, for there came great 
light, and (an) awful sound, and blowing of trumpets. Then God 
called Moses nearer to him, and he was with God forty days and 
wrote the old law under God's direction. Then was this day called 
Pentecost in the Old Testament. The lamb offered up by the command 
of the angel betokeneth Christ's death, who was meek and without 
guilt, offered to his father for our ransom. Now is his passion and 
his resurrection our Eastertide, because he delivered us from the 
devil's bondage, as he delivered the Israelites from Pharaoh's bondage. 
And our foes, the devils, are sunk into hell through the holy 



'TXlrani ban halie tester dei f boS italde. fifti da^a to bisse The feast of 

Pentecost on 

L-*- J deie and pes dei is ihaten pentecostes bet is be fiftuSa the fiftieth 

' 1 ' ' day from the 

dei fram bau ester tid. bes dei wes on bere aide lase iset and feast of Pass- 

* ' ' J over, 

ihalden. God het Moyses on egipte londe bet he and al bet which was 
israelisce folc bet he bider iled hefde '. bet heo sculden offrien of Moses in 


elchan hiwscipe gode an lomb of ane jeres and merki mid ban 

blode hore duren. and hore ouersleaht. ba on bere ilke nihte i 

iwende godes engel to and acwalde on elche huse of bam egiptiss- 

en folche bet frumkenede childe and bet lefeste '. and bet israelisce 

folc ferde on bere ilea nihte of bam londe. forSon muchele wawen 

bet hi ber rSoleden. *and god horn ledde ofer ba rede se f mid *[Foi.3ia.] 

dru5e fotan. ba iwende pharaon be kin[g] of bam londe efter Israelites ° 

heom ledde 1 muchele ferde. ba be heo comen on midden bere se. over t°h e e Red 


ba wes bet godes folc 2 up of bere se agan. and god hisencte ba be 1 ?' m ide. 
pharaon c . and al his genge. Da het god moyse and ban folce bet 
heo heolden ba tid mid muchlere blisse ewilche 3ere ba wes bon 
folce iset bo tid to estertide f for bon god heom aredde wrS 
heore ifan and heom fordude. Da fram bam ester tid fifti dasa Fifty days 

"" after, the old 

isette god bam folke la3e. and wes ise3ew godes fortacne uppon law was given 
ane dune bat is be mont of synai. for bet 3 com muchel liht. and 3 ? j, er , 
eislic swei and blawende beman. ba cleopede god be 4 uer Moyses 4 ms. fe. 
him to. and he wes mid gode fowerti da3es and awrat ba aide e 
bi godes wissunge. ba wes be dei pentecostes ihaten on bere aide 
isetnesse. bet i-offrede lomb bet be engel het offrian bitacne^S 
cWstes de^be bet wes milde. and wrSutau gulte his feder i-offrad '. 
for ure alesendnesse. Nu is his browunge and his ariste ure Easter com- 

tip in i i memorates 

ester tid i for^on bet he us alesde from deofles bewdome alswa ChriBt's pas- 
sion and 
he alesde bet israelisce folc of pharaones bewdome and ure ifan resurrection. 

bet beo^S ba deofles beoS bisencte in to helle burh be halie fullht 


baptism, if we observe it aright, even as Pharaoh with his host 
was (drowned) in the Red Sea. These fifty days from Easter Day are 
all hallowed unto one thanksgiving (celebration), and this day is our 
Pentecost Day, that is, our Whitsunday, which is the fiftieth day from 
Easter Day. On the old Pentecost God gave a law to the Israelites 
how they should lead their life ; on this day came the Holy Ghost 
under the form of fire to God's company. And forasmuch as the 
lamb typified Christ's passion, so also the old law in Moses' days 
typified the preaching of the Gospel under God's grace. Three periods 
are there in this world. One is that which was without law, the 
second is that which was under the law, the third is now after the 
advent of Christ. This period is ordained under (by) God's grace. 
We are not without law, nor may we observe the Mosaic law bodily, 
but God's grace directs us to his will, if we be mindful of God's 
behests and of the apostle's lore (precepts). It is related in the epi- 
stolary lesson how the Holy Ghost on this day came to the faithful 
assembly. Luke the evangelist wrote it in the book that is called 
Acts of the Apostles, saying, Cum comyilerenlur dies pentecostes erant 
omnes discipuli puriter in eodem loco. Et /actus est repente de cozlo sonus 
tanquam advenientis spiritus veliementis et replevit totam domum ubi 
erant sedentes. The holy assembly of Christ's apostles were abiding 
patiently (unanimously) in their prayers in an upper chamber, after Christ's 
ascension, awaiting his promise ; when, on this day, that is, Pentecost, 
which in our speech is called Whitsunday, there came suddenly a great 
sound from heaven and filled all the upper chamber with fire. And there 
was seen before (above) each of them, as it were, fiery tongues, and they 
were then all filled with the Holy Ghost and began to speak with divers 
tongues according as the Holy Ghost taught them. Then were there 
gathered together within the city of Jerusalem true (pious) men of every 
nation that dwelt under heaven, and the apostles spake to the assembly 
of the people and each of them recognised his own speech. Then were the 
people much amazed, and in astonishment thus spake, None ecce omnes 
isti Galilei sunt ; et quomodo nos audivimus unusquisque linguam nostram 
in qua nati sumus. Behold ! are not these that here speak Galileans, 
and each of us hath heard how they speak our own speech in which 
we were born 1 Lo ! what shall this be 1 Then said the Jewish men 


3if we hit ariht halde^ alswa pharaon wes mid his ferde on bare 

rede se. Das fifti da^es fram ban esterliche *deie he<yS alle ihal- *[Foi.3i6.] 

3ode to ane heruiige c . and bes dei is ure peutecostes dei. bet is Pentecost is 

ure witte sunuedei bet is be fifteo3a : Se dei fram bam ester deie. on sunday. 

bam ealdan pentecoste god sette .e. bain israelisce folce hu heo 

sculden heore lif leaden f on bisse deie com be halie gast on fures on this day 

' ' the Holy 

heowe to godes hirede. forSi alswa bet lomb bitacnede cristes Ghost came 

° ' upon the 

browunge '. Swa ec beo aide .e. on moyses da3en bitacnede god- apostles. 

spelles bodunge I under godes 3ife. Dreo tide beo^ on bissere 

worlde. An is bet wes buten .e. and o^er is be bet wes under 

bere .e. be bridde is nu efter cristes to-cume. peos tide iset 

under godes 3ife. we ne beoft na buten .e. ne we ne moten. 

halden moyses .e. licamliche. Ac godes 3ife us wissa^ to his 

willen. 3if we imuvtdie beo^ godes bibode and bera apos/la lare. 

Hit is ireht on bes pistles redinge £ hu be halia gast on bisse deie 

com to ban ileaufullen hirede. Lucas be godspellere awrat on it is recorded 

' r S I by St. Luke 

bere boc bet is inemned actus a\)osto\orum. and cwe$5. Cum com- »n the Acts 

plerentur dies pentecostes erant omnes discijmli jmriter in eodem Apostles. 

loco. Et y'actus est repente de celo sonus tanquam aduenientis 

s/>iritus uehemeutis 8t repleuit totam domuvn ubi erant sedentes. 

Dat halie hired cristes apostles weren wuniende edmodliche 1 on u 1 c 4 anmod " 

heore ibeoden on ane upflore * efter cristes upsti3e onbodinde his * [Foi. 32a.] 

bi-hates. ba on bisse deie bet is pentecostes and wittesunnedeie on 

ure speche I com ferliche muchel swei of heofne and fulde al ba The descent 

1 \ of the Holy 

upfleunge 2 mid fure. And wes ise:?en biforan heore elche swilc hit Spirit m the 

x J form of fire. 

were furene tungen. and heo weren ba alle ifullede mid ban halie 2 ? upfier- 


gast. and on-gunnen to speoken mid mislichen spechen hi bam bet The apostles 

... 1 • 1 -11 >v -l i speak with 

be halie gast him tahte. ba weren ber lgedered wroinne bere buruli divers 


of ierusalem trowfeste men of elchere beode bet under heofene erde- 
den. and be apostles speken to bes folkes igederunge. and hcor 
eclicnew 3 his al^ene speche. ba iwarS bat folc swrSe abluied' 4 //y'^T' 
and mid wunilrunge cwe^en. None ecce omnes isti galilei sunt i Tiie people 


8s quomodo nos audiuimus unusquisque linguam wostram m qua 
nati sumus. La hu ne beaS ba bet here speca^ galileisce '. and 
ure elc iherden hu hi spechen ure speche on ban bet we akenned 
weren '. Lahwet seal bis beon '. ba seiden ba iudeiscen men a 


in scorn, " These men are drunk with new wine." Then answered Peter, 
" It is undern time (the third hour), how might we at this time be 
drunken 1 But the saying of the prophet Joel is now fulfilled. God 
said through the mouth of the prophet that he would send his spirit over 
human flesh, and men's sons shall prophesy, and I will send my tokens 
on the earth." Peter said moreover, " Know ye assuredly that Christ 
arose from the dead and in our sight ascended to heaven, and sitteth 
on his Father's right hand, as David prophesied of him, saying, Dixit 
dominus domino meo sede a dextris meis. The Lord said to my Lord, 
Sit on my right hand until I put thine enemies under thy footstool." 
When the people heard this, then their mood changed, and they 
said to the apostles, "Dear men, what must we do?" Then answered 
Peter, " Repent of your sins and receive baptism in Christ's name, 
then shall your sins be forgiven and ye shall receive the Holy Ghost." 
Then received they his lore (doctrine), and in that day three thousand 
men were baptized, and they were all in unity and followed the apostles, 
and sold their property and gave the value of it to the apostles, 
and they distributed it to each according as they had need. After- 
wards, at a second preaching (of the Gospel) five thousand men 
believed in Christ. Then became all these believing men as if they 
had one heart and one soul, and none of them had separate goods, 
but all their things were common among them, and there was no lack 
amongst them ; and those that had land sold it and brought the 
worth of it to the apostles' feet, and they distributed it to each 
according as they had need. Then God wrought many wonders 
among the people through the hands of the apostles, so that they 
laid the sick men by (along) the street where Peter went forth, and as 
soon as his shadow glided over them they were healed of all infirmities. 
They set their hands on believing men and they received the Holy 
Ghost. Then was there a man named Ananias and his wife Sapphira ; 
they agreed between themselves that they would join the apostles' com- 
pany, and so they did. They took counsel together to withhold some of 
their goods from the apostles, for they knew not what might befall 
them. When the man came with his treasure (money) to the apostles, 
then Peter said to him, " Ananias, the devil hath deceived thine heart, 
and thou hast lied to the Holy Ghost. Why wouldst thou act deceit- 


bismer. bas men beoS mid miste fordrencte. Da and-vmrde The apostles 

are accused 

petrus. hit is undertid hu mihte we on bissere tide beon for- of being 

1 drunk. 

drencte I Ac bes \vite3an cwide ioheles is ifulled. God cweS st. Peter's 


burn bes wite3an mu?. bet be walde bis gast asenden ofer men- 

nesc flesc. and monna bern sculen wite3an. and ic sende min 

tacna 3eond * ba eorSe. petrw.? cwe^ ba. wite ^e so^liche bet crist * [ Fo1 - 326.] 

aras of cleave mid on ure iwitnesse astab to heofene. and sit on 

bis feder riht alfe '. alswa dauvS bi him wite3ede bus cwe^inde. 

Dixit dominus domino meo sede a dextris meis. Drihten cwe^ to 

mine dribtene. site to mine ribt alfe. for5 bet ic alegge bine feond 

under bine fot-sceomele. ba bet folc bis iberde ba iturne 1 beore mod The mood of 

' ' ' the people is 

and seden to ban apostflan. Leofemen bwet is us to donne : chafed. 

1 ? itumde. 

Da awJ-wrde petrus. Bi-reowsia^ eo[w]re sunnan and under- 
foS fulubt on cristes nome. benne beoft eowre sunnen aleide and 
3e underfo^ bene balie gast. ba underfengen beo his lare and 
busen to fulehte on bon deie '. breo busend monna. and ba weren Three thou- 

-' ' ' ' ' sand arc con- 

alle mid sibsumnesse I and fuleden bam aposdes. and salden beore 
elite and bet feh bitabten bam apostles and beo hit delden elcan 
alswa beo neode hefde. eft on ane o^re boduwge 3e-lefden fif 
busend monna on criste. ba iweorden alle bos ilefede men swulche 
hi alle hefden ane heorte and ane sawle ne beore nan nefden 
sunderlich elite ac heoni alen wes imene beore bing ne ber nas Jhey have all 

' ' things in eom- 

nan wone bi-twuxan heom and ba bet lond hefden he hit sealden I mon - 

and bet wurS brohten to bes apostl&s fotan and heo hit delden 

elchun alswa heo neode hefden. ba warbte god feole tacne on ban 

folke burh bere aposdan hondan *swa bet ileiden ba untrm/imen *[Foi.33aj 

men bi bere stret bere petrus forS-eo^e and swa re^e swa bis st. Peter's 

shadow heals 

sceadu 2 heom on gla^ heo weren iheled. from alle untruwmesse. nianysick 


heo setten beore horalen ofer ilefde men '. and heo underfengen 2 It may bc 


bene halian gast. pa wes bere an mon ananias lhaten and his The story of 

wif saphira. Heo bispeken heom bitweonen '. bet heo walden sappMra. " 

ibi^en to bere aposllan fereden and swa duden. Heo nomen 

heom to bam rede bet heo walden sum of beore ehte etholdan. 

bam aposllan f for heo nusten hwet heom ilumpe. ba com be mon 

mid his gersume to ban aipostolum. ba cweS petras. Ananias be 

deofel bipehte bine heorte and bu hauest ilo3en ban halie gaste ' 

verted to 


fully with thine own (things) 1 Thou hast lied not to men, but unto 
God." When he heard these words then he fell down and (departed) 
died. When he was buried, then came his wife Sapphira and knew 
not what had befallen her husband. Then said Peter, " Why have 
ye two so done, that ye durst tempt God." When she heard this 
then she fell down and died, and they buried her with her husband. 
Then came there great dread on God's folk (church) and on all those that 
heard these tidings. The apostles afterwards, ere that they separated, 
placed James, that was called righteous (the Just), on Christ's seat, and 
all the faithful congregation were obedient to him, after (according to) 
God's teaching (instruction) ; he then occupied that seat thirty years, 
and after him Simeon, the Lord's kinsman. And after this example arose 
monastic life, together with the unity and concord that they should 
practise, according to the instruction of their abbots. Ye heard a little 
while before, in this discourse, that the Holy Ghost came upon the 
apostles with fiery tongues and gave them the power by which they 
knew all languages, for what the humble assembly merited from God 
through their meekness, that, long before, the angels of heaven had lost 
for their pride. It happened after Noah's flood that giants desired to 
rear up a city, and a tower so high that its top should ascend to heaven ; 
and there was but one speech among all mankind, and the work was 
begun against God's will ; therefore also God scattered them so that he 
gave each of the workers an uncouth (unknown) speech, and none of 
them knew another's speech. They then left their building and dispersed 
throughout all the earth, and afterwards there were as many tongues 
as there were workers, in all two hundred men. Now again on this 
day, through the coming of the Holy Ghost, all languages were again 
and concordantly received, for Christ's apostles were speaking in all 
tongues, and even more wonderfully, because when one of the apostles 
preached in one tongue, to each man that heard the discourse it appeared 
as though he spake in their own speech, whether they were Hebrews, or 
Greeks, or Romans, or Egyptians, or of whatsoever land they were, that 
heard that lore (doctrine). In this fellowship the meekness of the apostles 
obtained (for them) this power, and the pride of the giants earned confu- 
sion. The Holy Ghost was seen over the apostles in the form of fire, and 


hwi woldest bu swikian on J)ine a3ene binge i Ne lu3e bu na 

moi/num f ac dudest gode. ba be ba woi'de iherde '. ba feol he The death of 

,..„,. Ananias and 

adun and lwat and ba he lburied wes f ba com his wif saphira Sapphira. 

and nuste hwet hire were iluwpen wes. D[a] cwe^ petrws hwi 

iwearS bine swa bet 3it dursten fondian godes '. ba heo J>ls iherde I 

ba feol heo ber adun and iwat a«rf me buriede heo mid hire fere. 

Da iwearS ber muchel eie on godes folke. and on alle J>am bet 

beos ti^inge iherdon. Da aposfoli si^an er bon bet heo to- James ap- 

1 . pointed head 

ferden isetten iacob bet wes ibaten rihtwis on cristes selt and alle 51 th6 , 

> Church. 

beo ileafulle laftunge him ihersummede f efter godes *tecunge. *[Fol. 836.] 

he ba iset bet seld .xxx. 3era and efter him simeon bes h[e]lendes 
mei. and efter bissere bisnunge weren ai*erede munecbene lif mid. 
mid bere annesse and sibsumnesse bet heo sculen bolien f bi heore 
abbodes iwissuwp-e. :e iherden a lutel er. on bisse redunge. bet ^e Th e apostles 

03 > ° ' through 

halie gast com ofer ba apos^las mid fui'ene tungen I and heom 3ef " n e t ^, ,ie j 9 tI 
)jo mihte bet heo cuben alle spechen f forSon bet ^eo edmode f™'* es 
isomnunge iernade et gode '. bet muchel er be engles of eofene for 
heore modinesse forluren. hit itimode efter noes node bet eontas Th e giants 

' lost it 

walden areran ane buruh and anne stepel swa hehne f bet his Rof t'i™ugh 

1 ' pride. 

asti3e up to heofena. and ba wes an speche on al mowcun. and bet 

weorc wes bierunnen on-2en godes iwillan. God ec forSon heom The confu - 
° y o sion of 

to drefde swa bet he 3ef ewilcura of ban wurhtan selcu^e speche '. ton 6ues. 

and heore nan ne icnew o^res speche. bi ' bileafden heo heore timbr- ' ? for J* 

unge and to dreofden 3eond al middeleard. and be^an 2 weren 2 ?se'5 , 5an. 
swa felen spechen swa bere wurhten were?i, bet weren twa hun 

manna. Nu eft on bisse deie burh bes halie pastes to-cume f On the day of 

' ' ' ° Pentecost all 

•weren alle ispechen asein inumen. and isome '. forSon bet cristes 8 P eecl 'e s 

1 3 > restored. 

apos£las weren specende mid alle spechen. and ec bet wunderluker 

forSon bet ba an of bon apos£lwm bodeden mid ane speche f 

elche men wes ibubt bet ba bodunge iherde '. swilche heo 

spechen mid heore speche * weren heo ebreisce. weren heo *[Foi. 34a.] 

grekisce. oSer romenisce. o^er egiptisse. o^er of hwulche londe 

swa heo weren bet be lare iherden. On bissere ifereden iemede 3 3 ?iernede. 

bere &r>ost\&n admodnesse bas mihte. and bere eontan modinisse 

r . r Of the two 

larnede iscendnesse. be heolia 4 oust wes isesen ofer ba apos^las forms in 

' l which the 

on fares heowe. and ofer crist on hifsl fuluhte on ane culfre Holy Ghost 

L J was seen. 


over Christ at his baptism in the likeness of a dove. Why over Christ 
in the form of a dove, and why over Christ's flock in the likeness of fire 1 
Because that kind of bird is very (meek) simple, harmless, and peace- 
ful. The Saviour is the judge of all mankind ; but he came not to 
judge mankind, as he himself hath said, but to heal (save). If he then 
would have judged mankind when he first came upon earth, who would 
then have been saved 1 But he would not judge the sinful at his coming 
(advent), but he desired to gather them into his kingdom. He would 
first with gentleness direct us, that he might afterwards preserve us in 
(at) his doom (judgment) ; and therefore was the Holy Ghost (seen) upon 
Christ in the form of a dove, because he was living in this world in 
simplicity (meekness), in innocence, and in peace ; for he cried not aloud, 
nor was he of bitter speech, nor did he ever stir up contention, but bore 
with man's wickedness through his gentleness. But he, who at his first 
advent led through kindness the sinful to goodness, will judge the guilty 
with stern doom (justice) at his second coming, that is, doomsday. 
The Holy Ghost was seen in the form of fire upon the apostles, because 
he made them to be burning (zealous) in God's will, and to be preaching 
concerning God's kingdom. Fiery tongues they had when they lovingly 
proclaimed the greatness of God, so that the hearts of heathen men, that 
were cold through unbelief and fleshly lust, might be inflamed to obey the 
heavenly behests. If the Holy Ghost teach not the heart of man and 
his mind within, in vain will be the words of preachers spoken out- 
wardly. The nature of fire is that it consumes whatsoever is near it ; 
even so shall the teacher do who is enkindled with the Holy Ghost, 
first he shall remove himself from sin, and afterwards his flock. In the 
likeness of a dove and in the form of fire was God's Spirit manifested, 
because he makes those to be meek, and without evil, and burning (zealous) 
in God's will, whom he fills with his grace. Simplicity (meekness) is 
not pleasing to God without wisdom (prudence), nor wisdom without 
simplicity. What is simplicity without righteousness 1 and what is 
wisdom without true love to God and to men 1 And therefore the 
Holy Ghost, who teaches both righteousness and meekness, should be 
manifested both as fire and as a dove, for he causes men's hearts, 


onlicnesse. Hwi ofer criste on culfren heowe. and hwi ofer AVhy under 

these two 

cristes liirede on fures ilicnesse 1 forSon be bet fi^el-cun is forms > 

swiSe bilehwit. and wit-utan la^e and isibsum. be helend is 

alles moncunnes dema. Ac he ne com na to demane moncun Christ came 

not to con- 

swa se heo him seolf cwe=S i ac to helenne. Gif he walde ba de o m » tlie 
deman moncun ba be he erest to middelearde com. hwa weren 
banne ihalden '. Ac he nalde mid his to-cume ba sunfullen 
fordemen '. ac he walde to his riche heom igederian. Erest he 
walde us mid IrSnesse isteoren bet he mihte seo^an on his 
dome us ihalden. and forSon we[s] be halia gast on culfren onlic- 
nesse bufan criste. forSon bet he wes dreihninde on bissere The dove de- 

* _ m notes simpli- 

worlde mid bilehwitnesse. and mid nane la^nesse and mid sib- city and inno- 

sumnesse. for he ne remde ne of bitere speche nes. ne he sake 

ne asterde f ac forbere monna hufelnesse burh his IrSnesse. Ac 

be bet on bam ercan 1 to-cume IrSegedde ban * sunfullen to bere 'erran. 
r r r o r i „, [FoL 346>] 

godnesse i he denial strSne dom bam forsunegede on his etter 
to-come bet is on domes deie. be halia gast wes isesen on fures ifoeHoly 

' ' J (ihost was 

heowe bufan bam apostfas. forSon be he dude bet heo weren seen as fire, 
bhnende on godes willan. and bodiende umbe godes riche. 
Furew tungen heo hefden ba be heo mid lufe godes murlrSe 
bodeden. bet Sere he^ene monnan heortan bet calde weren burh and enai.ied 

> ' the apostles 

ilefleaste and flescliche iwilnuwge ' muhten beon atende to ban Jo enkindle 

° ' the cold 

heofenliche biboden. 3if be halia gast ne learS bes monnes J;^ tsof 

heorte and his mod wrS-innan t on idel beo^ bes budeles word 

wrS-utan icleopde. bes fares 2 icunde is bet hit forSnime^ swa 2 ? fures. 

hwet him neh brS. Alswa seal be larSeu don be ^et brS mid 

ben 3 halia gast itend. Erest he seal hine seolfne wrS sunnan 3 ? ms. bet. 

isteoraw. and seo^an his heorde. On culfre onlicnesse and on 

fures heowe wes godes gast isceawed. forSon bet he de^ ba be 

beoS bilehwite. an/1 wrS-utan ufelnesse. and birnende on godes 

willaw. bet he mid his 2if ifulleS. Ne brS beo bilehwitnesse Simplicity 

' J ' without wis- 

eodes icwime butas 4 sno 5 temesse ne snetemesse butan bile- (! ; ,m I'" 1 

pleasing to 

hwitnesse. hwet brS bilehwitnesse butan rihtwisnesse f and hwet God - 

4 ? butan. 

* brS sneteraesse bute so^e lufe to gode and to monnen f forSon 5 sno nt f rs t, 

... ... , ■, r but altered to 

be halia gast be bet teeS riht-wissnesse and bilehwitnesse scuic" sne. 
beon isceawed eftSer 3c on fare. 3c on culfren. forSon bet heo d&6 » , sc u j de 


whom he enlighteneth with his grace, that they shall be meek through 
innocence, and kindled through (by) love and wisdom. God is, as Paul 
said, a consuming fire ; and he is the ineffable and invisible fire. Of 
this fire speaks the Saviour, " I came because I would send fire on 
earth, and I will that it burn." He sent the Holy Ghost on the earth, 
and he with his blast (inspiration) enkindled earthly men's hearts. Then 
burnetii the earth when the heart of the earthly man is kindled to the 
love of God, which before was cold through fleshly lust. The Holy 
Ghost is not in his nature existing as he was seen, for he is invisible ; 
but he was manifested in the form of a dove and of fire, for the sign 
(reason) we have previously mentioned. He is called in Greek UapdKXrjTos, 
that is, the Comforting Spirit, because he comforteth the (sorrowful) 
dreary, those that are sorry for their sins, and he giveth them forgiveness 
and hope, and alleviates their sorrowful mood (mind). He forgiveth sins, 
and he is the way to the forgiveness of all sins. He giveth his gift (grace) 
to whom he will. To one man he giveth wisdom and speech (eloquence), 
to one good thought, to one great (faith) belief, to one power to heal sick 
men, to one prophecy, to one a discrimination of good and evil spirits. 
To one he gives divers tongues, to one man interpretation of divers 
speeches (sayings). All these things, and many others, doth the Holy 
Ghost, distributing to each as he thinks fit, for he is the Almighty 
Creator ; for so soon as he enlightens man's heart and mind, it turneth 
from evil to good. He enlightened David's heart, when he in his youth 
loved the harp, and made him to be a psalm-wright. There was a herds- 
man called Amos, whom the Holy Ghost turned to a good prophet. 
Peter was a fisher, whom the same Holy Spirit of God turned to an 
apostle. Paul, that injured the Christians, him he chose for a teacher 
of all the Gentiles. Matthew, that was a toll-gatherer, him he converted 
to an evangelist. The apostles durst not preach the true belief for fear 
of the heathen (? Jews) ; but when, subsequently, they were enkindled of 
the Holy Ghost, they were not afraid of any bodily torments, and 
therefore without fear preached God's bliss. The greatness (dignity) 
of this day is to be praised (celebrated), because that Almighty God, 
himself, on this day condescended to be poured out on mankind. At 
the birth of Christ, God Almighty's Son became human man, and on 


bere monnan heortan bet he onlihte^ mid his 3ife. bet heo becvS 

IrSe burh un-cladnesse '. and iteuS burh lufe and snoternesse. God ^uniaSnesse. 

is swa paul cwe^. bet niininde fur and he is un-asecgliche fur. God is a co, 

... . sumiiig fire. 

and uniseweuhch fur. Bi bam fure cwt^ be helende. Ic com 
for^on bet ic walde sen dan fur on eorSan. and ic wile bat hit 
berne. he sende bene halia gast to eorfcan and he mid his bleade The Holy 

. . Ghost in- 

ou-ealde eorSlichen monnan heortan benne birne^ ba eorS 2 benne flames the 

cold hearts of 

bes eorShche monnes heorte brS itend to godes lufe. ba bet er men. 

wes cald burh flescliche lustes. Ni 3 na be halia gast wuniende 2?eor ° e - 
on his icunde. swa se he lsejen wes f forSon bet he is unisejenlic. 

Ac for bere itacnunge swa be 4 er seiden. bet he wes isejen on * ? we. 

culfre and on fure. He is ihate on grekisc paraclitws. bet is be He is called 

& , 1 r r the Com- 

frofre gast. forSon bet he ifrefra^ ba drorijan. ba be£ heore sun- forter. 

nan bireusia^. and 3ifS heom for^ifnesse. and huht. and heore 

jeomerinde mod ilvSega^. heo fo^ife^ sunna. and he is be wei to 

*alre sunnen forjifenesse. he jifS his jefe ban be£ he wule. •[Foi.366.] 

Summe Men he }if wisdom and speche. Summe god rSonc. 

Summe muchele ileafe. Summe mihte to helene un-trume men. 

Summe witegmige. Summe iscead godra gast. and ufele. Summe T,| e gifts of 

& ° 7 . the Holv 

he jifS misliche irord. Summen. maw irecednesse of misliche Ghost. 

spechen. Ealle J>as bing and moni^e o^re de^ be halija gast f 

to delende uwilchen bi ban bet him iwurS I forSon bet he is 

almihtin wurhte. for swa re^e swa he bes mannes heorte and 

his mod on-lihte '. hit iwendeS from ufele to gode. he on-lihte T1) e Holy 

Ghost eon- 

daurSes heorte ba be he on jeojobe herpan lufede. and warhte verts sinners. 

hine f to salm wurhtan. Amos het a reo^er heorde bene 

aw[e]nde be hah^a gast to ane gode witege. petrws wes fixere 

bene iturnde be be 5 ilcan godes gast to apostle, paul bet hermede 5 sic. 

c?'istene men I bene he iches to lai^ewe alle beoden. Mathews bet 

wes cachepol bene he iwende to god-spellere. Da aposZlas ne The apostles 

dursten bodian ba so^en ileafen for bon eie of bon helene. Ac preach the 

1 J Gospel before 

ba srS^an heo weren itend of ban halia gaste. hi neren aferede of l , he Holv 
' re Ghost en- 

nane licamliche pinuwge. and berfore wrS-utan fore godes blisse {jf^ 6 " 6 ' 1 

bodedan. Disses deijes hehnesse is to heriane. forSon bet be 

almihti god hine seoffimede*mede 6 bet he walde monna cun on *[Foi.3f>n.] 

6 • seolfne 

bisse cleie isundian. on cn'stes akennednesse iwearS be almihtija imedemede. 



this clay became faithful (believing) men God's sons, and even as Christ 
also saith, "I said ye are God's children." The elect (chosen men) are 
God's children not naturally, but through the grace of the Holy Ghost. 
One God is naturally in three persons — the Father, the Son, who is his 
wisdom, and the Holy Ghost, who is the Will of them both. Their 
nature is indivisible, ever existing in one Godhead. The same said 
of his elect, "Ye are Gods." Through Christ's humanity men were 
redeemed from the devil's bondage ; and through the coming of the 
Holy Ghost men's souls were brought unto God. Christ received 
humanity at his coming (upon earth), and men received God through 
the outpouring of the Holy Ghost. The man that hath not God's 
Spirit in him is not God's. Each man's work showeth what spirit 
directeth him. God's Spirit directeth ever to holiness and to goodness. 
The devil's spirit leadeth ever to sin and to wicked deeds. The Holy 
Ghost came twice upon the apostles. Christ breathed the Holy Ghost 
over the apostles before his ascension, thus saying, " Receive the Holy 
Ghost." Again on this day he (they 1) sent — the Almighty Father and 
the Son — the Spirit of them both upon the apostles. While yet living in 
the world, the Saviour breathed his Spirit upon the apostles for a sign 
that they and all Christian men should love their neighbours. Also he 
sent, as he before promised them, the Holy Ghost from heaven, because 
that we should love God above all things. The Holy Ghost is one, 
although he came twice upon the apostles. So also there is one love 
and two behests, that we should love God and men. But we should 
learn from men how we may come to love of God, as saith John 
the Evangelist, " He that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, 
how can he love God whom he hath not seen bodily?" We celebrate 
the coming of the Holy Ghost with songs of praise for seven days, 
because he enlighteneth our mind with sevenfold graces (gifts), that 
is, with wisdom and understanding, with counsel and sti'ength, with 
good deeds and with piety, and he filleth us with the fear of 
God. He that through good deserving (deserts) attaineth to these 
sevenfold graces of the Holy Ghost, will have all bliss. But he that 
desires to attain to this bliss must believe in the Holy Trinity and 
in true Unity, that is, that the Father and his Son and the Spirit of 
them both, are three in persons and one God, indivisible, existing 


godes sune to monnesce men ibroht. and on bisse deie iweorden 
ileafulle men godes and swa se crist cwe£. Ic cwe^e 5e beo^ The elect 

are God's 

godes bern ba icorene men beo^ godes bern i na icuwSliche f ac ehOdren. 

burh bes hahjan gastes 3ife. And 1 god is icundeliche on breom. i?An. 
Hadan feder. and sune. bet is bis wisdom, and be ha^e gast '. be 

bet is beore beire wille. Heore cunde is unto-deledlich efer 2 2 Ms - efter - 
wuniende on ane godnesse. be ilea cwe^. bi his icorene ye beo^ 

godes. purub cristes menniscnesse men weren alesde from deofles Through 


^eowdome. and burh bes balse gastes to-cume mennen saule were humanity 

men were 

ibrobt to gode. Crist underfenc meniscnesse on bis to-cume. delivered out 

of the power 

and men underfengen god '. burb bes ba^an gastes isundunge. be of the devil - 
mon bet nafS godes gast on him nis he na godes. Elches monnes 
weorc cuSan hwile gast bine wissa^. Godes gast wissa^ efre to 
bali3nesse. and to godnesse. Deofles gast wissa^ to sunnan f and to 
mandeden. be haha gast bicom twa ofer ba aposilas. Crist ableow T1) e Holy 

1 J ° r l Ghost came 

bana 3 ha^a gast ofer ba apo^las f er his upst[i]3e bus cweSinde JjJ^ ™*f 
onfoft haline gast. eft on bisse deie he sende be almihtin feder 3 sic. 
and be sune heore * beire gast to bam apostfli '. ba 3et wuniende *[Foi. 366.] 
on bissere weorlde. be belende ableu his gast on his aposdas 
for ^ere itacnunge. bet heo and alle cristen men scullan lufian 
heore nehstan f al swa he heom er bihet bene ilea gast of 
heofne. for^on bet we sculen lufian god ofer alle oSer bing. An The Holy 

' ° ' ° Ghost is one, 

is be halie gast bah bet he twa bicome ofer ba apos^las. Al swa although he 

'<->•' > a came twice 

ec is an lufe f and twa biboden. bet we sculen lufian god I and. ° v ^]* 

Men. Ac we sculen leornian on mannew hu we ma3en bicuman 

to godes lufe. Al swa Iohan be godspellere cwe^. be bet ne lufe£ 

his broker bene bet be isihS. hu mei he lufian god bene bet he ne 

isilrS licomlicbe i we wurSia^ bes hahjen gastes to-cume mid loft- 4 4 ■ lnf -- 

songe seofen da3es. forSon bet he onlihte ure mod mid seofanfald 

3ife. bet is mid wisdom, and a^ite mid rSohte. and streinde mid 

gode dedan '. and trewfestnesse. and he us ifulS mid godes ei3e. 

be bet ^urh gode iearnmzge 5 bi-cunr8 to bissan seofsenfalden sefan He who win 

1 r ° ° * come to the 

of bam 6 hahan gaste '. he haue$ alle blisse. Ac be bet wule to gifts of the 

, ¥ r Holy Ghost 

bare blisse bicumera f he seal ileafan on ba haha breomnesse. and F 1 "?' ^ H . e \ e 

' r J r in the Trinity 

on softre annesse. bet is be feder. and his sune and heore beira 6 sic. 
gast heo beoft breo on hadan and an god unto-*delendlich on *[v^ n s7 a ,-] 


in one Lordship and Godhead. This belief was betokened by the three 
thousand men that first inclined to belief, after the coming of the Holy 
Ghost. And as the three thousand men were one fellowship (commu- 
nion), even so the Holy Trinity is one God ; and that fellowship is as 
one-minded (unanimous) as though they were all one in heart and soul, 
because that of the Holy Trinity thei'e is one Godhead and one nature, 
and one will and one inseparable work. The faithful (believing) men 
brought their wealth and laid it at the feet of the apostles. By that is 
denoted that Christian men should not put their trust in temporal pos- 
sessions, but in their God alone. The covetous, that setteth his thought 
on his goods, is the devil's child, except he cease to do so. Because 
covetousness had no place in the hearts of those who held their goods of 
little worth, therefore did they put their goods in common amongst them, 
that they might be in true unity without covetousness. The apostles 
set their hands over believers, and the Holy Ghost came upon them 
through their confirmation (bishoping) ; and bishops of the same order 
are still in God's Church and observe the institution in their confirmation 
(bishoping), so that they place their hands over baptized men and pray 
that the Almighty Ruler may send them the sevenfold gifts of the Holy 
Ghost. Qui vivit et regnat, &c. 



f\mnia nimia nocent, et temper antia mater virtutum dicitur, that is 
in English, All things overdone (all excesses) are injurious, and 
moderation is the mother of all virtues. Overliving in eating and 
in drinking maketh the man unwhole and his soul loathsome to 
God, and so our Lord hath said in his Gospel. On the other hand, 
immoderate fasting and too much abstinence in eating and drinking make 
the man infirm and bring him to great grief, as say the books, That 
some men fasted so that they sorely afflicted themselves and had no 


ane drihtnesse and godnesse wuniende beos ileafan itacneden ba The Trinity 

in Unity, 

breo busend men. bet erest bu3en to ileafan efter bes halja gastes denoted by 
to-cume. and alswa beo breo busend weren an iferende 1 . alswa is thousand 

> > > converts on 

beo hal^e breomnesse an god. and bet iferende is swa anmod p^f^f 
swulc heom alle an weren on heorte. and an sawul f forSon bet feno\vship 0ne 
bere haljan )>remnesse is an godnesse. and an icunde. and an i ? iferedene. 
iwille. and an wore un-to-delendlich. Da ileaffullen brohton 
heore gersum and leiden heo et bere apos^lan fotan. Mid ban is 
itacned bet cristene men ne sculen heore bileafe bisettan on bere 
weordliche eahte '. ac on heore god ane. be ^itsere be biset his 
ibonc on his ehte '. he br5 bes deofles bern buten he hit iswike f 
forSon heo bet ba jitsunge heoldew heore eahte unwur^Jliche nefde True unity « 
nenne stude f on heore heortan 2 . and for bi heo dudan heore bing covetousness. 

. 2 The proper 

heom aemene : bet heo so^re sibsumnesse butan aitsunge beon > rder w— heo 

lieolden heore 

mihten, ba apos^las setten here hondan ofer ileaffulle men f and eaht oawnr. 

liche fortion 

heom com to be halja gast. burh heore bisceopurcge. Bisceopas pet p a 3 itsung 

bes ilean hades on godes ila^unge. and halda^ ba isetnesse on 

heore bisceopunge swa bet heo setteS heoraw. *handan ofer *[Foi. 376.] 

ifuljede men. and biddaS bet be almihti welden[de] heom 

sende ba seofenfalde jife of bam haljan gaste. Qui uiuit & 

.Kegnat, &c. 




mnia nimia nocent. & temperancia mater uirtutum di- Of eight vices 

and twelve 

citur. bet is on englisc. alle ofer done bing dena^ 3 . and abuses of this 

imetnesse is aire mihta moder be oferlifa on hete and on wete 3 ? deriaft. 

maca^ bene mon un-halne. and his saule gode la^e^ 4 and swa ure 4 MS - lade ^- 

„ , Excess 

drihten on his goclspelle seide. pEt ber tojemes unimete festen injurious. 

and to michel forhefednesse on hete and on wete macaS bene the mother of 
mon un-halne and on michelere sarinesse bringe^ swa swa us 
seggeS bee. bet sume men festen swa bet hi swencten swrSe 


reward for that great affliction, but the farther were they from God's 
mercy. Easily may the man find how he may injure himself, but we 
must recollect that no self-murderer, that is, self-slayer, shall come into 
God's kingdom. Now there are eight cardinal sins that reign very 
powerfully in us. One is called Quia, that is, greediness in English, 
which causeth that the man eateth and drinketk before the time, or, 
on the other hand, taketh too much to eat and drink. This sin 
destroyeth both soul and body ; for it bringeth upon a man great 
diseases, and bringeth (him) to death through excessive drink ; and it 
destroys also the man's soul, for it will sin often even when he knoweth 
not how he conducts himself on account of his immoderate drinking. 
The second sin is fornication and immoderate lasciviousness, which is 
called Fornicatio. It defileth the man, and of the limbs of Christ 
maketh whores' limbs, and of God's house the abode of ills. The third 
sin is Avaritia, that is, evil covetousness. It is the root of every crime ; 
it produceth rapine and injustice, theft, leasing and perjury ; it is like 
unto hell, because that they both have such insatiable greediness as 
to be never full. The fourth is called Ira, that is, in English, wrath 
(anger). It causeth man not to have the control over his anger, 
and maketh murders and evils of many kind. The fifth sin is Tristitia, 
that is, sorrow of this world ; when the man sorroweth altogether 
too much for the loss of his wealth, which he hath loved too much, 
and chideth then with God and increaseth his sins. There are two 
sorrows ; — the first is this evil one (just mentioned) ; the second is 
salutary, that is, that a man be sorry here in the world for his 
sins. The sixth is called Desidia, that is, sloth in English, when 
the man desires not to do any good in his life ; but is ever un- 
ready for any good deed. The seventh is called Jactantia, that is, 
idle boasting in English, when man is greedy of praise, and acts 
deceitfully, and does more for praise than for the love of God if 
he distributes aught (to the poor), and therefore the notoriety shall 
be his reward for the deed, and in the other world his retribution 
awaiteth him. The eighth sin is called Superbia, that is, in English, 
moodiness (pride). It is the beginning and end of all evils ; it 
turned angels into horrible devils, and maketh man also, if he wax 
very proud, the associate of devils, who previously fell out of heaven 
through pride. Now are there eight head (cardinal) virtues which 


heom seolfe. and nane mecle nefden for ba rnichele iswinche. ac Excess in 

fasting is not 

bes be fir weren fram godes milce [EJa^e mei be mon fundan hu commend- 

he hine seolfe amerre. ac we scole witan. bet nan seolf cwale bet 

is asen-sclaja ne cumeS to godes riche. Wu beo^ .viii. lieofod There are 

J eight cardinal 

sunmm be rixa£ on us to swrSe. On is icwe^en. Gida. \et is sins. 

1. Gluttony. 

3ifernesse on englisc. beo de£ bet mon et er timan. and drinceft. 

o$er eft to muehel nime^ on ete o^er on wete. Deos suwne 

forded ei^er ye saule. %e lichoma. for *heo mace^ ban men •[Fol.38o.] 

muchele untrumnesse and to debe bringe^ mid unmete druncbe. 

and heo forded ec bes monnes saule for beo seal sui^an oft. 

benne be nat bu be ferS for his feondlicban druncbe. pa o^er 2. Adultery. 

sunne forliger and unimete galnesse. ]>et is ibaten fomicatio. He 

bukVS 1 bene mon and mace^ of cristes leomaw heoranna leomaw '. 1 ? befuieS. 

and of godes husa gromena wunhmge. ba bridde sunne is. Aua- 3. Avarice. 

ricia. bet is beo ufele 3itsunge. beo is more of elcbere wohnesse 

heo rnaca£ reaflac and unribte domes, stale and lesunge. and 

forsworenesse. heo is belle ilicbe. forSon be< hi ba habbe^ un- 

afillendliche gredinesse f \et hi nefre ne beoS fulle. beo feorSfe] 4. Anger. 

sunne is ibatan. Ira. \>et is on englisc wemodnesse. heo de^ \et 

be mo« ne ah his modes iwald and heo maca^ monslehtas. and 

monies cunnes ufel. peo fifte sunne is. Tristicia. \>et is bissere 5. Wanhope. 

worlde sarinesse be?ine be mon sor3e£ alles to swi£e for his 

hehte lure, be he luuede to swrSe. and chit benne wiS gode. 

and his sunnen ecbe^. Twa sarinesse beo^. an is beos uuele 

o^er is halwende. ]>et is ]>et mon beo sari her on worlde for his 

sunnen. peo sixte is ibaten. Desidia. \>et is slew^e on englisc 6. siotn. 

benne ban mon ne lust on his Hue nan god don. and brS eure 

unjearu to elchere duje^e. *pe seofe^e sunne is icwe^en. *[Foi. 386.] 

lactancia. \>et is ide^elp on englisc. benne mon brS lof^eorn. ' oastins - 

and mid fikemmge fearS and de^ for 3elpe mare benne for godes 

luue. 3if he awiht delan wule. and forfcon brS be lesse 2 his edlen 2 ifor hiisse. 

bere dede. and his wite abided on bere o^Sre weorlde. pe ebtu^e 8 - Pride - 

sunne is ihatan. Supevbia. \et is on englisc, modinesse. Heo is 

ord and ende of alle uuele. heo macode englas to ateliche deoflan 

and bene mon make^ ec 3b 3 heo modigaS to swi^e bes deofles 3 ms. 31s. 

ifere '. be feol cr ut of heouene burh modinesse. Nu beo^ .viii. 


may overcome all these sins, through God's assistance. The first is 
Temperantia, that is, moderation in English, that man be modei*ate 
in all things and partake not of too much in eating and drinking, 
nor sit at his table before time. Brutes eat as soon as they get it, 
but the discreet man ought to keep to his meals, and then in reason 
adhere to his regimen. Then may he in suchwise overcome greedi- 
ness. The second virtue is Castitas, that is, cleanness (chastity) in 
English, that the layman should keep himself without fornication law- 
fully and reasonably. The consecrated servant of God should ever 
observe his chastity above all things, and thus then shall the foul 
lasciviousness be overcome. The third virtue is Largitas, that is, 
liberality in English, that a man should wisely spend the things which 
God gives him to enjoy in this life and not for worldly praise. God 
desires not that we be greedy niggards, nor also for worldly praise 
that we waste our property ; but let us deal out our wealth wisely 
so that it may be pleasing to the Lord ; and if we give alms, let 
us give them without boasting, then may we destroy the excessive 
covetousness. The fourth virtue is Patientia, that is, in English, 
patience (forbearance), that the man be patient and forbearing for 
God's sake, and ever let his discretion prevail over his wrath ; for 
the Saviour speak eth thus in his Gospel, In patientia vestra 'possidebitis 
anirnas vestras, that is in English, In your patience ye have preserved 
your souls ; and again the heavenly wisdom saith, Ira requiescit in 
sinu stulti, that is, Anger hath its dwelling in the bosom of the fool, 
that is, when the man is very angry-minded ; and the Almighty 
Judge shall judge you with righteousness, and therefore we should 
overcome wrath with forbearance. The fifth virtue is Sinritalis laititia, 
that is, ghostly bliss, that the man rejoice in God amidst the sor- 
rows of this stark (harsh) world, so that we be not despairing in 
misfortunes, nor, on the other hand, rejoice too extravagantly in pros- 
perity. And if we lose these poor worldly things, then we shall 
know that our abode is not here, but in heaven. If we trust in God, 
as the Apostle hath said of himself and other righteous men, Nostra 
autem conversatio in ccelis est, that is, our dwelling is in heaven, 
thither we shall hasten from this tribulation with spiritual joy ; then 
shall the evil sorrow with-al be overcome through our good endurance. 
The sixth virtue is Instantia boni operis, that is, diligence in good 


heafod mihtan. pe ma3en ouercumen alle pas sunnaw purh Eight car- 

k rm • n • dinal virtues. 

drihtnes fultum. An is [TemperantiaJ bet is metnesse on \ Modera- 
englisc. bet mon beo imete on alle ping and to muchel ne pigge 
on ete ant? on wete. ne er tinian to his borde ne sitte. Nutenu 
eta^ swa er 1 swa hi hit habbe£>. ac pa iscead-wise mon seal kepan i ? ec. 
his meles and pemie mid isceade his isetnesse halden. penne mei 
he ouercuman swa pa 3iue [rjnesse. pe o^er mihte is Castitas. bet 2. Chastity. 
is clenesse on englisc. bet be leawde mon hine halde but an for- 
li^ere on rihte la3e. and mid isceadwisnesse. peo ihadode godes 
peowa halde eure his clenesse ouer alle ping, and penne bv6 ouer- 
cumen swa ec pa fule galnesse. pe pridde mihte is. Laryitas. bet 3. Liberality. 
is custinesse on englisc pet mon wisliche * spene pa ping pe him * [Foi. 39a.] 
god lene on pisse Hue to brukene. and noht for world 3elpe. 
God nele bet we beon gredie 3itseras. ne ec for weorld 3elpe for- 
worpan ure ehtan ah dele we ure ehtan mid wisdome. swa bet 
hit drihtne likie. and 3if [we] almesse do^ : don hi butan 3elpe 
penne ma3e we fordon swa pa deofliche 3itsunge. pe feorSe mihte 4. Patience. 
is. paciencia. bet is on englisc ipuld. bet pe mon beo ipuldi. and 
polemod for godes luue. and lete elchur 2 hisiwit weldre pene his 2 ?*fre. 
wre^e. forSon pe helend cwe^ pus on his godspel. In paciencia 
ttestra possidebitis animas uestras. bet is on englisc. on eower 
ipulde 3e habbeS eower saulen ihaldene and eft pe heouenlich[e] 
wisdom cwe^. Ira requiescit in sinu stulti. bet is wre#Se hafS 
wunuwge on pes dusian bosme. bet is penne pe mon brS to red- 
mod, and pe al weldenda dema cleme^ eou mid rihtwisnesse. and 
we sculen mid ipulde ouercuman pa wrefc^e. pe fifte mihte 5. Spiritual 


is. [Spiritalis laetitiaj bet is gastliche blisse bet pe mon on god 

blissie bitwuxe pa sorinessen pissere sterke worlde. swa bet we 3 3 Ms - pe - 

on unilimpan to ormode ne beon f ne eft on iselhoan to swrSe 

ne blissian. and yl we forleosaS pas lenan world-ping f penne we 

sculan witaw bet ure wunuwge nis nauht her f ac is on heuene f 0ur c ° n ' . 

to « versation is 

3if we hopia^ to gode swa pe apostel seide bi him and bi o^ran in heaven - 
rihtwise. [Nostra autem conversatio in cells estJ] bet is ure 
wununge is on heuene. pider Ave sculen * hil^en of pissere erfe^- * £ Fo! - 396 -l 
nesse mid gastlichere blisse. penne bi^ pa ufele sarinesse mid alle 
ouercuman mid ure prode ibulde. pe sixte mihte is. \Instantia 6 - Peraver- 

01* L ance m good 



works, for if we be diligent in good works then may we in this 
wise ovei'come sloth, for it will be a longsorue (lasting) reproach 
(to us) if all our life be in vain here. The seventh virtue is Caritas, 
that is, true love to God and to man ; that we should engage in good 
works for the love of God, and not for the sake of idle boasting (vain- 
glory), which is displeasing to him; but let us do alms as he hath 
taught us, for love to God, and not for praise ; so that our Lord 
may be ever praised in our good works, and that vain-glory be ever 
despicable in our sight. The eighth virtue is called Humilitas, that 
is, true meekness towards God and to man, with purity of mind ; 
for he who is [wise] is never proud. Of what may the man be 
proud 1 though he be well-to-do and prosperous he may find many 
who are better to do and of higher estate than he. Nor, on the 
other hand, may he be proud of his weal, or of his wealth, because 
he knoweth not the day nor the hour that it shall all pass away. 
Nor of anything ought a man to be proud, if he is wise. Now ye 
have heard how these holy virtues overcome the sins which the devil 
soweth in us, and if we will not subdue them they will sink us into 
hell. We may through God's help overcome the devilish sins through 
warfare, if we keenly fight ; and finally obtain for ourselves the ever- 
lasting honour ever with God himself, if we strive for it now while 
here. Now there are twelve vices, which we shall first declare to you 
in Latin, and afterwards in English. Duodecim abusiva sunt seculi. 
Hoc est. Sapiens sine operibus bonis. Senex sine religione. Aclolescens 
sine obedientia. Dives sine elemosina. Femina sine pudicitia. Dominus 
sine virtute. Christianus contentiosus. Pauper superbus. Rex iniquus. 
Episcopus negligens. Plebs sine disciplina. Populus sine lege \ et sic 
suffocatur justicia Dei. 

Twelve abuses there are in this world for harm to all mankind if 
they might hold sway ; and they subdue righteousness, and 
mar belief, and bring mankind, if they were able, into hell. That 
is, if the wise man be without [good works, and if the old man 
be without] piety, and if the young be without obedience, and 
the rich without charity (alms-deeds), woman without purity, and 
the lord (ruler) without might (virtue), and if the Christian man 


boni operis.] \>et is anreduesse godes werkes. for 3if weo beo$ 

anrede on ure gode werckan f benne ma3e we swa ouercumew ba 

slauSe. for kit br5 lonsum bismer 3if al ure life br8 on unnet her. 

pe seofe^e mihte is. [Caritas.] \et is so^ luue to gode and to 7. charity. 

monnen. ]>et weo on gode weorcas godes luue kepan f and naut 

ide^elp be is him ansete. ac uten don elmessen swa he us tehte 

gode to luue. and naut for herimge. ac \et ure drihten beo eure 

ihered on ure godan weorcan. and be idele 3elp us beo eure un- 

wur5. pe eahtu^e mihte is ihaten. [Huniilitas.~\ \et is soS 8. Humility. 

edmodnesse to gode and to monnen. mid modes lusternesse. 1 for 1 ? hiutter- 


be be brS [wis] he neme 2 modi. On hwan mei be mon modegian 2 ? ne wur $ 

beh he beo wel ijx^en and ibunge?i. for he mei findan fele be 

beo^ bet ijK>3en and isto3en bene he. Ne eft he ne mei 

on his welan. ne on his ehte modegian. forSow \et he nat bene 

dei ne bene time J>e hit al forletan seal. Ne on nane binge ne Eschew pride. 

ah be mon to modegian. 3if he wis biS. nu 3 3e habbeS iherd hu 3 ms. bu. 

bes halie mihten ouercumaS *ba sunnan be deouel bisawe^ on *[Foi. 40a.] 

us. and yi we nelleS heom ouercuman. hi biserameS us on helle. 

[W]e ma3en burh godes fulste ba fondliche sunnan mid icompe 

ouercuman. 3if we kenliche fehtaS and habban 4 us on ende }>ene *? originally 

eche wurSment a mid gode seoluan. 3if we swincaS nu her. N\ of tweI ^ e 

beoS .xii. un}>eawes. be we sculew eou seggan erest on bocleden f 

and srSban on englisc. Duodecim abusiua sunt seculi. Hoc 

est. Sapiens sine o])eribus bonis. Senex sine religione. Ado- 

lescens sine obediencia. Diues sine elemosina. Femina sine 

pudicitia. Dominws sine uirtute. Christwwms contenciosus. 

Pauper superbus. Bex iniquus. Upiscopus negligens. Plebs. 

sine disciplina. Poptdus sine lege. & sic suffocatur iusticia dei. 



welf unbeawes beo5 on bissere weorlde to hermen alle These vices 

.... . . Ti-i v m x • mar belief. 

monnen. 3if hi moten rixian and hi aleggaft nntwis- 
nesse. and bene ileafan amerraS. and moncun bringe^ ^if hi 
motan to helle. pet is 3if be wisa mon brS butan [gode wercan. 
and 3if be aide brS butan 5 ] treuscipe. and 3if be 3unge brS 5 See P . 109, 
butan hersumnesse. and be richen butan elmesdedan. wif butan 
clenesse. and be lauerd butan mihte. and 3k be cristcne mon 


be quarrelsome, and if the poor be proud, and if the king be un- 
righteous, and if the bishop be negligent, and the people without 
correction or without law. Now if the wise man who should give 
other men good example be without good works, will not his lore 
then soon be of little value to the laity, if he himself will not do 
as he teacheth them to do 1 His lore will not be profitable or 
acceptable to the laity, if he by his works sets aside his own teaching. 
Again, if the teacher fall into error, who shall afterwards be his teacher ? 
If the eye becomes blind, the hand will not be well-seeing. The 
old man who is without religion is like the tree that beareth leaf 
and blossom but no fruits, and is worthless to its owner. What 
is ever so foolish and blockish as the old man that will not turn 
his thoughts to God with good intent, when his limbs show him 
that he will not be long alive 1 A young man may doubt whether 
he may live, but the old man may certainly look for death. The 
old man should guard against evil thoughts, for the heart nor the 
tongue become old, but these two things oft injure the old man. Let 
the old man observe therefore what is profitable to old age, and disregard 
those things that hurt the soul. The third abuse of this world is, that 
the young man be without obedience. Unworthy shall he be in old 
age that other men should be subservient to him who in his youth would 
not honour his elders. Our Saviour in his youth was obedient to his 
parents, and his heavenly Father he obeyed even to the death. And as 
it behoves the old man to have virtuous habits and true religion, so also 
it becomes the young man that he have obedience and submission. 
God's law biddeth also each man ever to honour his father and his 
mother with much honour, and if he curseth them he is worthy of 
death. The fourth abuse is that the rich man should be without charity 
(alms-deeds) and hide his goods, and assuredly earn for himself hell- 
torment. Accursed is the covetous who comes to destruction through 
his wealth, and through his own goods perishes ever in eternity ; 
but blessed are ever the meekhearted, for they shall find mercy. 
Again, he who gives alms for his Lord's love, hides his treasure 
in heaven, where no thief may steal away (his) treasures, but where 
they shall be an hundredfold preserved for him. In many ways may 
a man do alms — in meat and drink, and also in clothing ; and by 


bi^ sacful. and 3if J?e wrecche bi$ modi, and 3if be king *br5 *[Foi. 406.]| 

linrihtwis. and 3if be biscop brS 3emeles. and bet folc butan steore 

eft 1 butan la3e. Nu 3if J?e wisa nion brS butan gocle wercan. be be 1. of the wise 

man without 

o^er monnen scolde sullan gode bisne. bu ne brS sone bis lare ban good works. 

lewede mownen unwurS. ^if be seolf nule don swa swa be beom 

teche^ to donne f Ne br$ naut his lare fremful ne icweme ban 

ileweden '. yf lie mid wercan to-werpe^ bis boduwge. Eft ^if be 

larSeu dwela^. hwa brS sr£San his larbeu \ Gif bet e^e ablinda^ '. 

ne brS naut be bond wel lokinde. J)e aide mon be brS butan 2. of the old 

man without 

treowscipe. br5 iliche ban treo be bere^ lef and blosman. and belief. 

nane westmas ne bere£. and brS unwurS his lauerde. Hwet is 

eure swa dusi and swa stuntlic swa is bet be aide mon nule his 

mod to gode awendan mid gode huhte. benne bis leoman him 

cuba^ bet he ne bi$ quic longe '. 3 un g e nmnnan mei tweonian 

hwe^er hi moten alibban. ac be aide mei him witan iwis bone 

de^. Dan alden his to warniene wK uuele ibohtas for beo heorte T1 >e tongue 

and the heart 

ne alde^ naut ne ba tunge. ac bas twa bing deria$ oft ban alden. do not get 
Wite for bi be aide aide 2 hwet is elde bihouige. and ba ^ing for- 2 sic. 
seo bat his saule deria^. pe bridde unbeau is on bissere worlde. 3- of the 

young man 

bet 3ung mon beo butan ihersumnesse. *vnwur5e brS be on elde without 

' J ° ' ohedience. 

bet him o^er men benien 3 be on his suhe^e nule his eldian 4 her- *[Foi. 41a.] 

. . . . ' MS. we- 

sumian. Vre helend on his 3uhe : Se wes ihersum his cunne. and his "ien. 

7 * '! eldran. 

heouewlich federe he hersumede to $a de^e. Swa swa ban alden 
bihouaS du3ende bewas and [t]riwe treofestnesse '. swa biriseS 
ban 3u?7gan bet he abbe ihersumnesse and ibuhsumnesse. Godes 
la3e bit ec mon wurSie efre his feder and his moder mid muche- 
lere wurbunge. and 3b he heom werie^ '. he biS de^es wurSe. 
pe feorSe unbeu is bet be riche mon [beo] butan elmesdedan. and 4. Of the rich 

. • 1 • • man without 

bihude his feh. and 3eornliche halde hit him to belle wite. vniseli charity. 
brS be 3itsere be burh his isellrSe leosa^. and burh his ah3ene ehte 
forwurS a on echnesse. ac iselie beo^ efre ba mildheortan. for bi 
heo imeta^ ba mildheoi-tnesse. Eft be Se dele^ elmessan for his 
drihtnes, luuan f be bihut his gold hord on heouene riche. ber nan 
beof ne mei [his] magmas forsteolan. ac heo beo^ bi hundfalde 
ihalden him ber. On monie wisen mon mei wurchen elmessan. of divers 

. . kinds of 

on ete and on wete. and ec on lwedan. and bet mon gistas almsgiving. 


receiving strangers, and visiting sick men, and comforting the sorrowful, 
or by leading a blind man, or supporting the infirm, or healing the 
sick, if he know aught of leech-craft (the healing art) ; or if he forgiveth 
those who have offended him ; or if [he succour] the distressed ; or if he 
carry [a dead] man to the tomb. All this is alms ; and also that a man 
chastise the frail body, for correction, which must be corrected, for that 
is mercy that the wise man with reproof rectify the unwise. Lay never 
up in thine hoard what may be of service to destitute men, for thou thy- 
self enjoyest not thy weal, though thou keep it secretly (hoarded up). 
Thou gatherest more and more, and men die of hunger, and thy wealth 
rots before thine eyes. Let us not do so, but let us do as our Lord hath 
commanded us. He hath said in his gospel, Date elemosinam, et 
omnia munda sunt vobis, that is, Give alms, and all things shall be 
pure to you. The fifth abuse is, that a woman be without chastity. 
An unclean woman suffers shame in this world, and is despicable 
in this life, and after this life shall have no joy with God. Wisdom is 
needful to men, and chastity to women, for chastity shieldeth them from 
vices. Where chastity is, there also are good virtues ; and the chaste 
woman shunneth covetousness, stirs not up strife, but appeases wrath, 
and scorns lasciviousness and covetousness ; she guards herself against 
drunkenness, and loves not idle words. Verily chastity subdues all 
vices, and observeth good virtues which are pleasing to God and 
man. The sixth abuse is, that he who is appointed a lord (ruler), 
cannot, for pusillanimity, check his men, but is so powerless in mental 
vigour that he dare not cause his men to stand in awe of him, 
nor will teach them to follow any wisdom. Some lords approach 
God through their lordship, as Moses the leader did, who spake to 
Almighty God ; and some lords in their rule displease God, as Saul 
the king did, who disregarded God's commands. The lord shall be 
gentle to the good, and awful (terrible) to the wicked, so that he 
may put down their folly ; and he shall be true to his word, and 
listen to wise lore (counsel). The good men shall love him for his 
gentleness, and the foolish shall ever fear him, else his reign shall 
neither be firm nor lasting. He shall so conduct himself that a man 
may contradict him and remind him of his needs (faults) ; and what- 
soever the lord may do harshly to his men, it must be done for 


underac and to seke monan ga. o^er sarine frefra^. o^er blindne o f aims. 

° _ giving. 

mon let. o^er bere% unliable. irSer unliable lechna^ ^if be leche- 

dom con. *o : Ser 3if be miltsaS 1 ban men be hine abelb. o^er ^\i *[Foi. 41&.] 

be 3eber-godne 2 mon fere$ to buriene. Al bis bvS almesse and S aS. 

ec bet mon biswinke bene stunte lichome for steore be be 3 steoran 2 ;,'"."'/ 

seal for bet is mildheortnesse. bet be wisa mon mid steore bene " eode ide ^ 

\ . . . or5er 3 ifhe 

unwisan iriblecbe. Ne ligge nefre on bine beorde. bet bauelese forfttarene. 
monnam meie fremian. for bu ane ne brukest naut binra welena f 3 S1C- 

Hoard not up 

bah bu hi demliehe 4 liable. Du gederast mare and mare, and thv wealth. 

* ? dGrnlicliG 

men cwela^ on hungre. and bine welan forrotia^ biforan bine 
eb^an. Ne don we naubt bus. ac uten don al swa lire dribten 
cwe^. he seide on his godspelle. Date elemosinam '. & omnia 
munda sun [t] nobis, bet is. dele^ elmesse and alle bing eou beo^ 
clene. pe fifta unbeu is bet wif beo buten clenesse. Vnclene 5. ofthe 

woman with- 

wif boleS scome on weorlde. and unclene wif bvS unwurS on out chastity. 
liue. and efter bisse hue nane blisse naf"5 mid gode. Wisdom 
birise^ weran. and clenesse birisa^ wifan. for be clenesse iscilt 
heo wrS uTnlbeawes. Der ba clenesse brS '. ber beo^ ec ba gode Description 

L Jr r ' of a virtuous 

beawes and bet clene wif scuna^ 3itsunge and cheste ne stura'S. woman. 

ac heo gestiPS gronian and forsilrS galnesse and gredinesse for- 

ho3a¥>. heo hi wermvS wi$5 drunkenesse and idele weord *ne *[p i. 42a.] 

luuaS. Iwisliche jja clennesse iwelt alle unjjeawes and halt gode 

beawes be gode likia^ and monnan. [p]e sixte unbeau is bet e. of the lord 

be^e to lauerde hv6 iset. bet he for modleste ne mei his monnan out true 

don stere ac biS swa mibtles on his modes streche. bet he his 

men eisian ne der ne to nane wisdome heom nule wissian. Summe 

lauerdes inehlecheS gode burh heore lauer[d]scipe swa Moyses be Moses a type 

hereto3a dude be to ban almihti3an gode spec, and summe „,£,, 

lauerdes on heore onwalde god gremia^. swa saul be king dude 

be forsech godes beste. De lauerd seal beon IrSe ban godan and Description 

' & r & of a good 

eisful ban dusian bet he heore dusi alegge. and he seal beon ruler - 
weordfeste. and wise lare lusten. Hine scule ba gode men lufie 
for his liSnesse. and ba dusian him scnlen efre adredan. elles ne 
br5 his rixlunge ne fest ne lonsum. he seal beon swa iweorbt bet 
him mon mote witi speken and his neode menan. and swa hwet 
swa be lauerd speke to his men sterliche f do hit for rihtwisnesse 


righteousness and for God's awe, and not for (his own) anger. It 
is written in books that he that allows evil is as guilty as he who 
commits it, if he may amend it and takes no heed of the amendment. 
He shall with righteousness bow to God, for he can have no power 
aright without God's help, as saith God. The lord shall take heed 
that he have God's help, and he shall nowhere be distrustful of God's 
help. If God be his helper, nowhere shall his power be despised, 
because there is no power except from God. Qui suscitat de pulvere 
egenum, et de stercore erigit pauper em, that is, God raiseth from the 
mire whom he will, though he were erewhile poor, and maketh him a 
lord. And again the prophet speaks of God, Deponit potentes de 
sede et exaltat humiles, that is, The Lord casteth down the proud from 
their seats and exalteth the meek. And again the Scripture saith, 
Deus superbis resistit, humilibus dat gj-atiam, that is, God resisteth 
the proud and giveth strength to the humble, that all the earth may 
be obedient to him and honour his name. The seventh vice is, that 
the Christian man is contentious (quarrelsome). Of Christ's name 
is the Christian called, that is, the Christian man who is baptized in 
Christ : then if he be contentious, assuredly he is not a true Chris- 
tian. Verily there is no man a true Christian, unless he imitate 
Christ. Christ would not scold nor chide, as his Father's voice spake 
of him, " Here is my child who is very dear to me, and I have set my 
spirit over him ; he chideth not with contention, he stirreth not up 
strife, neither in the street heareth any man his voice." The Lord 
saith also in his Gospel that they are God's children who are peaceable 
and raise not up strife : and even as the peaceable are assuredly 
children of God, so also are the quarrelsome the children of the devil. 
We all address God, and say Pater noster, that is, Our Father which 
art in heaven, but we may not have the heavenly inheritance except 
we be devoid of all strife. The eighth abuse is, that the poor man 
should be proud. Many a man hath not wealth and yet hath pride, and 
is poor before the world and accursed before God, when he raiseth his 
thought with pride against God, and will not observe humility in his 
poverty. Christ saith in his gospel of the spiritually poor, Beati pauperes 
spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum cmlorum, that is, Blessed are the 
poor who are poor in spirit, for theirs is the joy of heaven's kingdom. 


and for godes e^e and noht for wre^e. hit is awriten on boken. 

bet be br5 al swa sculdig be bet uuel ibeuaS '. swa be be hit de$. He a guilty 

sif he hit betan mei i and umbe be botaTnel hotaS. he seal hine evil to pass 

' I L j j unreproved. 

mid rih[t] wisnesse ibu3an to gode. for he ne mei habben nane 

mihte *to rihte butan godes fulste swa god cweS. De lauerd *[Foi. 426.] 

■seal bihol^ian bet he habbe godes fultum and he ne seal nohwer 

ortrowian bi godes fultnro, Gif god brS his ifulsta f ne br5 his 

mehte nohwer for-se^en. for bon be nan mihte nis bute of gode. 

Qui suscitat de puluere egenum. & de stercore erigit pauperem. God abases 

the proud and 

bet is. God ahef of mexe bene mon be he wule bau he were er exalts the 
wreche and maca'S hine to lauerde and eft be witega serS bi 
gode. Deponit potentes de sede <£* exaltat humiles. bet is. Drihten 
aworpe^ ba modian of heore heh setle and on-hefS ba mildan 
and eft bet writ cwe^. Z>eus stiperbis resist it : humilibus dat 
gr&tiam. bet is. Drihten widset ban prudan and ^eue6 ban ed- 
meodan streinbe bet al middel eard beo him ibuhsum f and his 
nome herise. pe 1 seofeSe un-beaw is bet be cristene mon beo sacful. 1- Of the 


of cristes noman. is cristiani's icwe^en. bet is be cristene mon be is c '"istian. 
on criste ifulel^ad. benne 3if he br5 sacful f so81iche ne bi$ he noht a later I]a ' n a° 
wel enstene. So^liche nis nan mon wel cristene '. butan be be 
criste euenleche^. Crist nalde flitan ne chidan. Bwa swa his feder 
stefne cwe^ bi him. Her is min child be me is swi^e leof and ic 
sette minne gast ouer him. He ne flit mid cheste. ne he sake ne 
sturaS. ne on strete ne ihereS nan mon his stefne. Drihten sei$ ec The peace- 

. makers are 

on his godspelle bet ba beo^ godes bern be beo^ isibsmmne ac sake God's chfl- 

ne sturiaS. and swa swa [ba] isibsumma *beo : S so^liche godes bern I * [Foi. 430.] 

swa beo*) ec ba sacfulle so^liche deofles bern. Alle we cleopiaS to 

gode '. and cwe$a& pater noster. bet is. bu ure feder be ert on heuene 

ac we ne ma3en habben bene heouenlichen ebel ( butan we beon 

clene from alle sake. [p]e ehtuSe unbeau is bet be wrecche mon s. of the poor 

beo modi. Mom mon nat^ ehta. and beh haueS modmesse and proud. 

is erm for worlde. and uniseli for gode. benne he arereS his mod 

mid modinesse o^ein god. and nule on his erm^e f edmodnesse 

halden. Crist cwe$ on his godspelle bi ban gastliche wrecchan. 

Beati pav.peres sp\\\tu '. §uoniara ipsomm est regnum celorum. Blessed are 

, .. , the poor in 

pet is. ead^e beoS ba wrecchan be on gaste beo^ wrecchan f for spirit. 



They are poor in spirit who for God's love are meek and humble ; 
for humbleness of mind may obtain God's kingdom sooner than the 
poverty which cometh of misfortune. Assuredly the rich that live 
righteously may be reckoned amongst God's poor if they have meekness 
and forsake superfluity (extravagance), as King David saith of himself, 
Ego egenus et pauper sum, Deus adjuva me — I am needy and poor, but, 
O God, aid me. The proud poor for the pride of his mind is rightly 
reckoned (in books) amongst the rich ; and the humble rich, though 
he have wealth, may be amongst God's poor, if he pleaseth God. The 
ninth abuse is that the king is unrighteous. The king is chosen for that 
which his name declareth. King is called rex, that is, governor 
(director), for he shall direct his people with wisdom, and put down 
wrong, and exalt belief (faith). Then is it a grievous thing if he be 
unrighteous, for he may direct none aright if he himself is unrighteous. 
The righteousness of the king exalteth his throne, and his soothfastness 
(truth) establisheth the government of the people; that is the king's 
righteousness, that he oppress not wrongfully the poor nor rich, but 
judge every man equitably. He shall protect widows and orphans, 
and suppress stealing, and forebid whoredom, and banish thieves from 
his kingdom ; and withal, he shall put down witchcraft, and he shall 
not tolerate soothsaying. The wise men shall advise him and he 
shall never be passionate. He shall ever protect God's minsters, and 
feed the poor, and boldly fight against an invading host, and preserve 
his kingdom. He shall appoint him trustworthy men for sheriffs, and for 
the fear of God lead a good life, and be unmoved in tribulation and meek 
in peace (prosperity), and shall not suffer his offspring to be unrighteous. 
He shall pray at the appointed times, and ere meal times shall not 
touch meat, for that it is written, " Woe to the people where the 
king is a child, and where the leaders eat in the early morning 
unlawfully !" If the king will with carefulness observe these afore- 
said precepts, then shall his kingdom be prosperous in this life, and 
after this life he shall go to the eternal life for his piety. And 
if he disregard these precepts and this lore (instruction), then shall 
his land be ever and anon impoverished either by war or by famine, 
or by disease or by tempests, or by wild beasts. Let the king 


heore is lieouenriche niurlrSe. Da becrS wrecchan on gaste be of the poor 

in spirit. 

for godes luue beod milcle and admode. for bon be bes modes 
edmodnesse mei bi3etan godes riche re^er }>en be haueleste be of 
henSe cume?. Gewisliche ba richan be rihtliche libba^ ma3en 
beon bitwixen godes wreccha?i jif beo edmodnesse habbe^ and 
ouerflowendnesse forleta^ swa swa be king dauid cwe^ bi him 
seoluen. Ego egenus & pauper sum ? deus adiuua me. bet is. Ic 
em barua and wrecche. ac e;od fulst bu me. De moclie wreccha The proud 

' poor is ricli 

for bis modes upahefednesse is to richan itald rihtliche on before God. 

boken and be edmeda riche J>ah he ehte habbe mei beon godes 

wrecche. 2if he gode icwemeS. [pie nilne^e unbeau is bet be 9. of the king 

. . . w,)0 ^ un * 

king beo unrih[t]\vis. De king brS icoren to ban be him cnS his righteous. 

noma. * King is ihaten rex f bet is wisegend for he seal wissian * [Foi. 43&.] 

mid wisdome his folke and unriht aleggen and bene ileaue of the word 

areren. benne bi$ hit ermlic. ^if he brS nnrihtwis. for he ne mei 

nenne irihtlechan '. yd he bi^ him seolf unrihtwis. Des kingges 

rihtwisnesse arere^ his kine setle and his sodfestnesse ista}>ele$ 

bes folkes stere. Det is kinges rihtwisnesse bet he mid \v0h3e ne 

of-sitte ne ermne ne eadine. ac elche men deme riht. He seal The duties of 

a good king. 

bhverian widewan and steopbern and stale aleggen and heordom 
for-beodan. anil jjeouas addriuan. of his erde mid alle and he 
seal wicche creft aleggan and \vi3elunge ne geman wise men him 
scule readan and he ne seal beo nefre wemod godes minist[re] * * The con. 

p # L J traction is 

he seal mundian efre. and fedan wrecchan. and festliche winnan scarcely 

legible ; ? 

wr5 onsisend-ne here, and halclan his ebel. He seal so^feste men r ^ d 

* ' rnmstre. 

setten him to irefen. and for godes eie libban his lif rihtliche 

and beon on erfe^nesse anred and edmod on stilnesse. and his 

of[s]pringe ne i|>auie bet hi beon unrihtwise. he seal hine ibidan 

on a-sette tidan 2 . and er meltimaw metes ne arinan. for hit is a- 2 MS. ridan. 

writen bet wa bere beode ber be king brS child, and ber ba aldor- woe to the 

r rrrro . . people when 

men etaS on erne rna^en ula3eliche 3 . Gif be king wule mid tlie ^"s is a 
carfulnesse haldan bas bebodan '. benne brS liis riche isundful x - 16 -> 

1 ' 3-< unla3e- 

on Hue. and titer bisse liue he seal faran to ban eche Hue for his pd»e. 
treowscipe. And 3if he forsihS })as isetnesse* and }>as lare '. bene *[Foi. 44a.] 
brS his ercl ihened oft and ilome erSer 3c on hei^unge. 3c on S haVbefan hat 

, , • • i Mil the country of 

hungre. 3e on cwalme. 3c on umwidere. 30 on wnde deoran. a bad king. 


take heed how it is written in books, if he holdeth not righteous- 
ness, that even as he is exalted on his throne before other men, so 
shall he be hurled down to the lowest torment under the unrighteous 
devil, whom he previously obeyed and pleased. The tenth abuse is 
that a bishop is negligent. Episcopos is a Greek name, which 
is in Latin speculator, and in English watchman, for he is ordained 
to the end that he may overlook the lewd with his superintendence 
(care), as God himself saith to Ezekiel the prophet, Speculatorem dedi 
te domui Israel ; that is, I have made thee to be a watchman unto the 
house of my people Israel, that thou shouldst hear my word and shew 
them the speech of my mouth, and if thou wilt not tell the un- 
righteous of his unrighteousness, then the unrighteous shall die in his 
unrighteousness, and in indignation I shall require of thee his blood ; 
and if thou warnest the unrighteous man and he will not turn from his 
sins through thee, he dieth in his unrighteousness, and thy soul shall 
be quit. Thus speaketh our Lord to bishops. Now if the bishop 
be negligent when he is God's messenger and ordained as instructor 
to the lay-folk, then shall many souls perish, and he himself forth- 
with for his negligence. But the people are blessed through a wise 
bishop, who declareth to them God's law and tends them under God, 
as a good shepherd, so that they may be saved and that he may receive the 
reward. The eleventh abuse is that the people be without instruction. 
Many follies there are where no discipline is, and where the foolish 
man is bold and where error reigns supreme. There shall it be hard 
for any wise man to dwell, and therefore saith the Psalmist, speaking 
in these words, Apprehendite disciplinam nequando irascatur Dominus 
et pereatis de via justa ; that is, in English, Receive correction lest 
God be angry with you, and ye then perish from the right way. 
Also the apostle Paul saith in his Epistle, Continue in discipline, for 
ye shall be as fornicators if ye live without correction. Again, the 
prophet Isaiah concerning the same says, Quiescite agere perverse, discite 
bene facere ; that is, Cease unrighteous deeds, and learn to do good ; and 
David saith also, Declina a malo et fac bonum ; that is, Turn from evil 
and do good. If thou be evil, turn thee from evil, lest thou perish at the 
last incorrigible. The twelfth abuse is that the people be without law. 
"We may not observe Moses' law in the olden manner after our Lord's 


Wite ec be king hu hit is icwe^en on boken. jif he rihtwisnesse 

ne halt. bet swa swa he is on heuene 1 on his kine setle to-foran l read on- 


o^er menne?* f swa he brS eft inibered on ban neobemeste pinan 

under ban unrihtwise deoule be he er iherd and icwemde. [pie 10. of a neg- 
ligent bishop. 

teou^e unbeau is bet biscop beo ;jemeles. Episco/ms is gerkisc Bishop is a 

. . Greek word — 

noma bet is on boc leden speculator, and is on enghsc scawere. its meaning. 
for he is iset to bon bet he seal ouerscawian mid his jeme ba 
lewedan. swa god seolf cwe^ to ezechiele ban witegan. Specxxla- 
torem dedi te domui israel. bet is. Ic be sef to scawere mine folke The Lord's 

' words to 

israeles hirede. bet bu ihere mine word and of mine muSe mine bishops. 

speche heom cuSe. and ^if bu ban unrihtwisan nult his unriht- 

wisnesse seggan f benne swelt be unrihtwise on his unrihtwis- 

nesse. and ic of-ga et be mid groman his blod and •$& bu wernast 

bane unrihtwise vaon and he nule icherran from his sunnaw burh 

be f he swelt on his unrihtwisnesse and bine saule br$ alesed. 

Dus speked ure drihten to biscopaw. Nu ;if be biscop brS a negligent 

bishop causes 

semeles benne he godes budel is and to larbeawe iset ban leawede man y souls to 

' . . perish. 

folke f benne losia^ fele saulen and he seolf forS mid for his 
jemeleste. ac bet folc br§ iseli burh snotmie biscop be heom serS 
godes lare. and halt heom under gode swa god heoste 2 bet heo 2 »-«id 


beon ihaldene and he habbe 3 be mede. [p]e endleofte unbeau is * originally 


folc beo butan steore. fela stuntnesse beoS f ber * nan steore n. of the 
ne brS. and ber be dusie mon brS briste. and ber be dwolunge out instruc- 

. . . 7 tion. 

nxa^ f bere brS uuel to wunienne em wise men. and lor bon * [Koi. 44&.i 

cwe¥> be salmwurhta mid bise 4 wurden cleopiende. Apprehendite * ms. wise. 

disciplinam neqxx&ndo irascatur dominus <k pereatis de tiia iusta. 

bet is on englisc. Vnderfo^ steore bi les ^e god iwurSe wra^ wrS 

eou and se benne losian of ban rihtan weie. Ec be apostel paulus The words of 

the apostle 

cwe% on his pistel Dui u 5 5 -wunia : S on steore and je beo^ swilche p»«i. 

5 ? Durh. 

forlijeres. ;if $e libbaS butan steore. Eft be witega ysaias bi ban 
ilean cweS. Quiescite agere peruerse. discite bene facere. bet is 
iswike 1 ^ unrihtwisra dedan '. and leornia^ god to wurchenne. and 
dauid cwe^ ec. Declina a malo <k /ac bonuva. bet is. Bull from 
uuele and do god. Gif bu uuel were f iwend be from uuele. bi 
les be ^u steorles losie on ende. [pel twelfta uivSeau is. bet folc 12 - of the 

' L J ' people with- 

beo butan la^e. we ne moten halden nu Moises laje on ba aide <w*i»*- 


coming, but we shall fulfil to the best of our ability the Saviour's behests, 
and they are for a law to us, for we are ever without God if we 
observe not God's behests. Many ways there are, as the Book of Wisdom 
declares, which men think right, but they nevertheless at last leadeth 
to death those that foolishly follow them. He who forsaketh God's 
law, which is our way, he shall in various ways fall into many errors. 
Christ himself is the way, as he said of himself, Ego sum via, Veritas 
et vita ; that is, I am the way, and the truth, and the eternal life ; 
no man may come to my heavenly Father but through me. But we are 
through Christ brought to heaven if we keep his ordinances. Those who 
live without God's law and God's ordinances, they are ever dwelling 
without God. The Lord himself promised this to all those that observe 
his behests, Ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consum- 
mationem seculi ; that is, I myself am with you all days unto the end 
of this world. May the Saviour direct us ever to his will, so that 
our souls may return again to him after our life (here) to the eternal 
life, and that he may receive our souls which previously he sent into 
the body. Quod ipse prestare dignetur qui vivit et regnat Deus per 
omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 



TT'actus est Films Dei omnibus sibi obtemperantibus causa salutis 
eternce, appellatus a Deo pontifex juxta ordinem Melchisedech. 
Our Lord's holy passion, that is, his holy suffering which he for 
mankind underwent, is now come in, and the holy writ admonishes 
and bids us that we be mindful of the torment that our Lord endured for 
us at this time ; and therefore we must ever honour him with all our 
hearts and with all our minds, and chiefly at this holy season which 
is now come to us ; and we must thank him for the great compassion 


wisan efter ure helendes to-cume. ac we sculen jefullan swa we 
best mujen bes helendes biboda. and ba beoS us for \a$e for we 
beo%> efre butan gode f sif we godes bibodan ne balded. Monie Worldly «is- 

° " ° dom leadeth 

bewas l beo£ swa swa be wisdom cleopa^. be monnew bunched t0 death - 
rihte. ac hi bah ledaS to de^e on ende ba be heom duseliche 
fo^ia^. De be godes laje forlet be is ure wei '. he seal misliche 
faraw on monie gedwilban. Crist seolf is be weie I swa he seide Christ is ti.e 

i . , . T1 . . . T .. wy, the 

bi him Ego sum uia uemtas & uita. \et is. Ic em be wei and ba truth, and the 

so^festnesse and \et eche lif ne mei nan man bicuman to mine 

heouewliche federe butan burh me. ac we beoS burh crist to 

heouene ibroht '. y.f we his bigenge halda^. * Da be butan godes * [Foi. 45a.] 

la^e and godes isetnesse libbe^ f ba beo£ butan gode efre wuni- 

ende. Drihten seolf bihat bis alle bon be halde^i his biboden. God's pro- 
mises to those 
Ecce ego uobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummacio- who kee P 1|U 


nem seculi. \>et is. ic seolf beo mid eow alle dajen abet endunge 

bissere weorlde. De helen[de] us iwissie to his willan efre bet 

ure saule moten eft-simian to him efter ure Hue to ban eche Hue. 

\et he ure saule underfo be he er asende to ban lichoman. Quod 2 2 MS. quoS. 

ipse prestare dignetur qui ?tiuit <k regnat c/eus per omnia secula 

seculoruxa. Amen. 



~ T^lactus est filius dei omnibus sibi obtemperantibus causa The text. 
L J salutis eterne i apellatus a deo pontifex iuxsta ordinem 

Vre drihtnes halie passiun. ]>et is his halie browunge be he The comme- 

.... moration of 

for moncunne underfeng. is nu icumew in. and be halie writ us our Lord's 


muneja^ and hat. \>et we beon imundie of bere pine be ure 
drihten bolede for us on bisse timan. and for-bi we sculen hine 
efre mid alle ure heorte. and mid alle ure mode herian and Christ is to be 

praised speci- 

swibest on bissere halie tide be is nu icumen to us. and we a11 * at *•» 


which he manifested towards us, when he spared not Jesus Christ his 
own Son, but gave him to death for mankind, as we sing in books, 
Proprio Filio suo non pepercit Deus, sed pro nobis omnibus tradidit 
ilium; that is, God spared not his own Son, but gave him to death 
for us all. Again, the Apostle saith in his Epistle, Christus /actus est 
pro nobis obediens Patri, usque ad mortem, mortem autem crucis — Christ, 
God's Son, was obedient to the heavenly Father to the death, and 
even to such a death as ye may see on the rood-token before you. 
With iron nails he was fastened on the cross, and with the spear's 
point pierced to the heart, and with a crown of thorns his head was 
crowned, so that the red blood flowed out on every side j and the folk 
that thus treated him kneeled before him in mockery, and greeted 
him, and in scorn called him king. Some there were that bound 
his eyes, and with their hands smote him smartly on the face, and 
bade him tell who it was that smote him. This torture and many 
others our Lord suffered from the heathen folk at this time, as the 
prophet had foretold when he said of him, vos omnes qui transitis 
2)er viam, attendite et videte si est dolor similis dolori ?neo ; that is, 
All ye that pass by the way, abide and understand and look (see) whether 
any man's sorrow be like my sorrow. Among all the sufferings that 
he suffered for us, he opened never once his mouth wickedly against 
any of them, as the Scripture said of him long before, Dominus tanquam 
ovis ad victimam ductus est, et non aperuit os smtm— Our Lord was 
led to the slaughter as one doth a sheep, and he never then opened 
his mouth. He willingly suffered for us and took our sins ; for if 
it were not his will (so to do) no death nor suffering could hurt him, 
as the book saith, Oblatus est quia ipse voluit, et peccata ipse portavit ; 
that is, our Lord was offered because that he desired it, and bore 
our sins ; and nevertheless he did not compel the heathen folk to put him 
to death, but the devil instigated them to the work, and God per- 
mitted that (it) for the redemption of all faithful men ; and the devil 
blinded their hearts so that they could not know our Lord who was 
amongst them. Quia si principes mundi hujus Christum cognovissent 


sculan bonkian him bere muchele mildheortnesse be he dude on 
us ba he na sparede na ikesu crist his a3ene sune ac salde hine 
to de^e for moucunne al swa we singed on boken. proprio filio God spared 

not his own 

suo non pepercit deus. Sed pro nobis omnibus tr&didit ilium, son. 

Det is. God ne sparede na his a3ene berne '. ac 3ef hine to cwale 

for us alle. eft be apostel serS on his pistel. Cristus /actus est 

pro nobis obediens patri usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis. 

Crist godes sune wes ibuhsum )>an heuenliche federe to ba de^e. of Christ's 

obedience and 

and bet to swulche *de : Se swa %e nia3en iseon on bere rode tacne death. 

* [Fol. 456 ] 

to-foren eou. Mid irenen neilen he wes on bere rode ifestned. 

and mid speres orde to bere heorte istungen. and mid bornene 

crune his heaued wes icruned. swa bet bet rede blod seh ut on 

iwulche half, and bet folc be hine bus makede knewede to-forew. 

him on bismer and hine greite and cleopede king on bismer. of ins tor- 
ments on the 
Suy/mie ber weren pet his e3an bundaw and hine on J>et neb mid cross. 

heore hondan stercliche beoten and hehten hine aredan '. hwa 

hit were bet hine smite. Das pine and monie o^re ure drihten. 

bolede of ^an he^ene folke in bisse timan. al swa be prophete 

heffede iboded ba he seide hi him. uos o?nnes qui tr&nsitis £>er 

uiarti f attendite & uidete si est dolor similis dolori nxeo. bet is 

Ge alle be fera^ bene wei '. abida^ and undei'stonda^ a/nd lokiaS 

hew^er enies nxmnes sar beo iliche mine sare. Imong alle bere of his for- 


pine be he for us bolede f ne undude he nefre ene his mu? mid 
uuele to-3eines nan of heom al sw"a bet writ seide bi him muchel 
to-foran. Dominus tanqu&m ouis ad uictimam ductus est i & The words of 


non ajjeruit os suum. Vre drihten wes iled to sle3e al swa me 

dede a seep a/nd he nefre ba ne undude his muS. His al^enes 

bonkes he browede for us and binom ure sunnan. for ^if hit his 

willa nere f ne mahte him nan de^ ne nan pine denan 1 f al swa i?/orderian. 

be boc serS. Oblatus est quia ipse uoluit f & peccata ipse por- 

tauit. bet is ure drihten wes iofired for-bi pe he hit walde and 

aber ure sunnan. and bah ne nedde he na bet he^ene folc to his 

cwale ac be deofel heom tuhte to ban werke and god ibeafede The devil 

egged on the 

bet to * alesendnesse alles ileffulles moncunnes. and be deofel Jews to put 

' ' Christ to 

ablende heore heortan bet heo ne cunnan icnawen ure helend be death - 
wes imong heom. Quia si pri?icipes mundi huius Christum 


nunquam ilium crucifixissent ; that is to say, If the head-men (princes) 
of this world had known Christ, they would never have fastened him 
to the cross for our salvation. Christ's righteousness (justice) is so 
great that he would not have taken mankind by force out of the devil's 
power, unless he (the devil) had been guilty ; but he grievously sinned 
when he incited and beguiled the folk to put to death Christ the Son of 
Almighty God ; and then through his precious death we were delivered 
from eternal death, if we destroy not now ourselves through sins. Then 
it happened to the devil as it doth to the maw of the fish that sees 
the bait but not the hook which sticketh in the bait ; then is he 
greedy for the bait, and swallows the hook along with the bait. So 
was it with the devil. He saw the manhood in Christ, and not the 
divine nature ; wherefore he enticed the heathen folk to his (Christ's) 
death, and then felt the hook, which was Christ's divinity. Then Christ 
proceeded to hell and bound the old devil, and took from him Adam 
the first created man, and his wife Eve, and all those who of their 
kin in this life pleased God. He took not all those who were therein, 
but only one portion, as one taketh a bite out of an apple, for it 
was written through the prophet, mors, ero mors tua, morsus tuus 
ero in ferae ; that is, Thou death, I will be thy death, and thou hell, 
I will be thy sting. And then the devil felt the hook which he had 
before greedily swallowed ; for our Lord arose from death on the Sunday, 
which we call Easter Day, which will be a fortnight to-day, and 
delivered us, if we will, from the everlasting death which is in hell, into 
which we had fallen through the guilt of our forefathers. But we shall 
now do as the man that is, after Christ himself, called Christian. The 
wit and the wisdom which our Lord hath sent us, let us spend it in 
God's will and in God's works, and for our own advantage let us 
praise our Lord who delivered us and made us free, who previously 
were slaves ; and made us, who ere were thralls, his own sons. Let 
us love him with all our hearts, with all our souls, with all our 
minds, and with all our strength, as the apostle St. John admonishes 
us, Diligamus Deum quia ipse prior dilexit nos ; that is, Let us love 
our Lord, for he loved us before we loved him. Great love he showed 
for us when he redeemed us ; he had no need of us, but we had 
great need of him. Moreover we ought to do more. We must love 


cognouissent nimcpiam ilium cmcifixissent. Det is to seggane. 
Gif ba hefclmeii of bissere worlde hefden icnawen crist f nefden 
heo nefre ifestned hiiie on rode for ure hele. Cristes rihtwis- 
nesse is swa muchel bet lie nolde niman mowcun nedunga of ^an 
deofle butan he hit formilte. ac he hit forgulte eteliche ba be he How the devil 

1 ' sinned against 

tuhte and spuhte bet folc to cristes cwalef bes almihtie godes dn*t. 

sune. and ba burh his deorewurSe de^e Ave werew alesede from 

ban eche dea^e. 3*f we us seolue nu ne fordirS burh sunnan. 

Da itimede ban deofle alswa de^ malne fisce be isrS bet es. and The devil like 

' } ' ' a fish that 

ne isihj na bene lioc be stica^ on ban ese. benne brS he gredi bes swallows the 
eses and forswo^e^ bene hoc forS mid ban ese. Swa wes bon hook - 
deofle. He iseh ba monnisnesse on criste and nauht ba god- He saw 

' * Christ's man- 

cuwnesse. Da tuhte he ^et he^ene folc to his slese and ifelde ''? od : V ut ,10t 

J Ins divine 

ba bene hoc bet wes cristes godcumnesse 1 . be ferde to helle and nature - 
iwra^ bene aide deouel and nom of him ada??i bene frumscepene 
mon. and his wif euan and alle ba be of heore cunne on bis liue 
gode icwemden. Ne nom he na alle ba be ber inne weren 
ah ane dale alswa me bit of ane epple f for hit wes awriten 
burh ban prophefe. mors ero mors tua morsus tuus ero tn- 
ferne. bet is. Du dea^ ic wulle beon bin de^ '. and bu helle ic 
wulle beon bin bite, and ba ifelde be deofel bene hoc. be he er 
gredliche forswealh for ure drihten *aras of dea^e on bene *[Foi. 466.] 

. . . . On Easter 

sunnen dei be we hateti easter dei. be nu brS to dei on fowertene Day Christ 

redeemed us. 

niht. and alesde us 511 we wulle^ of ban eche dea^e be is on 
helle be we weren in bifolen burh ure eldra gult. ah we sculen 
don nu al swa be mon be brS efter criste selue cristene mon 
inemned bet wit and bene wisdom be ure drihten us sende 
aspenen we hit on godes willan and on godes wercan. and us 
seluan to helpe herien we ure drihten be us alesde and makede 
us freo of beowan and of brelan his al^ene bern. Luuian we Let us praise 

. . . . him with all 

nine mid aire heorte. mid aire saulen. mid alle mode, mid alle our heart, 

soul, mind, 

meine alswa be apostel Sancte lohannes us muna^. Diligamus and Bright. 
deum quia ipse prior dilexit nos. Det is luuian we ure drihten. 
for bon be he luuede us er we hine. Muchele luue he us cudde ba 
he us alesde. Nefde he nane neode to us ac we hefden muchele 
neode to him. Git we sculen mare, we sculan luuian ure nehstan 


our neighbour — that is, all Christian folk — as ourselves, for we are 
all brethren. We all have one father in heaven, and we all address 
him and say, Pater noster qui es in ccelis — Our Father which art in 
heaven. None of us may say " my Father," nor " thy Father," but 
" our Father that art in heaven." As boldly may the poorest man call 
God his father, as the richest man of the land, wherefore no man 
ought to bear malice nor hatred towards any Christian man, as St. John 
saith in his Epistle, Qui odit fratrem suum manet in niorte — The man 
who hateth his brother abideth in death. And again, the same apostle 
saith, Qui dicit se diligere dominum et fratrem suum odit, mendax 
est — The man who saith that he loveth God, and hateth his brother, 
is a liar ; for if a man loveth not his brother whom he seeth, how 
can he love well his Lord whom he seeth not 1 Among the great lessons 
which our Lord taught his apostles, he taught them even this before 
other things, and said, Hoc est preceptum meum ut diligatis invicem 
sicut dilexi vos — This is my command and behest, that ye love one 
another as I have loved you. And therefore shall every man love 
another, Non verbo neque lingua sed opere et veritate ; that is, Not 
alone with words, nor with the tongue, but even in deed and in 
truth. And may our Lord and Redeemer grant us all that we in 
this life so observe his behests and commands, that we may have 
for our reward the bliss of heaven's kingdom. Auxiliante domino 
nostro Jesu Christo, qui vivit et regnat per omnia secula seculorum. 



f^thristus passus est pro nobis, vobis relinquens exemplum, ut sequimini 
vestigia ejus, &e. All that we read and sing at this time in holy 
church, it all appertains to God's love and to God's praise. The 
songs which we now sing are blissful, for they are made of the heavenly 
bliss which was opened to us at this time when our Lord arose from 



bet is al cristene folc alswa us seoluan. for alle we becrS ibro^ran. Love thy 

neighbour as 

Alle we habbe^ enne feder on heouene and alle we cleopia^ to thyself. 

him and segga^. Pater woster qui es in celis. Vre feder be ert 

in heouene. Ne serS ure nan min 1 feder ne bin feder ah ure ' n is partly 


feder be ert in heouene alswa baldeliche mei be wrechesta mon 
clepian drihtan him to federe swa be richeste mon of ban londe 
for-bi ah nan mon to beoran nrS ne onde to nane cristene 
mownef al swa Sancte iohan serS in his pistelle. Qui odit fratrem He who hates 

his brother 

suuvo. manet in morte. De mon be heta^ his broker he wuna^ loves not God. 

in dea^e and ef(t) be ilea apostel serS. Qui dicit se diligere 

dommiun & fratrem. suum odit f mendax est. De mon ^e ser$ 

bet he luua^ *god. and hate^ his broker he is lil^are. for be *[Foi. 47a.] 

mow be ne luua^ na his brooer be he isi£>. hu mei he luuian wel 

ure drihten be he naut ne isilrS '. Imong ban muchela wisdoma 

be ure drihten lerde his apo^les he tahte heom. bis swulche to- 

foran o^ran bingan f and cwe^. Hoc est preceptum meum ut Christ bade 

.us love one 

diligatis inuicem sicut dilexi uos. Dis is min bibode anil min another, 

heste. bet ye luuian eou bitwixan alswa ic luuede eou. and for-bi 

seal iwile mow. o^erne luuian. Non uerbo 7ieque lingua sed opere 

& ueritate. bet is naut one mid worde ne mid tun^e i ac ec mid in deed and in 

1 ° truth. 

worke and mid so^festnesse. and ure drihten and ure alesend 
iunne us alien bet Ave swa on bisse Hue ma3en his hest and his 
biboden halden f bet we nioten habben to mede heouenariches 
blisse. Auxiliante domino nos^ro ihesu Christo qui uiuit & 
regnat per omwia secula seculorum. amew. 



Christies passus est pro nobis uobis relinquens exemplum. ut The text, 
...... ., , IPet. ii.21. 

sequimmi uestigia eius & cetera. Al bet me ret and 
singed on bisse timan in halie chirche. al hit bilimpe^ to godes 
luue '. and to godes herunge. Da songes ba we nu singed beo^ Songs of 

. . praise to be 

bhsfulle for heo bo^ makede of bere heouenliche blisse be us wes sun g at this 



the dead, and delivered us from eternal death, and will bring us (here- 
after) to everlasting life. Great love our Lord shewed us when he, 
who is and ever was, without beginning, true God, became for our 
help true man. In similitudinem hominum /actus et habitu inventus 
ut homo; that is, He was made in the likeness of man, and enclosed 
in flesh as man ; and much more love he shewed us when he redeemed 
us, for it is written, Nihil nobis nasci profuit, nisi redimi profuisset ; 
that is, It profited us nothing that we were born, unless he redeemed 
us. With (a) very great price we were redeemed, as St. Peter hath 
said, thus saying, Non ex corruptibili auro vel argento redempti estis 
de vestra vana conversatione, sed precioso sanguine agni immaculati 
et incontaminati Jesu Christi Filii Dei ; that is to say, Ye are not 
redeemed from the devil's power with gold nor with silver, but with 
the precious blood of the pure and unspotted Lamb, that is God's 
Son. He is the true Lamb, as St. John the Baptist hath said, Qui 
tollit peccata mundi — who taketh away the sins of middle earth. His 
precious blood was shed in a place called Calvarie locus, as the evan- 
gelist telleth us. There it was shed in remissionem peccatorum nos- 
trorum ; that is, for forgiveness of our sins. With his blood we should 
daily besprinkle (spiritually) the posts and the lintel of our houses, 
that is of our hearts ; that is to say, that we shall cross our foreheads 
and the seven gates of the body with the sign of the holy cross, that 
our enemy — Qui tanquam leo rugiens circuit querens quern devoret ; 
that is, That the devil who goeth about as a hungry lion seeking 
whom he may destroy, that he may never come within us. What 
are the seven gates 1 They are our eyes, our nose, our mouth, and 
our ears. Upon them, as we before said, we shall mark the sign of 
the cross, in qua triumphavit rex angelorum — that is, of the cross 
by which the King of angels overcame the devil ; for that is the seal 
which the devil cannot break, that is the lock which the devil cannot 
unlock, that is the bolt which the devil cannot break. Of this token a 
Avise man said, Ita'c est scala peccatorum per quam Christus rex cajlorum 


iopenad on bisse timan be ure drihten aras of dea^e and alesde 

us of ban eche de£e and wule us bringan to eche Hue. Muchele Of Christ's 

' great love to- 

luue ure drihten us cudde ba be he be is and eure wes butan wards us. 

biginnunge soS god bicom for ure helpe so^ mon. In simili- 

tiiiliaem hominuva. /actus <£-• luibitu inuentus ut homo. bet is he 

wes imacad to nionne ilicnesse and iwunden mid fiesce al swa 

mon and muchele *mare luue he scawede lis ba be he us alesde *[Foi. 476.] 

for hit is awriten. Nichil nobis nasci profuitf nisi redimi pro- 

fuisset. Det is. Ne fremede us na bing bet he 1 were iborenf '?we. 

buten he us alesde. Mid swi¥e muchele wurSe we weren alesde 

al swa. Sancte peter us seide and c\ve&. Non ex corvptihili auro The words of 

1 % St. Peter. 

uel argento redempti estis de uestra nana conuersatioyie '. sed pre- 
cioso sanguine agni inmaculati &• incontaminati ihesu Christi 
filii dei. Det is to seggen. Ge ne beo^ ne alesde of deofles 
anwalde mid golde ne mid scoluref ac beo^ mid ban deorewurbe 
bleode of ban cleDan and of ban unwemmedan lombe ftet is 
erodes sune. He is bet so^e lomb alswa ^ancte lohan be b&ptist Christthe 

' r L true lamb. 

cwe^. Qui tollit pecc&ta mundi. be biniine^ middanerdes simne. 
his deorewurbe blod wes asced on stude be is ihaten. caluarie 
locus, al swa be godspellere us sefti. Der hit wes agoten In 
remissionem pecc&torum nostrorum. Det is alesendnesse of ure 
sunnan. Mid his blode we sculen deihwanliche 2 ba postles and 2 ?deihwam- 

' *■ hche. 

bet ouerslaht of ure huse bet is of ure heortan gastliche bispren- 

gan. bet is to understondan bet we sculen ure forheafod and whereto 

make the sign 

ba .vii. 3eade urea lichomes mid bere halie rode tacne seinian of the cross. 
bet ure wrSerwinna. Qui tanquaan leo rugiens circuit querens 
quero. deuoret. bet is bet be deofel be ge^ abutan alswa be gredie 
leo sechiwde hwew he rna3e fordon bet he neure ne ma^e cuman 
wrS-innan us. hwet beo^ bas .vii. 3eate f Det beoS ure e3an The seven 

gates of the 

and ure neose and ure mu? and ure earan. vppon heom alswa body. 

we er seiden we sculen markian bet tacne of bere halie rode. In 

qua triumphauit rex angelorum. bet is of bere rode of *hwem The virtues of 

the holy rood. 

englan king ouercom bene deofel. for bet i»seil be be deofel ne mei *[Foi. 48a.] 
nefre to breocan. bet is bet [loc] be^e deofel ne con unlucan. bet 
is bet scutles be^e deofel ne mei nefre to-cysan. Bi bisse tacne 
seide sum wis mo?*. Hec est scalapeccatorumper quam Christus rex 


ad se traxit omnia — This is the ladder of sinful men through which 
our Lord draweth to himself all mankind. Through this token king 
Constantine overcame all the folk that fought against him. Through 
this token Moses made the water of Egypt to be pleasant and sweet 
to all the people of Israel, which was sour and bitter to all the men 
of the country. Again, through this token Moses brought water out 
of the hard flint and gave the folk to drink upon the hill of Sinai. 
Otherwise might our Lord have redeemed us, if it were his will (so 
to do), but it seemed good to him that we who through the tree had 
been doomed to hell for our sins, should afterwards through the tree 
of the cross be redeemed. Of this redemption and of the conflict which 
our Lord had with the devil, David the prophet spake when he was 
on the earth, Liberavit pauperem a potente et pauperem cui non erat 
adjutor ; that is, in English, The Lord delivered the poor from the 
mighty, and the poor who was altogether helpless. The poor that he 
spake of was our father Adam, who became poor and helpless as soon 
as' he broke God's commands and God's behests. Our Lord who created 
him did not make him poor, as it is written, that our Lord crowned 
him with bliss and with honour, and set him over his handiwork ; 
and again it is written of him in the same psalm, Omnia subjecisti 
sub pedibas ejus ; that is, All earthly things our Lord put under his 
feet, all beasts and all cattle that were on the earth, all the fowls 
that flew in the air, and all the fishes that swam in the sea. They 
were all obedient to Adam, and not only under his hand but under 
his feet. But as soon as he forsook his Creator, through his wife's 
counsel, they lost the delightful abode which was assigned them, that 
was earthly Paradise. Then anon they were expelled, as the book saith, 
Expulsi sunt nee potuerunt stare — They were driven out of Paradise, 
and might no longer abide there. And where went they then 1 Truly 
into this world — uhi omnis homo cum dolore nascitur et cum dolore 
moritur — Into this world they went where each man is born in great 
sorrow, and endeth his life in great grief. Here they lived all their 
lifetime in anxiety and in affliction, and in great toil ; and after this 
life their souls went to hell, and there remained three thousand years 


celorum ad se tr&xit omnia. Dis is sunfulla monna leddre burh The cross is 

the ladder uf 

bwam 1 lire drihtan teh to him al raoncun. burh J>is tacne be king sinful men. 

constantirtus ouer com at bet iolc be ieiht to^eines him. Durh 

bisse tacne makede Moyses bet ^et weter of egipte wes lr<?c and 

swete ban folce of isroel. be wes sur and hitere alle bon monnen 

of ban londe. Eft burh Jjisse tacne Moyses werp ut bet welle 

weter of pan herda flinte and 3ef ban folke drinkcn uppan ban 

hulle synai. On o^er wise ure drihten us melite alesan 3if his 

wille were, ac him buhte bicumelic bet we be weren }mrh be treo Through the 

forgult in to helle f weren. eft burh bet treo of bere rode alesede. perished, and 

ii i through the 

Of bissere alesednesse and of ban icowape be ure drihten hefde tre , e we " ere 

' r i r redeemed. 

wrS bene feond '. dauid be prophete seide bo he wes on eorSe. 

Libercmit pa/uperem a potente & pa/uperem cui non erat adiutor. 

Det is on euglisc. Drihten alesde bene wrechan of ban mehti^an 

and ben werchan be wes al helples. Des wrecclie be lie of spec 

wes ure feeler adam. be bicom wreche and helples swa sone swa 

he to-brec godes bibode and godes heste. vre drihten be bine God did not 

make Adam 
iscop ne macode hine na wrecche. alsvva hit is awriten. bet ure p° 01 '. 

drihten hine crunede mid blisse and mid wuriSscipe. and sette 

hine ouer his hondiwerc. and eft hit is awriten bi him on ban 

ilean psalme. Omnia *subiecisti sub pedibus eius. Det is al * [Foi.486.] 

eor5lic bing ure drihten dude under his fotan. Alle ba deor but put ail 

things under 
and alle be nutenu be on eorSe weren. and alle be fi^elas be hisfeet. 

flu3en bi ban lufte. and alle be fiscas be swummen in bei"e se '. 

alle heo weren adame ibuhsume and naut ane under his bond f 

ac under bis fet. Ac swa sone swa he forseh his scuppend burh 

his wifes red f heo forluren ba ba murie wunuwge be heom bitaht 

wes '. bet wes eorSliche para [dl is. Da anan heo weren iscouen '. They became 

i i l j poor when 

alswa be hoc serS. Expulsi sunt nee potuerunt stare, heo weren Uiev were 

' ± ± banished from 

ipult ut of paradise '. and ne mehten ber naleng etstonden. and Paradlse - 
hwer bicomen heo ba '. So^liche on bissere worulde. vbi omnis 
homo cum dolore nascitur & cum dolore moritur. on bissere 
weorlde heo bicomen ber iwilch mo)t bi^ iboren mid muchele 
sara. and mid muchele soi^e his lif ienda& her heo leueden 
al heore lifdages on kare and on pine and on unimete iswinche. 
and efter bisse liue heore saulen ferden to helle and ber wuneden. 



and thereto four hundred years ; and all the men descended from 
them, good and evil, as soon as their souls left their bodies they 
went to hell. There might none resist, neither prophet, nor patriarch, 
nor even St. John the Baptist, who bore witness of our Lord and 
said, Between man and woman was never a greater man than he, but 
nevertheless his soul was ever in hell until the strong lion (came), that 
was the Son of the living God — et contrivit portas ereas, et vectes fereos 
confregit ; that is, he thrust aside the gates of steel and broke in pieces 
the iron bars of hell, and took out all those who in this life observed 
his behests. Et eduxit eos cle tenebris et umbra mortis — He led them 
out of darkness and from the shadow of death into heaven ; ad quod 
et nos perducat Christus films Dei vivi, qui vivit et regnat per omnia 
seeula secidorum. Amen. 



f~\ u i parce seminat, parce et metet. Our lord Saint Paul, the greatest 
teacher after our Lord himself, speaketh in the holy epistle, 
which is read to-day in holy church, and exhorts both clerks and laity 
to God's words and to good deeds, and thus saith, Spiritualiter quidem 
monens hos, ut ait Gregorius, ad sanctos predicationis ojficium. Generaliter 
vero hos et illos ad salutarem obedientiam mandatorum. Consecrated 
men he admonishes to teach well lewd men (the laity), and both con- 
secrated and the lewd to lead a fair and pure life in this world ; 
and saith that every man shall receive recompence, thus saying, Qui 
parce seminat et cetera. The man that soweth little shall reap little, and 
he that soweth in joy shall reap in joy, that is to say, the man who 
well doeth he shall receive abundantly. Sacra Scriptura nomine seminis 
appettat tria, scilicet, hominis progenituram, Dei verbum, opus bonum. 
Holy Scripture commonly nameth three things as seed — one is man's 
progeny, the second is God's word, and the third is good deeds. Our 


iiii. busend aeran and berto iiii. hundred 2eran and alle ba men be Adam and 

s J I J > i Kve were in 

comen of heom gode and uuele swa sone swa heore saulen and ^'^""^ 

heore licoma to-delden heo ferden to helle. Ne mihte ber nan ^. s hundred 

wrSstonden. ne prophete. ne patriarche. ne hure. Sancte iohannes 

baptise, be ure drihten ber iwitnesse and seide. Bitwuxe were 

and wife nes nefre mare mon benne he. ac bah hwe¥re his saule 

wes in helle. a $et ba streonge leo bet Aves bes lk^endes godes 

sune. Et contriuit portas ereas. & uectes fereos conf regit. Det is 

he to-bruste ba stelene gate, and to brec ba irene barren of helle. 

and nom ut alle ba ilcan be on bisse *Kue his bibode heolden. * [Foi.49a.] 

Et eduxit eos de tenebris & umbra mortis. He ledde heom of Christ 

brought them 

beostran and of scadewe. and of dea^e into heouena riche. ad out - 
quod et nos perdncat Christus^tus dei uiui. qui uiuit et regnat 
per omnia secula seculormn. Amen. 



[~ (~\~\ v i puree seminat f parce & metet. vre lauerd seinte paul The text. 

L ^d he3es[t] larSewen. efter ure helende seolfe f spece^ on be 
halie pistle be me ret to dei ine halie chirche and munege^ erSer 
ihadede and ileawede to godes worde and to weklede and bus 
serS. Spiritualiter quid em monens hos ut ait gregorius ad sancte 
predicationis officium. Generaliter uero hos & illos ad salutarem 
obedienciam mandatorum. Ihadede men he muneee^ wel to The clergy 

and laity are 

lerene ilewede men. Ihadede and lewede feier lif and clene to admonished 

to lerfd a pure 

leden in bisse Hue. and serS bet euric mon seal auon mede f and life - 

bus sei& Qui parce seminat et cetera. De mon bet lutel sewe^ w e shall reap 

' ' according to 

he seal lutel ma3e. and be £e sawe^ on blescunge he seal mawen what we so,v - 
of blescunge bet is to suggen. De mon be wel de^ f he wel 
ifelrS. Sacra scriptura nomine seminis appellat tria. scilicet 
hominis progenituram. dei uerbum. opus bonum. Halie boc Three things 

spoken of by 

nemne^ iwuneliche ¥reo bing to sede. an is monnes istreon. bet I'oiy wntas 


Lord called man's progeny seed, when he spake with the holy man 
Abraham of his seed, and said that so great a people should spring 
from him, that no man should be able to number them any more 
than one may number the stars of heaven, and thus said, Suspiee 
caelum et numera stellas si potes, sic erit semen tuwm. Look, he said, 
up to heaven and number the stars if thou canst ; so great shall be 
thy offspring. Sed observandum est quod prudens sator observat et 
glebe aptitudinem et temporis opportunitatem. It is to be noticed that 
when the wise husbandman is about to sow, he taketh heed of two 
things. One is whether the land be fit for the seed. So also ought 
every Christian man and woman, when they go to sow for issue, to take 
great care that they do it in a becoming (proper) place and at a right 
time. There is no place fit for procreation except those that procreate 
be lawfully married together, nor is there ever right time thereto when 
they ought to fast or keep holy day. Again, God's word is called 
seed in the beautiful parable which our Saviour spake with his own 
mouth to his apostles, and thus said, Exiit qui seminat et cetera. A 
rich man went out and sowed, and some of the seed fell upon stones 
and there dried up, and some among thorns and there perished, and 
some by the way and were trodden under and fowls devoured it, and 
some on good earth and that came well forth. The apostles entreated 
him that he should say what the parable signified, and he said, Semen est 
verbum Dei, sator autem Christus, omnis qui audit eum manebit ineter- 
num. God's word is the seed and Christ is the sower, and every man 
who heareth joyfully God's word and leadeth his life rightly thereafter, 
he shall have everlasting life and bliss without end. Sed est dili- 
g enter attendendum quod hoc semen spargitur turn ore proprio turn ore 
ministrorum. But we must understand that our Saviour soweth his 
holy word sometimes through his own mouth and sometimes through the 
mouths of the apostles, sometimes through the mouths of clerks who 
know the lore of holy books and who read and teach God's law unto 
the hearts of man. And in such wise speaks the heavenly King with 
every Christian man to whom he sendeth his holy Scriptures. In 
hac etiam satione r observa agri competentiam, et temporis 


oSer is godes word, and bet ^ridde is weldede. vre drihten cleop- l. Man's 

' progeny. 

ede mo?ines streon sed f ba be he spec wr6 ^ene halie mon 2.God'sword. 

abraham of his istreone and seide. bet swa much el mo?icun sculde deed". 

springen of him Set na man ne mihte itellen a mare be me mei 

Seo steorren cf heuene '. and bus seide. Suspice eel urn. A; numera 

Stellas si potes f Sic erit semen tuum. Bihald he * seide up to * [Foi. 496.] 

heouene and tel beo steoren 3if bu miht swulc seal beon bin of- 

spring. Sed obseruandum est quod prudens sator obseruat & 

glebe aptitudinem &• temporis opportunitatem. hit is to witene bet 

alrihtes swa alse be wise teolie benne he Avule sawe nimeS 2eme Two things to 

' ' be taken heed 

of twam bingen. an is hweSer bet lond beo bicumelic to be sede. of in sowing 

Alswa ahte eurec cristene mon ■ wepmon and wifmon. beraie 

heo fundieS to teoliende '. efter istreone nimen muchele 3eme bet 

heo hit 1 don on bicumeliche stude and on rihte time. Nis na > Ms. bit. 

stude to istreone bicumelic butan Sa be istreonieS beon bispused 

rihtliche to gedere. ne neaure nis riht time ber to '. benne me 

seal ueste oSer al freos3e. Eft-sone godes word is icleoped sed '. 

on bere feire forbisne be ure helend seide mid his a3ene muSe to 

his apostlen '. and bus seide. Exiit am semi/tat et cetera. A riche Tlie Parable 

1 ' * of the Sower. 

mon ferde ut '. and seow and sum of be sede feol an uppe be stane 
and ber adri^ede and sum among beornew and ber aswond and sum 
bi be weie and werS to-treden and fi^eles hit freten. and sum on 
gode eorSe f and bet com wel forS. Deo aposdes bine beden bet he 
scalde suggen hwetbeo saqe bicweSe and he seide. Semen est uerbum The expiana- 

' J _ tion of the 

del sator autem Christus omvds qui audit eum manebit inetevnum. Parable. 
Godes word is sed and crist is be sawere and euric mon be lusted 
luueliche godes wordes and lede"5 his lif rihtliche ber efter / he 
seal habben eche lif and blisse abuten ende. Sed est diligenter 
attendendum quod hoc semen spurgitur turn, ore ptoprio turn 2 ore g MS. cnm. 
ministvorum. ah bet is to understonde bet ure helend saweS * his * [ p oi. 50a.] 
halie word hwile burh his a3ene muSe and hwile burh Sere 
apostlene muSe. hwile burh Sere clerkene mu^e be cunnen be 
lare of halie boke be radeS and techeS godes la3e in to bes 
morales heorte. and alswuche wise spekeS Se eorSliche 3 king wiS lic i 1 ' ( f° en " 
iwilche c?*istene monne be he to sendee his halie iwriten. In hoc to°every aks 
ecuim satione diligenter obseiiia agri compelentiam f <£' temporis 



congruentiam. When the instructor of the people is about to sow 
his seed he ought to take great care that he sows it in proper 
earth, and at the right time, in the hearts of the men who joyfully 
listen to God's words. Some of these were previously good, some 
thereby became good, and this is befitting earth in which to sow 
God's seed. But those who love (their) sins, and will not renounce them 
nor be subject to any belief, are unbecoming earth for the seed of 
God's word. Uncle divina scriptura. Nolite spargere margaritas ante 
porcos. And therefore said the heavenly teacher, Ye shall not lay gem- 
stones (jewels) before swine for meat. On every Sunday and other high 
days is the time to sow the holy seed, that is God's word, and that in 
holy church, where all Christian men ought to be gathered together. 
Bonum opus nomine seminis dicitur, turn quum nunc seritur in faturo 
rnetetur, turn quum more frugum midtiplicabitur. Good works are called 
seed for two reasons ; one is, that just as they sow seed at one time 
and gather the fruit at another time, so also man doth now his deeds 
in this life and in the eternal world he shall receive the reward 
thereof ; the second is, as of one seed come manifold fruits, so of 
a good deed shall man receive afterwards manifold and great rewards. 
Midta quidem genera sunt bonorum operum, sed kic de uno eorum 
agitur, scilicet de elemosinarum largitione, unde propheta/m inducit di- 
centem. Dispersit, dedit pauperibus, et cetera. Many kinds of good 
deeds are there ; but the apostle exhorts us to one of them, that is 
almsdeed, and saith that we ought to give alms to destitute men, 
but, as the holy Psalmist David said, distribute it so that every 
needy man that craves it may receive something thereof. Give what 
behoveth thee, bestow it, and do not sell them the alms, but give. All 
good deeds are profitable for penance, but none more profitable than 
almsdeed. Quia sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita elemosina pecca- 
twm. For as water quencheth fire, so almsdeeds quench sin. But 
if we sell the alms it loseth its name and its virtue also. Quatuor 
modis venditur elemosina, et tunc inde populi favor emitur, aut pu- 
doris molestia deprvmUmr, aut recompensatio rei temporalis adquiritur, 
aut debiti beneficii solutio inpenditur. In four kinds of way man selleth 


congruenciam. Denne be2s folkes larbew his sed wule sawen he Things to be 

' regarded by 

ahte to nimene muchele seme bet he hit sawe on bicumeliche the sower of 

■* ' spiritual seed. 

eorSe i and on rihte time. On ^ere mowne heorte be luuelich[e] 

lusted godes wordes summe heo ere^on gode weoren summe heo 

^ere burh gode iwurSe^. and bet brS bicumelic eorSe godes 

wordes on to sawen. Ah ba %e su/men luue^ and for-leten heom 

nulled ne nane bileafe nuder-fo '. heo beo^ unbicumelic eorSe to 

be sede of godes weorde. Vnde diuina scriptura. Nolite sp>sa'gere 

Margaritas ante j>orcos. and bere for seide be heouenliche larbew. 

Ne sculen 2e nawiht simstones legmen swinen to mete. ./Euriche Holy seed to 

_ T . 1,e sown on 

sunen deie. and o^re he3e da3en is time to sawene bet halie sed Sunday. 

bet is godes word, and ^et in halie chirche ber alle cristene men 

a3en to beon isomned to gedere. Bonuvo. opus nomine seminis 

dicitwr, turn qxmm nunc scritu.r hi futiwro metetur. tuu\ gnum 

more frugum multiplicabitvLr. Weldede is icleoped sed i for f*ood deeds 

are called 

twain bingen. An is $et alrihtes swa alse me sawe^ sed on ane seed- 
time and gedere^ bet frut on o^er time '. al swa mow de^ nu^e 
his dede in bisse Hue. and on ^ere eche weorlde *he seal hafon *[Foi. 50&.] 
^er of his mede. Det o^er is. Alswa of ane sede curne^ feole 
folde weste. Alswa of ane e^eliche dede mow seal afon eft feole of this seed 

enmeth mani- 

folde mede and muchele. Multa quidem genera sunt bonorum fold fruits - 
operum. sed hie de uno eorum agitur. scilicet de elemosinarum. 
largitwne. vnde prophetam inducit dicentem. Dispersit dedit 
/Mi/iperibus. et cetera, feole cunne beo^ of weldede. Ah be 
apostel us munege^ here to one of heom bet is elmasdele and ofaimsdeed. 
serS bet me heo seal 3efen hafelesen monne monne 1 . Ah alse ^e ' sic. 
halie salmwurhte dauid. seide delen heo bet euric neodi ^e heo 
bisece^ sum bing ^er of afo. Gif ban biln^e^ ^e he"o dele^ and 
ne>>g 2 sullen heom ^eo elmesse ah 3efen. Alle weldede beoS 2sic 
freomfulle to sun-bote 3 . ah nan mare freowiful denne elmes idal. 3 Ms - sum - 


Quia sicut aqua extinguit ignem ita elemosina peccatum. for 
alswa weter acwewche^ fur '. alswa elmesdede acwenche^ sunne. 
Ah 3if me sulle^ beo elmesse heo feorleose^ hire nome and hire i>o not sen 

thy alms. 

mihte alswa. Quatuor modis uenditur elemosina. & tunc inde 

popwli fauor euerlitur*. aut pudoris molestia dejmmilur. aut re- * ? emitur. 

compensatio rei temporalis adqxxiritur. aut debiti benejicii solucio 


his alms. One is when he begetteth praise therewith. Et hoc animi 
morbo laborat fere omnis homo. And this vice hath mostly all men 
who give their alms both for love (sake) of recompense and also for to 
have praise, and to be honoured far and near where they are known. 
In the second mode man selleth his alms when he giveth it to such 
men whom for shame he cannot refuse because neighbours or else 
friends, and therewith rids him of shams which he should have if he 
gave it not. In the third mode he selleth his alms when he gives 
it to such a man who doth for him, or hath done or shall do, good 
service and chares (good turns), and think eth with his alms to requite him 
las trouble. Then is this man's good-will (services) bought with the alms. 
In the fourth mode a man selleth his alms when he giveth it to such 
men as he ought rightly to help, for sustenance, for clothing, according 
to his behoof, as doth many a man who giveth his alms to father or 
mother, brother or sister, or others so akin, that he may not rightly with- 
hold it. All the alms which a man doth specially to please our Lord, 
all that quencheth sin and merits (earns) recompense from our Saviour 
himself, and all good deeds which a man doth in other ways, and are 
also done for the love of recompense, he nevertheless selleth them and 
receiveth here the reward thereof, as our Lord saith in the Gospel, Amen 
dico vobis, receperwnt mercedem mam. Verily I say unto you, that those 
who do good for to have thereof again in this life, shall have no reward 
in the everlasting world ; but all that a man doth specially for God's love 
he shall receive the reward thereof, and be then rewarded even as 
it shall now be merited here ; for our Lord saith in the holy gospel, 
Eadem mensura qua mensi fueritis remetietur vobis. According to the 
same measure that ye mete now, your good deeds shall afterwards be 
meted to your meed (advantage), and a hundredfold more. As Ave pre- 
viously said, Qui farce seminat et cetera. Every man shall afterwards reap 
according to what he now sows, and he who soweth now in joy shall 
afterwards reap in joy ; that is, every man who leadeth a fair and 
pure life, and according to all his behoof distributes his alms, merits 
thereby that all men bless him and pray for him ; and our Lord God 
Almighty for their prayers will give him his blessing, that is. the 


inpenditur. An fower cunne wise mon sulle^ his elmesse. An in four ways 

J may alms be 

is benne he bi3eteS hereword £ere mide. Et hoc animi morbo sold - 

1. "When it is 

laborat fere omnis homo, and besne lent??- habbe^ mest bwet alle given for the 

' sake of a 

men. ^e 3efe : S heore elmesse erSer for godes luue and ec for here- return. 

word to habbene and beon iwurSegede fir * and neor ^er be heo * [Foi. 5ia.] 

ienawene beo$. An o^re wise mon sulde 1 his elmesse benne he s^g,^ - 

heo 3efe : 6 swulche mowne Se he for scome wernen ne mei for 2. For shame. 
ne3eburredde o^er elles freonde and bere mide bine alese^ of 

scome '. be he habben scnlde. sif he heo ne }ef. On ¥ridde wise 3. For good 

' J services. 

mon sulKe his elmesse %enne he heo 3efe : S sulche mo?me be him 
de^. o^er haue 1 ? idon. o^er don seal wiken and cherres and 
^enche¥> mid his elmesse foi^elden him ^eo hwile. ^enne bi^ bes 
mownes wile ibeht mid bere elmisse. On feor^e wise mon sulle^ 4. When it is 

given to those 

his elmesse. benne he heo ;efe$ swulche mo?zne be he ahte mid whom they 

> ' ou<?ht to 

rihte helpe to fodne^e and to scrude hi his bi-ha3e. alse deS support. 
monimon ^e 3efe : S his elmesse feader o%er moder broker o^er 
suster o^er cfSre swa isibbe %e he ne mei mid rihte wi^teon. Al 
^e almisse be mon de$ sunderlipe fur to tiuemen ure drihten ! Aims given 

r l l rightly 

alle beo cwenche^ sunnen and erni^ sunbote at ure helende quench sin. 
seolfe. a ml alle goddede be mo« de^ on odre wise and beoS ec 
idone for godes luue. Neo^eles he beom sulle^ and underuelrSe 
here ¥er of his mede alswa ure drihten serS in be godspelle. 
amen dico uobis .' receperunt mercedem snam. to so^e ic eow 
sugge \et ba ^e do% god for to habben Ser of &ytn in bisse Hue ; 
nabbeS heo newne bone on eche weorlde. Ah al \et mo« deS 
srmderlipe *for godes luuen '. he seal auon %er of his mede. and * [Foi. 516.] 
beon benne ifunde alse hit br8 nu^e iei'ned here, for ure drihten 
hit sei% in be halie godspelle. Eadem mensura qua mensi fueritis 
remecietur uobis. BrSon ilke imet ^e 3e mete£ nu^e '. eower 
weldede seal eft beon imeten eower mede. and bi hunderfalde ihey shall be 

rewarded a 

mare f alswa we er seiden. Qui parce seminal & cetera. ^Euric hundredfold, 
mon seal eft mowen bi bon be he nu saweS. and be be 2 sawe^ nu » sic. 
on blescunge. he seal eft mowen of blescunge. Det is seuric 
mon be lede^ feir lif and clene. and bi al his biba^e deleS his 
elmesse and bere mide ierned ]>et alle men hine blesceS. and for 
him biddeS. and ure lauerd god almihten for heore bene yeueK 

138 the lord's day. 

eternal kingdom that he hath prepared for all men who do his will 

here in this life. Ad qua/m gloriam nos perducere dignetur dominus 

noster Jesus Christus, qui vivit et regnat per omnia secula seculorum. 



Tiecerenda est nobis hcec dies sancta quce dicitur dominica, et ideo 
dicitur dominica quoniam hcec dies sola dies Domini est. Greatly 
ought we to honour this hoi)' day that is called Sunday, for it is 
God's own day. All other days of the week are subservient to 
this day. This day is the holy day, the blessed day, the blissful 
day, the pleasant day, the day seven times brighter than the sun, 
the first day that ever yet was seen on earth, in qua visa est lux. 
On Sunday was seen the first light on earth, for our Lord said this 
day, Fiat lux et facta est lux. Let there be light, and there was 
light. Ex hoc enim die reliquce dies sumpserunt exordium. Of 
this day took all others their beginning. Dies in qua convenit £>Ze&s 
ad ecclesiam, ad predicandurn et ad celebrandum. On Sunday every 
Christian man ought especially to come to church : the learned to teach 
the folk to obey God's behests, and the lewd to hear God's behests 
and to pray unto God. Dies in qua Icetantur agmina cceli et terras. 
On Sunday rejoice together the hosts of heaven and of earth, as the 
Holy Ghost saith through the mouth of the prophet David : Hcec 
est dies quam fecit Dominus, exultemur et letemur in ea. This is 
the day that God hath made, let us be joyful and glad on this 
day. In hac die multa et magna mirabilia fecit Dominus pro salute 
nostra. Many and great wonders did our Lord for our salvation 
on this day. In die dominica creati sunt angeli ah ore Dei. On 
Sunday were the angels made by the mouth of God. In die 
dominica resedit arclta post diluvium. On Sunday Noah found land 


him his blescmiwe. Det is ^eo echeliche riche bet he haue<5 The eternal 

° ' kingdom the 

harwed to alle £on mownen be his iwille wurche^ her on [bisse] reward of 

> Lr j almsgiving. 

Hue. Ad quam gloriam nos perducere dignetur donunus roster 
iVtesus christus qui tduit et vegnat per omnia secula seculoiiim. 




euerenda est nobis hec dies sancta que dicitur dominica. <£• Sunday is 

God's own 

ileo dicitur dominica ^uonia??* hec dies sola dies domini da y- 
est. Muchel man ach to wurben bis halie dei bat is sunnen dei 
icleoped. for hit is godes a3en dei. Alle o^er da3es of be wike 
beo^ to breldome to bis dei. *bis dei is bet halie dei bet blescede *[Foi. 52a.] 
dei be blisfulle dei be murie dei. be dei seouensibe brictere bene 
be sunne. be fo[r]meste dei bet eauer 3icte was ise3en buuen eorSe. 
In qua, uisa est lux. Sunnen dei was iseaan bet formeste liht On tins day 

light was first 

buuen eorSe for ure drihten seide bis dei. Fiat lux d' facta est seen - 
lux. beo liht and hit wes liht. Ex lute enim. die f relique dies 
sumpserunt exordium. Of bisse dei nomew alle ofter heore 
biginni[n]ge. Dies in qns, conuenit 2^bs ad ecclesiam ad ^>re- 
dicanditva & ad celebrandum. Surmedei ah efri c?'istenne .Mem. On Sunday 

every man 

nomeliche to chirehe cume be ahte for to techen be folke godes sh0,ll(1 s° t0 

' church. 

hesne to done, be lewede godes hesne for to heren. and hom to 
gode bidden. Dies in qua, letantur agmina celi & texre. Suwne 
dei blisse^ to-gederes houeneware and horSe ware, alse be halie 
gast sei^ burh daui^es mu? be prophete. Hec est dies qu&m 
fecit dom'mus exultemur <£■ fctemur in ea. bis is be dei bet god 
makede. beo we blrSe and glade on bis dei. In hac die multa 
& magna mirabilia fecit dominus 7>»ro salute nostra. Monie 
wundre and muchele dude ure drihten. for ure hele on bisse dei. 
In die dominica creati sunt angeli ab ore dei. suwnendei f weren ° n thi9 da - v 

angels were 

engles makede of godes muSe. In die dominica resedit archa created. 
post diluuium. su/mendei fond noe lond efter \>et ure drihten 


after that our Lord had drowned the people. In die dominica pluit 
Dominus manna Jiliis Israel. On Sunday God sent manna from 
heaven to the people of Israel. In die dominica percussum est mare 
rubrum in virtute Dei, per ma,num Moysi, el transierunt filii Israel 
siccis pedibus per mare rubrum. On Sunday Moses smote the Eed 
Sea, and the sea divided and the Israelitish people went over ; et 
stetit illis murus in dextera atque in sinistra, and there stood (the sea) on 
the right side and on the left as a castle wall. Et iterum percussit 
Mouses mare et reversum est in locum suum, et mersus est Pharao 
cum curribus et equitibus ejus. And afterwards Moses smote the sea 
and it went together, and drowned Pharaoh and all his host with 
him, so that there was not even one left undrowned. In die do- 
minica percussit Moyses petram in heremo et Jluxerunt quatuor 
flumina, quce divisa sunt in duodecim partes ut traxerint sitim 
populo. On Sunday smote Moses the stone in the wilderness when 
the people without drink had nearly perished, as our Lord bad him, 
and the stone split and four wells of water sprang out thereof, and 
the four were divided into twelve, so that the twelve tribes should 
therewith quench (cool) their thirst. In die dominica natus est 
Ckristus ex Maria virgine pro salute nostra. On Sunday was our 
Lord born of the holy maiden Mary for our salvation. In die 
dominica baptizatus est Dominus noster in Jordane. On Sunday 
was our Lord baptized in the river Jordan. Et Spiritus Sanctus venit 
super eum in specie columbm. And the Holy Ghost came upon our 
Lord in the form of a dove, and he heard his Father's voice from 
heaven, which said, Hie est filius meus dilectus in quo mihi bene 
complacitum, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. In 
die dominica resurrexit Ckristus a mortuis. On Sunday arose our 
Lord from death to life, and made arise with him all those who 
had previously obeyed him. In die dominica, post dies octo, venit ad 
discipulos per clausas januas et stetit in medio eorum dicens, Pax ^■>obis. 
And on the twelfth day after that he had arisen he came among 
his disciples when the gates were locked, that was on Sunday, and 
said to them, Peace be with you. On Sunday our Lord made 
peace between heaven and earth, between angels and men, between 
God and men, between body and soul, between the old law and the 


hefde bet folc adreint. In die dominica phdt dominus manna °n Sunday 

' manna was 

fiHis Israel, sunnedei prod sende manna from houene bam 1 is- sent from 

•f ° ' heaven. 

raelisce folc. In die dominica *percussum est mare rubrum in l ms. bet. 
uirtute del per manum moysi & transierunt jilii israei siccis 

gedibus per mare rubrum. Sunnedei smat 2 Moyses be i*ede se'e'. *ms. siriat. 

and be see to-eode and bet iraelisce folc wende ouer. Et stetit °« this day 

' ' Moses divided 

ill is mums in dextera atque in sinistra, and ]>er stod a ricbt tlie R ed sea. 
halue and a luft f alse an castel wal. & itemm percussit Moyses 
mare & reuersum est in locum, suum & wiersus est pharao cum 
curribus <£• equitibus ems. and eft sone Moyses smat 3 be see. and 3 M8. siriat. 
heo wende to gederea. and adreinte pharao. and al his ferede 
mid him. swa bet nes J>ere nefre an bileued un-dreint. In die 
dominica percuss it moyses petram in heremo & fluxerxmt qvistuor 
Jlumina que diuisa sunt in duodecim partes ut traxerint sitim 
popxdo. Sunnedei smat 4 Moyses bene stan ine be wastine f ba * JIS siriat. 

l-i "n Sunday 

bet folc wes welnech for-faren drmkeles alse ure dnhten him net. Moaessmote 

the rock in 

and be stan to-chan i and fouwer walmes of watere spmngen ut Horeb. 
J>er of. and ba fouwer weren ideled a twelue. for J>a twelf kun- 
reden sculden J>er mide heore Jmrst kelen. In die dominica 
natus est Christus ex Maria uirgine pro salute nostra. Sminen- On Sunday 

our Lord was 

dei wes ure drihten ihoren of be halie Maiden Marie for ure bom. 
hele. In die dominica baptizatus est dominus noster in iordane. 
Sunnenclei wes ure drihten ifulchted ine flum iordan. <b spiritus On Sunday 

he was bap- 

sanctus uenit super eum in specie columbe. and be halie gast com tiz ed. 

uppen ure drihten in ane culfre liche. and iherde liis fadre stefne 

of heouene and seide. Hie est Jilius *meus dilectus. in quo *[Foi53a.] 

michi bene comj^lacitum. J>is is min loue sune bet me wel like£. 

In die dominica resurexit Christus a mortuis. Sunnedei aras on this day 

he arose from 

ure drihten from de^e to Hue. and makede arisen mid him alle the du;ul - 
J>a bet him efden er ihersumed. In die dominica post dies octo 
uenit ad dicipulos per clausas ianuas. <£■ stetit in medio eorum 
dicens. pax nobis, and on be twelftu3e)>e dei efter }>et he wes 
arisen, he com among his disciples per be %eten weren ilokene. 
bet wes a sunnedei. and seide to heom setnesse beo mid eou. 
Sunnedei makede ure drihten pes bitweone heouene and eorSe. 
bi-tweone envies and monne. bi-tweone erode and momie. 

142 THE lord's day. 

new, between Heathens and Christians. Ipse enim est qui facit utra- 
que unum. He it is who eauseth two to be one. In die dominica 
misit Dominis spiritum super Apostolos. On Sunday our Lord sent 
the Holy Ghost on his Apostles in the form of fire. In die domi- 
nica venturus est in majestate, sua cum Sanctis angelis et archangelis, 
in judicium vivorum et mortuorum. On Sunday our Lord will 
come in his great strength with all the host of heaven for to 
judge both the good and the evil, and all men shall be gathered 
before him, and the earth also shall quake at the sight of him, as 
doth the sea in a storm. Tunc montes liquescent sicut cera e facie 
ignis. Then each hill shall burn and all folk, as the prophet 
saith, Ignis ante ipsum precedet et injlammabit in circuitu inimicos 
ejus. The fire shall go before him and consume his enemies about 
him. Et iterum Dominus noster cum virtute veniet <kc. Our Lord 
shall come in power, in the form of fire, and will consume all 
his foes and them who are wont to do evil. Tunc cantabunt 
angeli magna tuba et mortui resurgent. Then shall the angels blow 
with their trumpets in the four quarters of the world, and all 
the dead shall arise, and stars shall darken, and the sun shall lose 
her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven. Et tunc judicabit 
judicia novissima, et reddet unicuique juxta opiera sua. Then will 
God judge his last doom, and will give each man his reward after 
his works. The sinful who break the spousehood (marriage), the 
closefisted men, those that gave little to the poor, thieves, those that 
speak fair before and false behind, the envious, the proud, the 
drunken, the quarrelsome, the foresworn, the heathen, the heretics — 
Ejicientur cum Jletu et lamentatione in poenam sempiternam, sine ablu- 
tione et misericordia — shall be cast into everlasting torment without re- 
demption and without mercy. But the righteous men, the true men, the 
monks, the maidens, the wedded wives, the good men, the gentle men, 
the merciful men, the liberal, the meek, the entertainers (of strangers), 
the patient, the almsgivers, those who refrain from fleshly lusts — voca- 
bicntur in dextra Dei Patris omnipotentis — shall be called to sit on 
the right hand of the Father. There shall be worldly weal without 



bi-tweone licome and saule. bi-tweone be aide la}e and be 
neowe. bi-tweone he^ene and cristene. Ipse enim est qui fac'xt 
utr&que ttnum. be is ]>et make^ twa to an. In die dominica 
misit • dominus smritum super apostolos. Smmedei sende ure On Sunday 

our Lord sent 

dribten bene balie £ast bis apostlen in fnres licbe. In die do- *? Ho, y 

' ox Ghost upon 

minica uenturus est in mai estate stia cum Sanctis angelis <k the apostles. 
arcanqel'ia in indicium MJMorum & mortnorum. Smmedei wile On Sunday he 

° will come to 

ure drihten cumen ine bis mucbele stren^e mid alle heouenware J ud s e tlie 


for to deme babe be gode and be uuele. and alle Men sculen beon 

igedered bi-foren him. and ech eorbe seal hwakien on bis ecsene 1 . 'sic. 

alse deo^ be see in storme. tunc montes liquescent sicut cera a facie 

ignis, benne ucb dune seal berne. and al folc alse be p[ro]phe£e 

serS. Ignis ante ipmrn precedet <[• 'niflnmuiabit in circuitu in- 

imicos eius. bet fur seal gan biforen and *forbernen abuten bim *[Foi. 536.] 

fon. et iterum. Dominus noster cum uirtute ueniet. & cetera. Vre 

drihten wile cumen dredliche in fures liche and wile for-berne He will come 

in the form of 

alle bis fon. and beom \et beo^ iwunede uuel to done. Tunc fire. 

cantabunt angeli magna tuba & mortui resurgent, benne sculen 

engles mid heme blauwen on fower balue be world, and alle dede ah the dead 

shall rise, 

arisen and steori'en sculen beostren. and be suune hire liht for- 
leose. and steorren sculen from heoueue falle. Et tunc iudi- 
cabit indicia nouissima. <t reddet unicuique iuxta opera sua. 
benne wille god deme bis leste dom. and wile lelden ecbe men an<1 receive 

' J their reward 

his mede efter bis werke. be suwfulle .Men. bet spusbad breke^. according to 

' ' x their works. 

ba feste .Men 2 , ba bet mei lutel to wrecbe. be boues. be \et 2 ?Mou. 
Sfteke^ faire bi-foren and false bi-binden. be nvSfulle. be prude. The wicked 

shall be cast 

be fordruwkene. be cbidinde. be forsworene 3 . be he^ene. be erites. into hell. 

eicientur cum Jletu & lamentatione in j)enam sempiternam sine sporene. 
ablutione & misericordia. sculen beon iwarpen ine ecbe pine, 

wib-utcn alesinge and wftS-uten milce. Acb be richtwise men. The righteous 

shall sit on 

be treowe men. be muuekes. be meidene. be weddede wiues. be God's right 
f r r r y hand 

gode .Men. be softe .Men. and be Men. ful of milce. and be large. 
Men. and be milde .Men. be berbe[r]gers. be bolemode. be elmes- 
fulle. ba be heom wrS-teo^ of flesliche lustes. uocabuntur in 
dextrdk dei pairis omnipotentis. sculen beon icleoped on be fader 
ribt balue. ber seal beon worldwunne f wrS-uten *pouerte. *[Foi. 54a.] 


poverty, fullness without hunger, health without infirmity, rest with- 
out toil, bliss without sorrow, youth without old age, sight without 
sleepiness, song without cessation, smelling with sweetness, and service 
without weariness. Defectio omnis mail, habundancia omnis boni. 
Lack of all evils, abundance of every thing that is good. Amen. 


SERMON ON MARK vin. 34. 

Qui vult venire post me, abneget semet ipsum et tollat crucem suam 
et sequatur me. Woe to the man that is unfortunate, for more 
(woe) shall one threaten him with, and it may and will cling to him. 
But happy is he that is bidden from little to great weal, and it is 
also much better for him that is invited to come from great affliction 
to great weal. 

We are all in manifold adversities in this wretched life, what with 
our ancestors' works, and what with our own guilts (offences) ; but 
God Almighty comforteth us with his mild words, and teacheth us 
by what way we may come to him, and saith, Qui vult venire post me, 
<L'c. Whoso will come after me, let him deny himself and bear his 
cross, and follow me. These words he said sometime before he departed 
this life. He admonished all to endless bliss those who were come, or 
subsequently have come, or are to come. But it seemeth a foolish thing 
to them to forsake what they greatly love. Alii quidem amant peccata 
sua, alii parentes, alii possessiones, alii voluptates et vicia. Some 
men love their sins, some their kin, some worldly wealth, some lecherous 
practices and wicked devices. Those who love their sins he admonishes 
thus and saith, Penitentiam agite appwpinquabit enim regnum ccelorum. 
Repent and forsake your sins, for doomsday is nigh at hand. Those 
who love their kin he admonishes and saith, Omnis qui reliquerit 
patrem aut matrem, fratrem aid sororem, aut ceteros amicos propter 
noma/ mewm, centuplum, et vitam eternam jwssulebit. All those who 


fullef wi^S-uten hungre. helef wi^-uterc unhele. restef wrB- 

uten swinge 1 , blisse '. wi¥-uten sarinesse. Ivyd'Se i wrS-uten »?swincunge. 

ekle. Lokinge I wK- uteri winkunge. song f wrS-uten lisse. 

smelliwge f mid swetnesse. and dunge 2 f wrS-uten p?-ikunge. 2 ? $enunge. 

defectio omnis mali. Hahundancia omuls boni. wonc of alio 

uuele ; wolcf cmd alle gode 3 . Amen. of aile god°e. e 



\~ f\~]vi wtU uenire post me. abneget semet ipmm <£■• tollat The text. 

L ^^J crucem suam <t- sequatnr me. wa is fyan* Mon. \et \va is 4 ms. Yet. 

cud me him mare bihat. and mei owe? wile hit him ileste. Ach 

him is wel \>et is ila^ed from lutel weole to muchele. and him is 

ee muchele bet '. \>et is ilafted from muchele wowe f to muchele 

wele. Alle we beo^ in monifahl wawe ine j>isse wreche Hue. We are in 

let ic ill »nsi' 11 f< >1 <1 

hwat for ure eldere werkes. hwat for ure asene gultes. ach god adversities in 

tills world. 

almihtin us freure^ mid his milde word and tcche^ us l)i hwiche 
weie we ma^en to him cume and sev&. Qui uult uenire post me 
et retera. Hwa se wile cume efter me f for-sake him seolf. and Christ com. 

mauds us to 

here his rode, and folege me. Dos word he seide et sumtime to- forsake our- 

selves and to 

}eines \>et he walde Jus lif forleten. he munegede alle )?a \>et }>o follow hil "- 
weren o&er seoJrSen habbe^ ikumen. o^er to kumene beo^ to 
endeles blisse. ach heom bing^ uuel to forleten \et heo muchel 
luue^. Alii quidem. amaut peccata sua. alii pa/rentes, alii pos- 
sessiones. alii uoluptatates 5 &■ uicia. Summe men luuie^S heore 5 sic. 

ii ii ,i What men 

sunnen. summe heore kun. summe world wunne. summe . gal- , nost i ove in 

iche* lectres and luSere lastes }>a \>et luuiefc heore sunnef he * i vol ai«/ : 
mune3e : S Jms and serS. penitenciam, agite appropinquobit enim 

regnum celorum. Cume^ to sunbote and forlete^ eower sunne. They are 

for domes dei nehlechet \>a ]>et luue^ heore kun '. he munejeft to forsake 

.._... , their sins, 

ami sero. Omm s qui rehqiierit jxdreva. aid matrem. Jralvem aut 
sororem. aut ceteros aminos propter nomen meum f centuplum. & 
uitani eternam possidehit. Alle }>a \irt forlete%5 fader o¥er moder. 



leave father or mother, sister or brother, or other friends for my 
name, they shall receive a hundredfold reward, and life without end. 
Those who love worldly bliss he admonishes, and saith, Qui non re- 
nunciaverit omnibus quae, possidet non potest meus esse discipulus — No 
man may follow me except he leave all that he possesseth. Duobus 
modis renunciatur 2)ossessis, desinendo habere et desinendo arnare — In two 
ways a man may forsake worldly wealth ; one is that he should bestow 
it upon those who have none, another is that he should think so little 
thereof, as not to love it. It is not a great sin if a man have wealth, 
but it is a great sin if a man love his riches ; for he may not love God 
and also his wealth. Those who love lascivious sins he thus admonishes, 
and saith, Qui vult venire, <kc. — Whoso desires to come after me, let 
him deny himself, and bear his cross, and follow me. But as it is 
hard to understand in what manner a man may deny himself, take 
heed thereto, and by God's permission I will tell you (how). Duo 
sunt in homine, cdiud per naturam condittim, aliud per culpam 
illatum — Two things are in man, the one is brought by nature, and 
that is the fair nature that is formed between soul and body ; the other 
is the foul guest (stranger) which the devil hath brought therein. 
Wherefore no man may come to God unless he forsake the foul sojourner 
which the devil hath brought in him on account of sin, and also 
preserve that fair nature of soul and body that God hath put into 
him, and continue in the purity that he hath acquired at his baptism. 
Tres cruces sunt de quibus hie agitur, duce corporis, una mentis — Three 
crosses there are about which I shall speak, two bodily, and one spiritual. 
Crux corporis est quando corpus distensum membratim punitur — The 
corporal cross is when the body suffereth pain in this life upon the 
cross, and is thereon spread out, as our Saviour was when put on 
the holy cross for our sins, though he himself had none, and when 
he had upon his head a crown of thorns, and when his sides were 
opened with the point of the spear, and when his feet were pierced 
through with the iron nails. But man may come to God though his 
body endure not so great torture. But he admonishes us to bear 
another cross, that is named carnis maceratio— leanness of flesh. Man 
causeth his flesh to become lean when he giveth himself little to eat and 


suster o^er broker. ofter o^re freond. for mine nome • heo sculen and to leave 

their kin and 

underfon hundfalde mede. and lif buten ende. bet luue^ world friends and 

follow Christ. 

wuune f he niui^e^ and serS. Qui won reminciauerit omnibus 
que possidet non potest mens esse dicvpulus. Ne mei 11a .Mom. 
me fo^en f bute he forlete al bet he iwald ach. Duobus modis 
renunciatur p>ossesis desinendo habere &• desinendo a/ma/re. On 
twa wise .Mow. mei forlete world winne. an is bet he hit do for in what way 


him f bet he hit nabbe. an o^er is bet he telle swa lutel tale ber wealth may 

' be forsaken. 

of '. bet he hit nawicht ne luuie. hit nis nawieht simne niuchel '. 

if .Mow. cchte habbe. ach hit is muche sunne '. if ,Mo?j. echte 

luuicS. for he ne mei nawiht luuie god i and ec his ehte. ba bet 

luueS galiche lectres '. he mune3e^ bus and serS. Qui uidt uenire 

et cetera, hwa se wule cume efte?* me ' forsake him solf. and bere 

his rode, and fole3e me. Ach hit is uuel to understonden on 

hwulche wise .Mow. mei him solf forsake *nime^ 3eme ber to '. ♦ LFoi.55r ( .] 

and ic hit weo 1 wile sugge b[i] godes leue. Duo sunt in homine. 1 ? eow . 

aliud per naturam conditum. aliud j)er cidpam illatum. Twa Two things in 

man— the one 

bin" beo^ ine be .Mow. bet an is bet brochte icunde. and bet fairc divine, the 

\ ° ' ' ' > other devilish. 

icunde bet is igedered bi-twene saule and licame. bet o^er is be 

fule on-kume ba be douel haue^ beron ibroht. berfore ne mei na 

.Mow. to gode cume i bute he forlete be fule 011-cume be ^e douel 

haued on him ibroht of sunne. and hct haldc bet faire ikunde. 

bet god haueft on him idow of saule and of likame. and wunie 

ine bet clenesse '. bet he haue^ et 2 his fulluhte ifet. tres cruces 2 ms. ec. 

sunt de quibus hie agitur. due corporis una mentis, breo roden of three 


beoft ba ich umbe speche. twa licamliche '. and an gastliche. 
Crux corporis est.' qu&ndo corpus distensum menbvziim punitur. 
be likameliche rode is '. hwenne be likame bole^ pine ine J)is of the bodily 

. . cross. 

hue ine rode and brS ]>er on to-spred '. alse ure helewde wes ine 
j>e halie rode for ure gultes. bet nefde him solf nane. pa be he 
hefde uppen his hefde }>ornene helm, cmd weren his side mid 
speres orde iopened. and his fet mid irnene neiles burhstungen. 
ach .Mow. mei to gode cume bach his likame swiche pine ne Jiole. 
Ac he munege^ us an o%er rode to berenef bet is inemned. 
Carnis maceratio. fleises lensinft'. Mow. lense^ his fleis f hwewne Leanness of 


he him 3efe : S lutel to etene. and lesse to driwke. *and ofte for »[f u i. 556.] 


less to drink, and often for his sins scourgeth himself with small switches. 
Et hcec est scala peccatormn — And this is the ladder of all sinful men 
by which they shall ascend into heaven. Crux mentis est cordis con- 
tritio et proxumi compassio - The spiritual cross is named sorrow of heart 
on account of a man's own sins and pity for his fellow-Christian's woes. 
Heart-sorrow hath the man when he remembers that he has sinned, 
and bemourns his affliction, and comes to shi-ift, and repents of his 
sins, according to his priest's instructions. Pity for his fellow-Christian's 
woes hath the man that sees his neighbour fall into sin or attacked with 
sickness, and unable Avithout assistance to get quit thereof. If he may 
not with worldly goods relieve his necessities it sorely grieves him, and 
he bemourneth bitterly his fellow-Christian's woes. Again, when a man 
remembers that he hath been sinful, and committed very many sins, 
his heart then aches as his head would if he had thereon a helmet of 
thorns. Again, when the man remembers that he hath, in lustful deeds, 
provoked God very much to wrath, and hath not taken heed whether 
she with whom he had to do was married or not, but only that his 
foul lusts were slaked ; when the man remembers that he hath too 
seldom gone to church, and often with his hands done what he should 
not have done ; then will his heart ache, as his feet and his hands 
would if they were pierced through with iron nails. And if we 
ourselves thus willingly torture, then may we be God's disciples — then 
may we follow him and abide with him. Entreat our Lord that ye 
may come after him, and renounce the foul guest of sin that the 
devil hath brought into you, and retain the bright nature of soul 
and body that God hath brought into you, and the purity of your 
baptism that ye have received at the font ; and that ye may bear 
the cross which God admonishes you to bear, and follow him, and dwell 
with him (for ever). Quod nobis prestare dignetur qui vivit, &c. Amen. 


his sunne swinged him mift 1 smele twige. Et liec est sccda pecca- ' ms. nuS. 
forum, and bis is alle sunfulle monne leddre bet heo sculcn in to The ladder of 

sinful men. 

heouene sti3en. Crux mentis est cordis eontritio & proxumi coni- 

vassio. be gastliche rode is inenined i heorte sar for be monnes The spiritual 

' ° ' cross is called 

ajene sunne. and row^e for his emcristenes wawe. horte sar heart-sorrow. 

hauefc be. Mow. [hwenne] him bibengb bet he isuneged haue^. and bet 

sare bi-mwme$ and to scrifte kimet. and bi his prostes wissunge 

his sunne beteS. Keube for his emcristenes wawe haue¥ be .Mora. 

bet isich his emcristene in sunne bi-falle. o^er mid sicnesse bi-gan. 

and ne mei buten helpe ber cume. If he ne mei mid worldliche 

echte his neode ibete f bet him sare roweb. and his emcristenes 

wawe sare bi-murne^. eft sone hwenne .Won. him bi-benche^ 

bet he liaue^ sunful ibeon. and to fele sunne idon. benne wule Sorrow for 

sins uf the 

his heorte ake alse his heued wolde ! if he hefde ber uppon fl «* ; 
bornene helm. Eft sone hwenne be .Mow. him bibenchb bet he 
hauefc on galiche dede to muche god iwrebed. and naue^ inume 
3eme hwe^er heo bi -wedded were be neref bet he hefde mid 
to donne f bute his fule lust were ikeled. benne be .Mow. him bi- sorrow for 

neglect of 

bengb bet he haue^ to selde igan to chirche. and ilome mid his <luties - 

honde idon bet he don ne sculde I benne wule his heorte ake alse 

his fet and his honde '. if heo burh irnene neile were burh-stunge. 

and if we bus us solue willeliche pine^ '. benne ma3e we beon 

godes lornigk indites 2 , bonne *we ma2e him folegre. and mid him 2? lenming. 

. . . knichtes. 

l)ileue. Biddeft ure drihten bet %e moten efter him kume and *[Pol.56a.] 

bene fule onkume for-lete ba be douel haueS in ow ibroht of Pray to he 


sunne and edhalde bet brihte ikunde f bet god haueS in ow from the foul 

' ° guest of sin. 

ibroht of saule and of likame. and be klennesse of ower fulluhte 
bet 3e habbeS et be fonstan underfonge. and bet 3c moten be rode 
litre, be god ow to munegeS. and him folege and mid him 
bileue. Qwod nobis ^restate tfignetur qui m'uit & cetera. Amen. 




T7stote fortes in hello et pugnate cum antiquo serpente et accipietis 
regnum eternum elicit Dominus. This word that I now declare 
unto thee, our Lord uttered at a time when he dwelt in the land 
of Jerusalem, and admonished all that were (there) to fight bravely 
(strongly) ; and because the fight (conflict) was strong to master and 
difficult to undertake, he promised them gi-eat reward provided they 
would undertake this conflict, and saith, E stole fortes, &c. — Be strong in 
battle, and fight with the old serpent, and if ye be stronger than she, ye 
shall have for your reward eternal bliss. Qwia diversa genera hominum 
seqioebantur eum, et ipse dixit sermones suos, turn ad discipidos, turn 
ad hos, turn ad illos ; aperiendum est et quibus, et de qua fortitudine 
et de quo hello, et de qua serpente hoc dixerit. Many kinds of men 
followed our Lord in this life, some to get their faith from him, 
others to get their daily bread, and some to try if they might take 
him unawares in sin. Therefore it is good that you should be told 
whom he admonishes to this warfare. Some men loved their sins and 
would not forsake them ; he admonishes not them to this fight, nor 
those who have forsaken their sins but have not repented of them ; 
but he admonishes to this fight those who have repented of their 
sins, or are possessed with the spirit of repentance, and specially the 
twelve apostles, and among them the lord Nathaniel, whose day it 
is to-day. Of the strength that God admonishes us to speaks Liber 
Sapiential, that is, the Book of Wisdom, and saith, Fortitudo simjilicis est 
via Domini — God's way is strength to the simple man. Simple or double 
is each man ; that showeth the lord St. James, and saith [of the double 
man], Vir duplex ani/mo inconstans est in omnibus viis suis — The double- 
faced man is unsteadfast in all his ways. But Job was a simple and 
righteous man, and so good a man that our Lord himself praised him, and 
said that under heaven there was none like unto him. Via Domini qua 
venit ad nos et nos ad eum, misericordia et Veritas — The way that God 




stole fortes in hello & pugnate cum antiquo serpente. & 

accipietis regnum et&cnum dicit dominus. pis word be These words 

were spoken 

ich nu be for-tech * ' seide urc drihten et sume time ba be wunedc by Christ in 

' Jerusalem. 

ine be londe of ierwsalem. and munegede alle pet weren to stronge i?f rfS-teah. 
fechte. and for bon be \>et fecht wes strong to ouer-cumen. and 
uuel to undertone i he bi-het bom muche mede wrS ban pet beo 
walde bis fecht underfon and serS. Estote fortes <k cetera. beoS 
stronge on fihte. and fihte^ wiS be aide neddre. and if 5e beoft Fjgnt wit J> 

o r -» the old adder. 

strengre be heo f 3e sculcn habben to me [de] eche blisse Quia 
diuersa genera kominum sequebantur eum. & ipse dixit sermones 
suos. turn, ad didpulos. turn ad Iws. turn ad illos. apeviendum. est 
et quibus. et de qua fortitudine et de quo hello, et de qua serpente 
hoc dixerit. Monie kunnes men foleseden ure drihten ine bisse of the divers 

J kinds of men 

Hue f summe to fechen heore bileue et him. sumnie to fechen who followed 

our Lord. 

heore deis fode. su?/mie to kunnen if heo mihten him mid sunne 
uwdernime * ber fore hit is god pet "Mon ow segge hwiche he * [Foi. 56&.] 

munegeb to bis fehte. Summe men luueden heore suraie. and those whom 

nalden heom forleten. he ne munegeb noht heom to bis fiht. ne admonishes 

to warfare. 

for bon ba be hefden heore suwne forleten. and nawiht ibet. 

Ah ba he munegeb to bis feht i pet hefden heore sunne ibet. ober 

on bote bifongen. and nomeliche be twelf apostles, and amorcg 

heom be lauerd. N. hwas dei hit is to dei. of be streinbe pet god 

us to munegeb spech liber sapience. pet is be boc of wisdom and 

sevS. fortitudo simplicis est uia domini. Godes wei is streinSe 

be anfalde monne. Anfald o^er twafald is ech mon pet kimed 2 *?knnne'8. 

be lauerd saint lame, and serS. Vir duplex animo inconstans est double is 

in omnibus uiis suis. pe twafalde .Mow. is unstabelfest i on alle 

his weies. Ah lob wes anfald rihtwis .Mon. and swa godmon ? Of the simple 

° man. 

bet ure drihten him solf hiue herede. and seide pet under houene 
ne nan his ilike. Via domini qua uenit ad nos & nos ad eum 


came unto man, and man cometh unto him, is called mercy and 
truth. God showed mercy to man when he sent his patriarchs and 
prophets to proclaim his wonders. Truth he showed to man when 
he himself came, as he had promised, and delivered us out of ever- 
lasting woe. Let us thank him for it. Mercy a man shows to him- 
self when he bethinks of his sins, and sorely bemourns them, and 
prays for mercy. Truth a man shows to himself when he makes 
known his sins to his priest just as he has committed them. And 
against what foes we ought to fight the apostle thus saith, Non est 
nobis colluctatio adversus carnem et sanguinem, sed adversus rectores 
tenebrarum — We are not to fight against flesh and blood, but against 
the accursed spirits that rule the darkness. Sed ab hoste invisibili 
difficile cavetur — But evil (hard) it is to fight against this foe whom 
we are not able to see, and the blows are hard to ward off, and 
we never know on which side they will fall. But wherefore does 
our Lord call this foe an adder (serpent) 1 Diabolus nominatur h ic 
serpens, propter tria. Invidia tabescit ; sine strepitu serpet ; quod pun- 
git, veneno afficit — The serpent doth three things bodily that the 
devil doth spiritually. The serpent hath envy and hatred ; the ser- 
pent creeps secretly ; the serpent poisoneth all those that she stings. 
So hath the devil envy and hatred towards man, and could endure 
that men were dead, though he himself were none the better for it. 
As the book saith, Per invidiam iatravit mors in orbem terrarum — 
Through envy and hatred came death into the world. Again, the 
serpent creepeth secretly ; so doth the devil into the eyes of men, if 
they are open to behold idleness and vanity ; into the ears, if they are 
open to listen to slander, idle stories and lies, and other things that 
are against God's behests ; into the nose, when the nose is open to smell 
illicit breath (smells) ; in the mouth, when it is open to lie, or sinneth 
in excessive eating and in over-drinking ; into the privy parts the devil 
creepeth secretly, when they are ready to (commit) lascivious deeds. 
Hce sunt quinque portce mortis per quas ingreditur auctor mortis ut 
afferat mortuos. These are the five gates through which the worker 
of death cometh in, and therein death also, as the psalmist saith, Per 
mille meandros a gib it quieta corda — With a thousandfold devices he 


rmsericorcUa & ueritas. \>e wei bet god com in to monnc. and 
mon kume? in to him f is ihaten milclheortnesse, and so?fest- 
nesse. Milclheortnesse God kudde monne f ba be he sende his of GoiVs 

' ' mercy and 

patriarken and propketen '. for to hodien his tokume. So?fest- truth toman, 
nesse he kudde mon J ba be he him solf com alse he hefde bihaten. 
and us alesde ut of eche wawe. Ibonked wur?e him. Milclheort- 
nesse me ku? him soluen f henne 1 he him bi-beng? \et he isuneg- J ? hwenne. 
ed haue?. and \et sare birnurne?. and milce bit. So?festnesse 
*me ku? him solue '. hwenne he his sunnen unde? to his proste. *[Foi. 57a.] 
alswa alse he heom haue? idon and to^eines hwiche fan we 
a3en to fechte be apostel sei?. Non est nobis colluctatio aduersus 

camera, et sanquinem. sed rectores tenebrarura. We ne We are com- 
manded to 

a3en naut to fihten to^eines fleis and blod f ah to^eines ba ^ ht a « ai,lst 

awariede gastes \>et welded bosternesse. sed ab hoste inuisibili darkness. 

dxficile cauetur. Ah uuel hit is to werien to-jeines bene fa f be 

.Mon. ne mei naut ison. and be duntes bo? uuel to kepen f \>et 

mon nat nefre on hwilche halue ho wilen falle. Ach for-hwi 

nemne? ure drihten bis fa to neddi-e. Diabolus nominatur hie Whythedeva 

is called a 

serpens '. propter tria. Inuidia f tabescit. sine strepitu i serpit. serpent. 

qrxod pungit t ueneno afficit. [nedjdre deb breo bing licamliche '. 

\>et be douel de? gastliche. Nedre haue? nib and onde. Nedre 

smu^e^ derneliche. nedre attre? al \et heo priked. Swa haue? 

be douel nih 2 and onde to monne. and bolede 3 \et Mon ded were f 2 ? nr5. 

beh him solf be betre nere. alse be boc sei?. Per invidiam in- ' wo e ' 

trauit mors in orbem terrarura, bui'h ni? and onde com de? in Through envy 

death came 

to be worlde. Eft sone smuse? derneliche f swa de? be douel i«to the 

r ? \ world. 

ine be moranes e3en \ if ho bo? opene to bihalden idel and The devil 

creeps into 

unnet. Ine be ' eren t if ho bo? opene to lusten hoker. and spel. man through 

his five senses. 

and leow. and o?er bing be£ bo? to^eines godes heste. Ine be 

nose f hwenne be nose bi? open to smelle unlofne bre?. Ine be 

mu?e. hwenne be * mu? is open for to li3en. o?er sune3e? on * [Foi. 67b.] 

muchele ete and on ouer drinke. Et be schape be douel smu3e? 

in derneliche \ hwenne hit bi? 3aru to galiche deden. Hee sunt 

quinque porte mortis per quas ingreditur auctor mortis ut ctfferat 

mortuos. pis beo? be fif 3eten burh hwam kim? in de?es wurhte. 

and ber ine de? alse be lof-songere sei?. Per mille meamdros 


troubles the thoughts that formerly were (at peace) together, and 
woundeth the soul. But may our Lord, that admonishes us to fight 
against the old adder (serpent), give us power and strength to have 
the same weapons that the apostle speaks of, thus saying, Induite vos 
armaturam del sumentes loricam fidei, gcdeam spei, scutum caritatis, 
gladium sp>iritus, quod est verbum del — Clothe you with the weapons 
of God, and take good belief for your hauberk, hope for a helmet, 
true love (charity) for a shield, and God's word for a sword. His 
armis munitus vicit David Goliam. With these weapons was David 
armed when he overcame Goliath the enemy ; so desires God that 
we may herewith overcome the old serpent, and have for our reward 
everlasting bliss. Quod nobis prestare dignetur qui vivit et regnat 
deus, &c. Amen. 


SERMON ON PSALM cxxvi. 6. 

-rpuntes ibant Jlebant, mittentes semina sua, venientes autem venient 
cum exultatione, portantes manipulos suos. The holy prophet 
David speaks in a passage in the psalter, and makes us understand 
in what wise the holy men honoured our Lord in this life, and what 
reward they shall have for their fair service, and thus saith, Euntes, 
<kc. They went weeping and sowed, and shall afterwards come 
and reap in joy. He speaketh of what was to come, as if it were 
come, for he knew that it should come. Sed quo euntes ? in mortem — 
But whither were they going 1 from worldly joy unto bodily woe ; 
from health into sickness ; from rest into toil ; where their bodies 
should be mortified until they came to their lives' end. Quas lacrimas 
fundentes ? turn compunctionis, turn compassionis, turn peregrinationis, 
turn contemplationis — What tears shed they 1 Sometimes they shed hot 
tears for their own sins when they bethought that they had sinned, and 
sorely bemourned it and prayed for mercy. Tales lacrimas fudit Marie 


agitat quiela corda. Mid busend falde wrenche he to-drefeS be 

bonk bet erre weren to-gederc. and wundeb be saule. Ah ure May God give 

> > ° > > us strength to 

drihten bet munege^ us to fechten te^eines bet 1 aide neddre f 3eue £fg j^^f 
us mihte and streiuSe to habben bet 1 ilke wepne ba be apostel ' ? pe. 
spekS of and- sev&. Induite uos armaturam dei sumentes loricam 
fidei. Galeam spei. scutum caritatis. gladium spiritus '. quod est 
uerbum dei. ScrudeS ow mid godes wepne. and nimeS gode ^ s ^ ntual 
ileue to burne. To hope to helme f softe luue to scelde. godes 
word to sworde. His armis munitus uicit dauid, Goliam. Mid 
bis wepne wes d«md iscrud ba he goliam be fond ouer-com. swa 
wile god bet we moten her mide be aide neddre ouercume. and 
habbe to medc endelese blisse. Quod nobis ^rcstare cftgnetur qui 
uiuit et regnat deus, et cetera. Amen. 


[SERMO IN PS. cxxvi. 6.] 


untes ibant et flebant. mittentes semina sua. Venientes a/idem The words of 

" the Psalmist. 

uenient cum. exultatione portantes manijndos suos. pe 
halie propkete dauid spec^ on ane stude in be sauter. and deb us 
to understoraten on hwiche wise be halie .Men. hersumden ure 
drihten * ine bisse Hue. and hwiche mede heo sculen habboi for * [F°i. 5Sa.] 
hore feire seruise and bus serS. euntes et cetera, heo oden wepende. Of those that 

' sowed 

and sowen and sculen eft cumen mid blisse and mawen. he specS weeping. 

of bet wes to cumene alse hit icumene were, for he wiste bet hit 

dime sculde. Sed quo euntes '. in mortem. Ach hwider wenden They went 

from joy into 

heo f from worliche wunne ine likamliche wawe. fram hele '. in woe. 
unhele. from reste in to swinke. and ber hore likame pineden 
for to bet heo comen to his 2 Hues ende. Quas lacvimas fundentes. 2 sic. 
turn, compunctionis. turn compassionis. turn p>e?egrinationis. turn, 
contevaplationis. hwiche teres scheden ho c . o£>er hwile heo scheden They shed 

hot tears for 

hate teres for hore &%en simnen f hweraie ho hom brSohten bet heo tn e ir sins, 
isuneged hefden. and bet sare bimwneden. and milce beden. Tales 


Magdalene quando lavit pedes Domini — Such tears shed Mary Magdalene 
when she washed our Lord's feet, and she herself became washed of 
her foul sins. Interdum videntes aliquos affllgi multotiens fuderunt 
lacrimas compassionis — Sometimes the holy men shed hot tears for 
their fellow-Christians' woes, when they saw their fellow-Christians 
suffer affliction or fallen into sickness, for which they sincerely pitied 
them, and, as far as they were able, relieved their necessities. Tales 
lacrimas fudit dominus quando Lazarum suscitavit — Such tears shed 
our Lord when he saw the sisters Martha and Mary Magdalene weep 
for their brother's death ; and our Lord, in compassion for them, 
shed hot tears from his holy eyes, and raised their brother, so that 
they ceased their weeping, and their hearts and their weeping were 
turned to great joy. Plerique et tedio vitai presentis affecti fuderunt 
lacrimas peregrinationis — Sometimes the holy men shed hot tears 
because weary of the world, for they were sorry because this earthly 
life lasted too long for them. Tales lacrimas fudit Job; quando 
dicebat. Tedet animam meam vita; mece — Such tears shed Job when 
he uttered these words, " Woe is my soul that my life lasteth thus 
so long ! " And David the prophet wept because disgusted with the 
world when he said, Heu michi, &c. — Woe is me now that my 
exile is here so long protracted, and that I must dwell in a strange 
land. Hoc autem dicebat, quia non habemus hie manentem civitatem ; 
sed in ccelis debet esse conversatio nostra. That he said, because we 
dwell here as exiles, but our abode is in heaven if we strive there- 
after. Justus autem cum languet pro desiderio ccelestis patrie fundit 
lacrimas contemplationis — The righteous man, that with the eyes of 
his heart looks into heaven and seeth the great bliss to which he is 
invited, will soon long to go thitherward, and when he may not 
come thither as quickly as he would he sendeth thither his hot 
tears. Utrasque lacrimas, scilicet peregrinationis et contemplationis 
fudit fortasse apostolus quando dicebat, enpio dissolui et esse cum 
Christo — Each of these tears shed the apostle, at least, I ween, when 
he said, " I would that I wove dead, for I long for Christ." lice 
quatuor lacrimal sunt quatuor aquce, quilms lavari jubemur per I&aia/m 


lacrimas fudit Maria Magdalene quxnAo lauit pedes dombii. 

Bwiche teres scedde. M. Magdalene '. ba heo 1 wosch ure drihtenes i \>e has been 

° ' dotted out 

fet. and heo werS hire solf waschen of hire fule sunnen. Interdum before heo. 

uidentes aliquos affligi multotiens fuderuut lacrimas compas- 

sionis. OSer hwile be halie .Mew. scedden hare teres \ for heore They shed 

' tears on 

emeristene wawe. hwenne ho isesen hore emc?istene wandrede account of 

J their fellow- 

bolie. o=Ser in seknesse bifalle and \et horn sare row$. and hi ^ stiai,s ' 
heore mihte hore node bette. Tales lacrimas fudit dom'mus 
quando lazarwax suscitauit. swiche teres schedde ure drihten '. ba 
he iseh Martha?/i and Mariam Magdalene be sustren wepe for 
hore broker de$ awl ure drihten burb rou^e ]>et he efde of horn f 
schedde of his halie e3ene hate teres and hore * broker arerde *[Foi.586.i 
and weren stille of hore wope. and iturnd hore horte and heore 
wope to muchele blisse. Plerique et tedio uite 2^esentis ajfecti 
fuderunt lacrimas peregrinationis. o^erhwile be halie .Men. sched- £^;^ 
den hate teres for labe of be worlde f for horn ofbuchte \et bis ^j">' of the 
orliche 2 lif horn to longe leste. Tales lacrimas fudit lob ■ quando 2 ?eor'Siiche. 
dicebat. Tedet animam meam uite mee. swiche teres schedde 
iob f ba be he bos word seide. Wa is mine saule '. \et mi lif bus 
longe ilest. and dauid. be prophete wopf for hrSe of be 3 world f 3?j>ere. 
ba he seide. heu jnichi et cetera. Wume nu ]>et min utbiwiste 
is her swa longe itubed. and \et ic seal wunien in unkube londe. 
Hoc autem dicebat. quia non habemus hie manentem ciuitatem ■ 
sed in celis debet esse conuersatio nostra. \et he seide for we 
wunie^ here alse Heme. Ah ure erde is in houene f if we ber our abode is 

in heaven. 

efter erne^. Justus autem. cum languet jpro desiderio celestis 
patxie fundit lacrimas contemplationis. pe rihtwise .Mon. \>et 
mid J>e e3ene of his horte bihalt in to houene ami sicS be 
muchele blisse pet he is to ile^ed '. him wile sone longe biderward 
and hwenne he ne mei bider cume alse ra^e se he walde f he Thepoodnian 

sends his tears 

send jjider his hate teres, vtrasqae lacrimas. scilicet peregrinati- there. 

onis # contemplationis fudit fortasse apostolus quando dicebat. 

cvpio dissolui & esse cum Christo. ErSer of bisse teres schedde 

be apostel leste ich wene. ba be he seide ich walde \>et ich ded 

were! for me longed to enst'j. *hee quatuor lacrime siott .iiii. ox *[Vo\.50a.] 

aque quibu* lauari iubemw per isayann dicentem. Lauamini 


dicentevi, Lavamini, mundi estote — These four kinds of tears are 
the four waters in which we are commanded to wash and become 
clean. Lacrima coynpunctionis est amara sicut aqua maris — The 
tear that a man weepeth for his own sin is as salt water, and 
therefore it is named sea-water. Lacrima compassionis comparatur 
aquce nivis, quae defluit contra calorem solis — The tear that a man 
sheds for the sins of his fellow-Christian is called snow-water, for 
it melts from the tender heart as doth the snow against the sun. 
Lacrima peregrinationis comparatur aquce fontis, quia sicut haic ebullit 
de terra, ita ilia de cordis angustia — The tear that a man weepeth 
for loathing of this world is called well-water, for it (the tear) welleth 
from the heart as doth water from the well. Lacrima contempdationis 
comparatur aque roris, quia sicut aqua ilia nutu dei trahitur ab imo 
in altum, ita ilia emanat per alti desiderium — The tear that a man 
weepeth through longing for heaven is called dew-water, for as the 
sun draweth up the dew and maketh thereof the rains to come, so 
the Holy Ghost maketh the man to look up to heaven, and when 
he may not thither come as quickly as he would, he sendeth thither 
his hot tears. And what reward shall they receive on account of this 
sending (message) 1 Salutem eternam, lucem perpetuam, vitam sempi- 
ternam — Everlasting salvation, perpetual light, and eternal life. And 
it is God's will that we should sow these four kinds of tears above 
the earth, so that we may for our reward have eternal salvation, per- 
petual light, and endless life. Quod nobis prestare dignetur, S(C. Amen. 



I am now older than I was in years and in lore, 
I wield more than I did, my wit ought to be more. 
Well long have I been a child, in words and in deeds, 
Though I be old in years, too young am I in wisdom. 



muudi estole. bos fure kunnes teres boS be fuwer wateres ' ba be These four 

' ' tears are four 

beoS ihaten us on to weschen burh ysaiani be prophete bus qwe- kinds of 

|>ende. beoS iwescben f awe? wfujnie^ clene. Lcccrima eompunc- 

tionis est amara sicut aqua maris, pe tere be£ mon wep^ for his 1. Salt-water. 

a3en sunne f is alse salt water, and ber fore bit is inemned see 

water. Lacrima compunctionis comparator aque niuisi que 

defluit contra calorem solis. pe ter bet .Mon. scbet for bis em- 2. Snow- 

^ ' water. 

c/'istenes sunne '. is inemned snaw water for bit melt of be neche i ? „ e sche. 

horte swa de$ be snaw to-jeines be suwne. Lacrima peregrina- 

tionis ! comparator aque fontis. quia sicut hee ebullit de terra .' 

ita ilia de cordis cmgustia. pe ter bet .Mon. wep^ for la^e of 3. weii- 

)>isse Hue '. is inemned welle water, for be welled of be borte swa 

doS water of welle. Lacrima contemplationis comparator ague 

roris. quia sicut aqua ilia nutu dei traliitur ab imo in altum i ita 

ilia emanat per alti desiderium. pe ter bet .Mon. werr& for 4. Dew-water. 

lo?iginge to heouene f is inemned deu water for alswa se be sunne 

dracb up }>ene deu. and make^ ber of kume reines '. swa make^ 

be balie gast be .Mon. bi-balden up to houene. and hwenne be ne 

mai )>ider cume alse rajje se be walde l . be send bider bis bate 

teres, and hwiche mede sculen bo fo of bisse sonde f Salutem Tiie reward 

for these 

eternam. lucem perpetuam. vitam sempiternam. eche hele. *les- tears. 

. * [Fol. 596.] 

tende liht. and endeles lif. swa wile god bet we moten }>is louwer 
kunnes teres sawen biuuen 2 orSe bet we moten to mede babben 2 ?buuen< 
eche hele. and lesten[de] liht. and endeles lif. Quod nobis 
jt>restare dignetur, et cetera. Amen. 



/ch em nu alder bene ich wes awintre and a lare*. My wit 
increases not 

Ich welde mare bene ich dede mi wit aide ban mare. with my 

' years. 

Wei longe ich habbe child ibon a worde and a 4 dede 3 ■> an . 

pah ich bo a wintre aid to %ung ich em on rede. 
* The italics represent the rubrical letters of the MS. 

* ? ec n. 


An idle life have I led, and still appear to lead ; 

When I bethink me well of it, full sore I am in dread. 

Most all that I have done befalls to childhood (childishness). 
8 Full late I have repented me, but may God have mercy upon me ! 

Many idle words I have uttered since I could speak, 

Many childish deeds I have done, of which I now repent. 

Most all that erewhile pleased me, it now displeaseth me. 
12 He who followeth his will much, he deceiveth himself. 

I might have done better, had I the discretion ; 

Now I would, I am unable, through age and infirmity. 

Old age is stolen upon me before I became aware of it, 
16 I might not see before me for smoke nor for mist. 

Slow are we to do good, and all too bold to do evil ; 

More do men stand in awe of men than they do of Christ. 

Those who do not well while they may, full often shall they rue it, 
20 When they shall mow and reap what they previously had sown. 

Do for God what ye may, the while ye are alive. 

Let no man trust too much neither to child nor to wife (women) ; 

For he who forgetteth himself for wife or for child, 
24 He shall come into an evil place, except God be merciful to him. 

Send some good thing before you, the while ye may, to heaven, 

For better is one alms before than are seven afterwaixls. 

All too often I have trespassed in works and in words, 
28 All too much have I spent, too little hid in hoard. 

Prefer not to thyself thy kinsman nor thy kinswoman, 

For a fool is he that is a better friend to others than to himself ; 

Let no wife trust to her husband, nor husband to his wife, 
32 Be every man for himself, the while that he is alive. 

Wise is he who thinks of himself the while he may have life, 

For soon will he be forgotten both by strangers and by kin. 

He who does not well while he may shall not (be able) when he 
36 Many kinds of sore trouble have often the infirm. 

No man shall delay nor be slow to do good, 

For many a man promises well, but it forgetteth soon. 

The man who desires to make sure of God's bliss, 



Vnnet lif ich habbe iled. and 3et me pingp ilede. 

penne ich me bi-penche wel ful sare ich me adrede. 

mest al pet ich habbe idon bi-fealt to child-hade. 
8 Wel late ich habbe me bi-pocht I bute God me nu rede. 

Fole idel word ich habbe iqwe^ien soS^en ich speke kuSe. 

fole ^unge dede idon '. pe me of-pinchet nuSe. 
• Mest al pet me likede er nu '. hit me mislike^ 
12 pa muchel fulie^ his wil f hine solf he biswike^. 

Ich mihte habbe bet idon. hefde ich pe iselpe. 

Nu ich walde ah ich ne mei '. for elde and for un-helpe. 

Elde me is bistolen on. er ich hit wiste. 
16 ne michte ich seon bi-fore me. for smike ne for miste. 

Ei'3e we beo£ to done god. and to ufele al to priste. 

Mare eie stonde^ men of monne panne horn do of criste. 

pe wel ne doS pe hwile pe ho mu3en. wel oft hit schal rowen f 
20 penne 3e mawen sculen and repen pet ho er sowen. 

Do he to gode pet he mu3e pe hwile pet he bo aliue. 

ne lipnie na mon to * muchel to childe ne to wiue. 

pe him solue fo^et for wiue ne for childe f 
24 he seal cumen in uuel stude bute him God bo milde. 

SendeS sum god bi-foren eow. pe hw[i]le pet $e mu3en to 

for betere is an elmesse biforen f penne bo^ efter souene. 

Al to lome ich habbe igult a werke and o worde. 
28 Al to muchel ich habbe ispent. to litel ihud in horde. 

Ne beo pe loure pene pe solf i ne pin mei. ne pin ma3e. 

Soht 1 is pet is o^ers monnes frond betre pen his a3en. 

Ne lipnie wif to hire were, ne were to his wiue 
32 Bo for him solue ech .Mon. pe hwile pet he bo aliue. 

Wis is pe to him solue pench pe hwile pe mot libben. 

For sone wule hine fo^eten pe fremede and pe sibbe. 

pe wel ne deS pe hwile he mai f ne seal [he] weune he walde. 
36 Monies monnes sare iswinc habbe^ oft unholde. 

Ne seal na mon don afirst. ne slawen wel to done. 

for moni mon bibate^ wel pe hit foivjete^ sone. 

pe .Mon. pe wule siker bon to habben Godes blisse. 


I have been 
too much of 
a child. 

I might have 

done better 

bad I been 


but old age 

now prevents 


We shall reap 
what we sow. 

* [Pol. 60a.] 
Trust not in 
wife nor child. 

Send some 
good before 
you to 

1 sic. 

He is a fool 
who is a 
better friend 
to others than 
to himself. 

Delay not to 
do good. 


40 Let him do well while he may, then shall he have it with certainty. 

These rich men ween to be safe through wall and ditch. 

He putteth his treasure in a secui-e place who sendeth it to heaven, 

For there he need not be afraid of fire nor of thief, 
44 For there may no one deprive him of it, the foe nor the friend ; 

There need he have no care of gifts nor of rewards. 

Thither he sendeth and carries himself too little and too seldom. 

Thither we should turn, and do well often and frequently, 
48 For there shall no one rob us with wrongful (unjust) judgments. 

Thither should ye eagerly turn, would ye God believe, 

For there may no one rob you of it, neither king nor reeve. 

All the best that we might have, thither should we send it, 
52 For there we might find it again and have it for ever. 

Those who do here any good for to have God's mercy, 

They shall find it all there, and a hundredfold more. 

He who will hold his wealth wisely while he may enjoy it, 
56 Let him give it away for God's love, then doth he keep it well. 

Our labour and our produce is often wont to dwindle away, 

But what we do for God's love, we shall find it all again. 

No evil shall go unpunished, nor any good unrequited. 
60 Evil we do all too much, and less good than we ought. 

He who doth most for good and least for evil, 

Both too little and too much shall both afterwards seem to him. 

There shall our work be weighed before the King of heaven, 
64 And there shall be given us the reward of our labour according to 
our deserts. 

Each man with what he has may purchase the kingdom of heaven, 

He who hath more and he who hath less, both alike may ; 

He even so with his penny, as the other with his pound. 
68 This is the most marvellous bargain (chaffare) that any man ever 
might find, 

And he who may not do more, he may do it with his good-will, 

As well as he that hath of gold many a heap. 

And often God is better pleased when one giveth him less ; 
72 And his works and his ways are mercy and righteousness. 

A little gift is acceptable to God that cometh of good-will, 



40 do wel him solf hwile pet he niai '. penne haue^ he his mid 

]>es riche .Me/i. wene^ bon siker Jmrh walle and jmrh 

pe de£ his echte on sikere stude he hit sent to heueneriche. 

For J>er ne peri he bon of-dred of fure ne of jjoue 
44 \>er ne *}>erf he him binimen pe la^e ne pe loue. 

j>er ne j>erf he habben kare of 3efe ne of 3elde. 

J>ider he sent, and solf bere^ to lutel and to selde. 

pider we sculen drayen and don wel ofte and ilome. 
48 for J>er ne seal me us naut binimen mid wrangwise dome. 

juder ye sculen 3orne dra3en. walde 3e god ileue. 

for ne mei per 1 hit ou binimen king ne reue. 

Al pet beste pet we hefden jjider we hit solde senden 
52 for J>er we hit michte finden eft. and habben buten ende. 

J)o pe er do& eni God for habben godes are. 

al he hit seal finden eft j>er and hundred fald mare. 

pe j>et echte wile habben wel hwile pe he mu3e es welden. 
56 Giue hies for godes luue f jjenne dej> lies wel ihalden. 

Vre swine and ure t'dpe is ofte ivxmed to svnnden. 

Ach pet pe we do^ for godes luue i eft we sculen al finden. 

Ne seal nan ufel bon unbocht. ne nan god unforjolden. 
60 Vfel we do% al to muchel. and god lesse penne we sculden. 

po pe mest do^ nu to gode. and pe lest to la^e. 

ErSer to lutel and to muchel seal jmnchen eft horn baj?e. 

per me seal ure werkes weien bi-foran pe heuen king. 
64 and 3euen us ure swinkes Ian efter ure erninge. 

Ech mon mid pet lie Iiauet mei buggen houene riche. 

pe mare haueb and pe pe lesse '. baj>e hi * mu3en iliche. 

Alse mid his penie alse o^er mrS his punde. 
68 pet is pe wunderlukeste chep f pet eni mon efre funde. 

And pe ^e mare ne mai don f do hit mid his gode jxmke. 

Alse wel se pe pe haue^S golde fele manke. 

And oft god kon mare }>onc pen pe him yeue6 lesse. 
72 And his werkes and his we3es his milce. and rihtwisnesse. 

lutel lac is gode lof ' pet kume^ of gode wille. 

Heaven is the 
safest place 
for our trea- 
* [Fol. 60b.] 

» MS. \>ct. 

We should 
send there the 
best that we 

that is, we 
sliimM distri- 
bute our alms 
for the love of 

Each man 
may purchase 
*[Fol. 61n ] 
the poor with 
his penny and 
the rich with 
his pound. 

A little offer- 
ing is accept- 
able to God. 


And worthless is great gifts when the heart is evil. 
Heaven and earth he surveys ; his eyes are so bright, 

76 Sun and moon and heaven-fire (lightning) are dark compared to 
his light. 
Nothing is hidden from him, so great is his might, 
Let it be done ever so secretly, or in so dark a night, 
He knoweth what we think and what do all living creatures. 

80 There is no lord like Christ, nor king like our Lord. 

Heaven and earth, and all that is, are enclosed in his hand ; 
He doth whatever his will is, in water and on land ; 
He made fishes in the sea, and fowls in the air ; 

84 He protects and (rules) wieldeth all things, and created all creatures ; 
He is beginning without beginning, and end without end ; 
He alone is always in each place, turn wherever thou may ; 
He is above us and beneath, before and behind. 

88 He who God's will doth, everywhere may he find him ; 
Each whisper he hears, and he knows all deeds, 
He perceives each man's thoughts. What shall avail us 
We who break God's behests and sinneth so often ? 

92 What shall we say or do at the great doom, 
We who loved unright, and an evil life led 1 
What shall we say or do, when the angels shall be in dread 1 
What shall we bear before us, with what shall we make peace- 

96 We that never did good, to (please) the heavenly Judge 1 

There shall be so many devils who will accuse us ; [saw, 

And they have not forgotten anything of all that they previously 
All that we did -wrong here they will make it known there. 

100 They have all in their writing that we did amiss here, 
Except we repented of it, the while we were here. 
Though we knew not nor saw them, they were our fellows (com- 
What shall whoremongers do, the traitors, and the perjured 1 

104 Why are so many folk called and so few chosen 1 

Why were they conceived — wherefore were they born — 

That shall be doomed to death and evermore forlorn (damned) ? 







And ec-lete 1 muchel ^eue of ]>an J>e herte is ille. 

Houene and horjje he ouer sich. his e3en bcrS swa brichte 

Suwne and nione and houen fur boS Jjestre a3ein his lihte. 

Nis him noht forholen nihucl. swa muchele bo^ his mihte. 

nis hit ne swa derne [idouj lie [a] swa J>ostre nihte. 

he wat wet ^enke^ and hwet dcyS alle qwike wihte. 

Nis na lauerd sioich se is exist, ne king swuch ure drihten. 

houene and orSe and al \et is biloken is in his honde. 

he de^ al \et his wil is f a wettre and alonde. 

He niakede fisses in )>e se and fu3eles in )>e lifte. 

he wit and waldeS alle J)ing and scop alle scefte. 

he is hord buten horde and ende buten ende. 

he ane is eure an ilche stude wende J>er Jm wende. 

he is buuen us and binojjen. biforen and bihinden. 

)>e \>e de^ godes wille uwer he mei him finden. 

Uelche nine he iher^S and wat [he] alle deden. 

he burj)-siche)j uches monnes j>onc. wi hwat seal us to 

We \et broke^ godes hese and gulte^ swa ilome. 
hwet scule we seggen ofter don et ]>e muchele dome 
pa }>e luueden unriht and ufel lif *leden. 
Wet sculen ho seggen o^er don l . ]>en J>e engles bon of-dred. 
hwet sculen we beren biforen us mid horn scule we 

96 J)0 }>e neure god ne dude \>e houenliche deme[n]. 

)>er sculen bon doule swa fole \>et wulle^ us forwreien. 
And nabbed hi naming fo^eten of al \et ho [ere] ise3en. 
Al \>et we misduden her '. ho hit wulle^ ku^e Jjere. 
Al ho habbe^ in hore write J>et we misduden here. 
[Buten we habben it ibet J>e wile we her were] 
pach we nusten ne nise3en. ho weren ure ifere. 
Hwet sculen ordlinghes 2 don J>a swicen and ta for- 

hwi bo^ fole iclepede. and swa lut icorene 
wi hwi weren ho bi3eten to hwon weren ho iborene. 
\et sculew bon to dej>e idemet. and eure ma forlorene. 




1 ? et-lete. 

Nothing is 
hidden from 

All is under 
his hand. 

He alone is 

He hears, 
sees, and 
knows all 

* [Fol. 616.] 

At Doomsday 
the devils will 
be our 

2 ? orlinges. 


Each man shall accuse and condemn himself, 
108 His own works and his thoughts for a witness he shall summon. 

No man may so Avell judge him, nor so rightly, 

For none knoweth him so well, except God alone. 

Each man knoweth himself best, his works and his will. 
112 He who knows least often says the most ; he who knows all, is 
often silent. 

There is no witness so great as a man's own heart. 

Whoso saith that he is whole, he himself knows best his smart. 

Each man shall doom himself to death or to life ; 
116 The witness of his own work shall drive (urge) him thereto. 

All that each man hath done since he came to manhood 

As if he saw it written in a book, so shall it seem to him then. 

But the Lord judgeth no man by the beginning of his life, 
120 But all his life shall be such as is his ending (death) ; 

If that his end is evil the whole is evil, and all is good if his end 
is good. [given us, 

God grant that our end may be good, and preserve what he has 

The man that will not do any good, nor ever lead a good life, 
124 Ere death and judgment come to his door he may be sore afraid 

That he cannot then pray for mercy (for it often happens so) ; 

Therefore he is wise that watches and prays and repents before 
the Doom. 

When death is at the door, too late he cries for mercy; 
128 Too late he hateth evil work who is unable to do it any more. 

We ought well to believe that, for our Lord himself hath said it, 

At what time soever a man repenteth of his misdeeds, 

Sooner or later, mercy he shall find ; 
132 But he that hath not repented, very much has he to repent of. 

Many a man saith, who thinketh of the torment that shall have 
an end, 

May I not pray better to be delivered from bonds at Doomsday 1 

Little he knoweth what is suffering, and little does he know 
136 What heat is there where the soul abideth, how bitter the wind 
there bloweth ; 

Had he been there one day, or two bare hours, 


Ech .Mon. seal bim solue ber biclepie and bidemew. Each man 

> L shall be his 

108 his aien wercb and his bone te witnesse be seal demen 1 . own judge. 

' ' . ■ temen. 

ne mei him na Mon alsa wel demen ne alswa rihte 
for nan ne knauS bim ase 3ere \ buten ane drihte. 
Ech .Mon. wat him solue best '. his werkes. and his wille. 
112 pe $e lest wat biserS ofte mest I be hit al wat is stille. 

nis nan witnesse alse muchel se monnes asen horte. A man's own 

heart is his 

Wa se serS bet he bo hal. him solf wat best bis smirte. greatest 

> witness. 

Ech .Mora, seal hin 2 solf demen to deSSe o^er to liue. 2 ms. hm. 

116 ba witnesse of his a3en werch f hine ber to seal driue. 
Al )>et ech .Mon. haueS idon so&Sen he com to morale 
sculde he * hit sechen o boke iwriten he seal ibenchen * [Foi. 62a.] 

All men's sins 
benne. are written in 

...... a book. 

Ah drihten ne demeS nenne .Mow. efter his biginnigge. 
120 ah al his lif seal bon suilch bo^ his endinge. 

$ef bet his [ende is] uuel al hit is uuel and [al] God 3efe 
god his ende. 

God 3eue bet ure ende bo god. and wite bet he us lende. 

be .Mon. bet uuel 3 don na god. ne neure god lif leden. 3 ? nuie. 

124 er deft and dom come to his dure he mei him sare waibesore" 1 

. . afraid when 

adreclen. death shall 

.... come to his 

bet he ne mu3e benne biden are. lor bet ltit llome. door. 

for-)ji he is wis be biet and bit and bet bi-fore dome. 
Wenne der6 is attere dure wel late he biddej) are. 
128 Wel late he latheo" uuel were i be ne mei hit don ne 
bet achten we to leuen wel. for ure drihten solf hit seide. 
A hwilke time se eure .Mon. of binchb his mis-dede. w e may ail 

obtain mercy, 

0)>er raber o¥er later f milce he seal imeten. if we seek it. 

132 Ac we 4 )>et ber naf[e$] nocht ibetf wel muchel he haueS "^be- 
to beten. 

Moni mon seit hwa rech% of pine be seal habben ende. 

Ne bidde ich na bet bo alesed a domes dei of bende. 

Lutel he wat wet is pine, and lutel he hit scawe^ 6 s ? jenaweft. 

136 hwice hete is ber ba saule wuneS hu biter wind ber blawe^. ^"iv oTthe 

hefde he bon ber enne dei o^er twa bare tide f pains ° 


He would not for all middle earth abide there the third. 

Those that have come thence have said this — they knew it most 
140 Wo worth seven years' sorrow for a week's bliss ! 

And our bliss here, which hath an end, for endless torment ! 

Better it is to drink muddy water than poison mingled with wine. 

Swine's flesh is very sweet, so is that of the wild deer, 
144 But all too dear he buyeth it who giveth his neck for it. 

Full belly may speak lightly of hunger and of fasts, 

So may he of torment who knoweth not how it shall for ever last ; 

Had he experienced it for a while he would tell another tale, 
148 Worthless were his wife and child, his sister, father and brother ; 

Altogether would he differently do and differently think, 

If he thought on hell-fire, which cannot be quenched ; 

Ever would he abide here in sorrow and anxiety, 
152 Provided he might befly and avoid hell-torments. 

Worthless to him should be all worldly joy and earthly bliss, 

For to come to that great bliss (of heaven) is mirth indeed. 

I will now return to the Doom, of which I previously told you. 
156 In that day and at that Doom may Christ help and succour us ! 

For there we may be soon frightened and greatly be in dread ; 

There he shall see before him all his words, and also his deeds ; 

All shall there be made known what men here lied and stole, 
160 All shall be there discovered what men did here secretly and 

We shall know then the life of all men as our own. 

There shall the rich and the low (poor) be equals, 

There need no man be ashamed nor be in fear, 
164 If he here is sorry for his sins and repenteth of his misdeeds, 

For to him that shall be saved there is neither shame nor wrath ; 

But the others have shame and wrath, and often many sorrows. 

The Doom shall soon be finished ; it will not last long. 
168 No man shall remind him (God) there of violence nor of wrong. 

Those shall have hard (severe) doom who here were hard (un- 
And those who treated poor men cruelly, and evil laws areared, 











nolde he for al middenerd \>e jjerdde J?er abiden. 

)>et habbe^ iseid J>[et] comen Jxmen ]?a hit wisten mid 

wa wuro" sorje seue3er. for souenihte blisse. 
In 1 hure blisse \>e *]>e ende 7iaue6. for endelese pine, 
betere is wori water drunch i }>en atter rneind mid wine. 
Swines brede is swiSe swete. swa is of wilde dore. 
alto dore he is abuh f ]>e 3ef5 )>er fore his swore. 
Ful wombe mei lihtliche spekeu of hunger, and of festen '. 
swa mei of pine \>e ne cnauS [hu] }>e seal a ilesten. 
HefS he ifonded sumine stunde '. he wolde al seggen 

Et-lete him were wif. child, suster. feder and broker. 
Al he walde and oSerluker don and dSerluker \>enchen 
Wenne he bi-pohte on helle fur J>e nawiht ne mei quenchen. 
Eure he walde her inne wawe and ine wene wunien '. 
WrS \et )>e mihte helle pine bi-flien and bi-sunien 
Et lete him were al world wele and orSliche blisse. 
for to \>et muchele blisse cumen is murj>e mid iwisse. 
Iwule mi cumen eft to \e dome \et ich er ow of sede 
A )>a dei and at ta dome us helpe crist and rede, 
per we niU3en bon epe offerd and herde us adredew. 
per he seal al son him biforen his word and ec his deden. 
Al seal per bon penne cud per me?i li^en her ent stelen. 
Al seal per bon paraie unwron '. \>et men wn^en her and 

We sculen aire monne lif iknauwen [per] alse ure ahen. 
per sculen euenmgges bon pe riche and pe \a,%e. 
Ne seal na mon smakie 2 per ne perf he him adreden. 
Gif him her of-pincp * his gult and bet his misdede. 
For him ne scauiep ne ne grome<5 pe sculen bon ibo^en. 
Ach \o\re habbep scome and grome and oft fele soi^e. 
pe dova. seal sone bon idon ne lest he nawiht lowge. 
ne seal him na mon mene per of strengpe ne of wronge. 
pe sculen habbe herdne dom pa her weren herde. 
pa pe uuele holden wreche men ami uuele la3e redde. 

? And. 
* [Fol. 626.] 

Deer and 
swine's flesh 
is dearly 
bought with 
one's neck. 

All worldly 
woes are 
nothing com- 
pared to the 
pains of hell. 

Of Doomsday. 

All our sins 
shall be made 
known at 

2 for skamie. 
* [Fol. 63a.] 

The wicked 
shall have a 


Also according to what he hath done shall each one be judged, 
172 Blithe may he be then who hath pleased God. 

All those who have sprung of Adam and Eve 

They all shall come thither, in truth we so believe. 

Those who have done to the best of their ability 
176 Shall go to the kingdom of heaven along with our Lord ; 

Those who have done the devil's work, and therein be found (at 
their death), 

They shall go forth with him (the devil) into hell's abyss, 

There they shall ever dwell, without mercy or end (of their tor- 
180 Our Lord will never break hell-gates to deliver them from bonds. 

It is no wonder if they are sorrowful and wretched ; 

Christ shall never again suffer death to deliver them from death. 

Once our Lord broke into hell and brought out his friends ; 
184 He himself suffered death for them ; very dearly he ransomed them. 

Kinsman would not do it for kinsman, nor sister for brother, 

Nor the son for his father, nor any man for another. 

The Lord of us all, for his thralls, was tortured on the cross; 
188 Our bonds he loosed, and bought us with his blood. 

We give for his love scarcely a single morsel of our bread. 

We think not that he shall judge the quick and the dead. 

Great love he showed to us, would we understand it. 
192 Because our elders misdid we now suffer for it. 

Death came into this earth through the devil's hand, 

And strife and sorrow, and toil on water and on land. 

For our first father's guilt we all suffer, 
196 And all his offspring after him are fallen into harm, 

Thirst, hunger, cold and heat, old age and infirmity ; 

Through him death came into this earth, and other miseries, 

Else were no man dead or sick, nor any one miserable, 
200 But might live evermore in bliss and health. 

Little it seemeth to many a man, but great was the sin 

For which all suffer death who come of their kin. 

For their sin, and also our own, we may sorely grieve ; 
204 Through sin we all live in sorrow and in toil, 











Ec efter \et he efS idon s[c]al per ]?enne [beon] idemet. 

[Blijje mai he ]>anne buen ]>e god haued iquemed] 

Alle pa pi sprunge bop of adam and of eue. 

Alle hi sculen cunien }>ider for so^e we hit ileueo". 

|>a pe habbe^ wel idon efter bore rnibte. 

to houene riche hi sculen faren forS mid ure drihte. 

pa pe habbe^ doules were idon. and ]>er inne bo ifunde. 

bi sculen faren forS mid him in to belle grunde. 

per hi sculen wunien a buten are and ende. 

Ne breke]? ne ure drihte belle gate for lesen hi of bende. 

iVis na sullic pech horn bo wa and horn bo uneade. 

Ne seal neure eft crist }>olie dej) for lesen bom of dea}>e. 

Enes drihten helle brec his frond he ut brochte. 

him solf he jjolede de^ for him 1 , wel dore he hom 

Nalde hit mei do for mei. ne suster for broker, 
nalde hit sune do for fader, ne na mon for o'Ser. 
Vre aire lauerd for his J>relles ipined wes a rode, 
vre bendes he unbon[d] and bohte us mid his blode. 
We 3eue : S * une^e for his luue a stuche of ure brede. 
Ne J>enke we noht pet he seal deme J>a qwike and J>a 

Muchele luue he us cudde. walde we hit understo?ide 
pet ure eldre misduden ; we habbe? uuele on honde. 
Dej) com in )>is middenerde p\xx\\ pes doules honde. 
And sake and so^e and swine a watere and a londe. 
vre forme fader gult. we ab^e^ alle. 
[Al his ofsprunge after hym in herme is bifalle] 
Jjurst and hunger, chele and bete, helde and unhel^e. 
J)urh him deS com in Jns middenerd and o^er unisePSe. 
Nere namon elles ded ne sec ne nan unsele. 
ac mihten libben eure ma a blisse and a hele. 
lutel hit Jjuwche^ moni mon. ac mucbel wes J?a suwne. 
for hwam alle polie^ de^ pe comen of hore cunne. 
Hore sunne and ec ure a3en sare us mei of-Jnnche. 
Jmrh su?^ne we libbeo" alle in sorje and in swinke. 

The righteous 
shall go to 

The wicked 
shall go into 

Christ once 
harrowed hell. 
1 ? lieom. 

Christ died 
for us all. 

* [Fol. 636.] 

Adam's guilt, 
death, thirst, 
hunger, &c, 
came into the 

Through sin 
we are all still 
in sorrow and 


Since God took so great a vengeance for one misdeed. 

We who so much and so often sin, we ought easily to be in 

Adam and his offspring for one single sin 
208 Was many hundred winters in hell-fire and in misery. 

Those who lead their life with unright and with wrong, 

Except God have mercy upon them, shall be there full long. 

God's wisdom is very great, and so is his might, 
212 And his mercy is not less, but is in the same weight (measure). 

More he may forgive to one than all folk can sin. 

The devil himself might have had mercy, if he had begun to 
ask it. 

Those who seek God's mercy may certainly find it ; 
216 But hell-king is pitiless with those whom he may bind. 

He who follows his will most, he hath the worst reward ; 

His bath shall be welling (boiling) pitch, his bath shall be burning 

Worst he doth to his good friends, than to his very enemies. 
220 May God shield all good (? God's) friends ever fi-om such friends. 

Never in hell came I, nor thither care to come, 

Though I might there get the wealth of every world, 

Yet I will say in such wise as men have told us, 
224 And as one may read it written in books ; 

I will say to those who know it not themselves, 

To warn them from their misery, if they will listen to me. 

Attend now to me, simple men and poor, 
228 I will tell of hell-fire, and warn you therefrom. 

In hell is hunger and thirst, two evils together ; 

Those suffer this who were of meat miserly here. 

There is whining and woe, after each stretch (torment) ; 
232 They go from heat to cold, and nearly freeze the wretches ; 

When they are in the heat the cold seems bliss to them, 

When they come again to the cold they miss the heat. 

They suffer woe enough, they have no bliss ; 
236 They know not with any certainty which of the two is worse. 
They ever walk and seek rest, but they cannot find it, 



Su^en God nom swa muchele wrake for are misdede i 

We pe swa muchel and swa ofte mis-do^, we mi^en e8e 
us adrede. 

Adam and his of-spi*u«g for are pare 1 sunne. 
208 Wes fele undret wintre an helle pine and an unwnnne. 

pa pe ledden bore lif mid unriht and mid wrange. 

buten hit godes milce do ho sculen bon per wel longe. 

Godes wisdom is wel muchel and alsAva is his mihte 
212 And nis his milce naut lesse. ac bi J>an ilke iwichte. 

Mare he ane mei foi^euen. pen *al folc gulte cunne. 

Sulf douel mihte habbere milce. 3if he hit bigunne. 

pa pe godes milce secheS f he iwis mei ha ifmden. 
216 Ac helle king is are-les with pa pe he mei binden. 

pe pe dep is wille mest f he haue^ wurst mede. 

His bap seal bon wallinde. his baft seal 2 bon bernmde 

Wurst he de¥> his gode frond f penne his fulle fond[e] f 
220 God scilde alle godes frond, a wih swilche freonde. 

Neure in helle hi com. ne per ne come reche. 

pach ich elches worldes wele. )>er me mahte feche 

\>et his wulle seggen on pat wise men us seiden. 
224 And aboken hit writen per [me] mei hit reden. 

Ich hit wille seggen pan pe hit bom solf nusten. 

Warni hom wrS hore unfrome. 3if ho me wulleft lusten. 

Vnderstondeft nu to me edi men and arme. 
228 Ich wulle tellen of helle pin '. and wernin ow wrS herme. 

In helle his hunger and }>urst f twa uuele iuere. 

pas [pine] polie^ pa weren maket 3 nipinges here. 

per is waning and wow. efter eche streche. 
232 ho fareft from hete to hete. and hech to frure be wreche. 

penne hi brS in pere hete '. pe chele him punchet blisse. 

penne hi cume^ eft to pe chele f of hete hi habbeft misse. 

hi hem deft wa inoch nabbed hi nane blisse. 
236 Nute hi hwe\>er hom dep murs i mid neure nane wisse. 

hi walkeft eure and secheft reste *ac ho ne mi^en 

1 ? bare. 

God's mercy 
is as great as 
his power. 

* [Fol. 64a.] 

The devil 
might have 
had mercy 
had lie sought 

2 MS. scab. 

I never came 
in hell, yet I 
will tell you 
what I rind 
in books. 

In hell is hun- 
ger and thirst. 
3 ? mite. 

The sinners 
go alternately 
from the heat 
into the cold. 

1 MS. burs. 
* [Fol. 646.] 


Because they would not, while they could, repent of their sins ; 

They seek rest where there is none, therefore they cannot find it, 
240 But walk weary up and down, as water doth (tossed) with the wind. 

Those are they who were in their thoughts unsteadfast, 

And who made vows to God and would not perform them, 

Those who began good works and would not complete them, 
244 Who went now here and now there, and knew not what they desired, 

There is burning pitch for their souls to bathe in. 

For those who led their life in war and in strife, 

There is fire that is a hundredfold hotter than ours is ; 
248 Salt water cannot quench it, nor fresh water from the stream ; 

This is the fire that ever burnetii, nought may quench it. 

Therein shall be those who delighted to persecute poor men, 

Those who were treacherous men and full of evil devices, 
252 Those who loved to do evil and delighted to think of it, 

Those who loved injustice and stealing, whoredom and drunkenness, 

And in the devil's work blithely toiled ; 

Those who were such liars that no one might believe them, 
256 Bribe-greedy judges and unjust reeves ; 

Those who loved other men's wives and despised their own, 

Those who sinned greatly in drinking and in eating ; 

The wretched man took his goods and laid it up in hoard, 
260 That recked little of God's message and God's word, [needed, 

And those who would not of their own give where they saw it was 

Nor would hear God's message when they heard it proclaimed ; 

Those who loved other men's goods more than they ought, 
264 And were all too greedy for silver and gold, 

And those who committed breach of trust when they should have 
been trustworthy, 

And omitted what they should do, and did what they would ; 

Those who were ever after this world's wealth, 
268 And did all that the loathsome spirit bid and taught them, 

And all those who in anywise here pleased the devil — 

Those are now with him in hell, undone and damned, 

Except those that grieved sorely here for their misdeeds, 
272 And did repent of their sins and lead a better life. 



for-pi pe ho nolden pe hwile \et ho mihten here sunne beten. 

ho secheS reste per nis nan. for-pi ne mu5en hi es finden. 
240 Ac walked weri up crnd dun '. se water dep mid winde. 

po bo^ pa pe weren her a panke unstedefeste. 

And pa pe gode biheteu heste and nolden hit ileste. 

pa pe god were bigunnen «?ifZ ful enden hit nolden. 
244 Nu witen 1 her. and nu^e ]>er. and nusten hwat hi wolden. 

yer is bernunde pich hore saule to batten inne. 

]>a pe ledden here lif in werre and in winne. 

per is fur \>et is undret fald hattre. pene bo ure. 
248 Ne mei qwenchen salt weter ne uersc of pe burne. 

pis is \et fur \et efre bernd ne mei nawiht hit quewchen. 

per inne bo% pa pe was to lof wreche men to swenchen. 

]>a pe weren swikelemen and ful of uuel wrenchen. 
252 pa pe mihten uuel don. pe pe lef hit wes to penchen. 

pe luueden tening and stale, hordom and drunken 

And a doules werche blipeliche swunken. 

pa pe weren swa lese 2 \et me ho?>& ne mihte ileuen. 
256 Med-ierne domes men. and wro?igwise reuen. 

pet o^er mownes wif lof. his a}en et-lete. 

po pe sungede muchel \ a drunke and an ete. 

pe wreche mon binom his ehte. and leide his on horde. 
260 ]>et lutel let of godes borde. and godes worde. 

And po pe his a}en nalde 3euen per he isech. * pe node 

ne nalde iheren godes sonde, penne he hit herde bode. 

pe \>et is o^ers monnes ping, loure pene hit sculde. 
264 And weren to gredi of solure and of golde. 

And pa pe untrownesse duden pon pe ho sculden bon 

And leten pet ho sculden don. and duden \et ho wolden. 

pa pe weren eure abuten pisse worldes echte. 
268 And duden al pe< pe lape gast hechte to and tachte. 

And alle pe pen anigewise doulen iquemde 3 . 

pa bo^ nu mid him in helle fordon and fordemet 4 . 

[Bute po pe ofpouhte sore, her here mis-deden 
272 and gunnen here gultes beten. and betere lif leden 

Tliey find no 
rest there. 

In burning 
pitch do their 
souls bathe. 

Nothing may 
quench this 

In this fire 
skill dwell 
the persecu- 
tors of the 
evil- doers, 
&c. ; 

2 MS. lele. 
unjust judges, 

misers, &c. ; 

* [Fol. 65a.] 

covetous men, 

and those who 
pleased the 

3 MS. 

4 ? fordemde. 


There are adders and snakes, newts and ferrets, 

That tear and fret the evil speakers, the envious and the proud ; 

Never shineth there the sun, nor the moon nor the stars. 
276 There is much of God's heat (anger) and much of God's wrath, 

There is ever evil smoke, darkness and awe ; 

There is never other light than the gloomy flames. 

There lie loathsome fiends in strong chains, 
280 Those that previously were with God, in heaven full high. 

There are horrible fiends and awful (creatures) wights, 

These shall the wretched see that sinned through sight. 

There is the loathsome Satan, and Belzehub the old ; 
284 Easily may they be in dread who shall behold them. 

No heart may think, nor can any tongue tell 

How much torment and how many are in hell. 

Of those torments that are there I will not lie to you. 
288 All that men endure here is not without game and glee, 

But yet it is not so with them that dwell in those loathsome bonds, 

But they know that their pain shall never have an end. 

There shall be the heathen men, who were lawless (without law), 
292 Who knew not of God's commands nor of God's behests ; 

Wicked Christian men shall be their companions, 

Those who their Christianity badly held here. 

Yet they are in a worse place in hell's abyss, 
296 Nor shall they ever come out, for mark nor for pound. 

Nor may prayers nor alms help them there, 

For there is in hell neither mercy nor forgiveness. 

Let each man shield himself, the while he may, from this hell's pain, 
300 And warn also his friends therefrom, as I have mine. 

Those who know not how to shield themselves, I will teach them ; 

I can (know how to) be, if I am allowed, the body's and soul's leech. 

Let us forsake what God has forbidden to all mankind, 
304 And let us do what he bids us, and let us keep ourselves from sin ; 

Let us love God with our hearts and with all our might, 

And our fellow Christian as ourselves, as our Lord hath taught us. 

All that we read and sing before God's board (table), 
308 It all hangeth and holdeth by these two words. 



peor be^ naddren and snaken. eueten and frude 

j>a tered and frete^ j?e uuele speken. |?e nihtfulle and \>e prate 

Neure sunne J>er ne scin& ne mone ne steorre 

276 \>er is muchel godes kete. and muchel godes 3eorre 
Eure per is vuel smech. jnisternesse and eie 
nis per neure oper liht. panne pe swarte leie 
per ligget la^liche fend, in stronge raketeie 

280 \at bu^ pe pe were mid gode. on heuene wel heie 
per buS ateliche fend, and eisliche wihte 
pos sculle pa wrecchen i-son. pe sunege purS sihte 
per ia pe lope sathanas. and belsebuc pe ealde 

284 Iepe he muwen ben of-drad 1 . pe hine sculled bi-helde 
Ne mai non heorte it penche. ne no tunge ne can telle 
hu muckele pine, and hu vele. senden inne kelle 
Of po pine pe pere bued. nelle ic hou nout leio3en 

288 nis it bute gamen and gleo. al pat man mai here dreo3en 
Ac 3et ne deS heom nout so wo. in po lope biende 
bute pat ki wite^ \>at heore pine, ne seal neure habben ende 
per bu% po hepenemen. pe were lawe-lese 

292 pe heom nas nout of godes bode, ne of godes hese 
Vuele cristenemen. hi bud here i-vere 
po pe heore cristen-dom. vuele heolden here 
3ut hi bud a wurse stede. on pere helle grunde 

296 ne sculle hi neure comen vp. for marke ne for punde 
Ne mai keom noper kelpen per. i-bede ne almesse 
for nis noper inne helle. ore ne fo^iuenesse 
Sculde him elc man pe wile he mai. of pos helle pine 

300 And warnie sec his frend per wid. so ic habbe mine 
po pe scilden heom ne cunnen. ic heom wulle teache 
ich kan beo 3if i seal, lickame and soule liacke 
Lete we pat god for-bet. alle mancunne 

304 and do we pat he us hat. and scilde we us wid sunne 
Luuie we god mid vre heorte. and mid al vre mihte 
and vre emcristene alse us suelf. swa us lerde drihte 
Al pat me rat and sing^. be-fore godes borde 

308 al it hanged and bi-halt. bi pisse twam worde 


There are 
adders and 
ferrets that 
tear the 

There is much 
smoke and 

fiends lie 
bound in 


i MS. 

No one can 
tell how many 
pains there 
are in hell. 

In hell are 

the heathen, 


whom neither 
mark nor 
pound shall 
ever help. 

Let each man 
warn his 
friends of this 
place of 

Let us love 
God and man. 


All God's laws lie fulfills, the old and the new, 

Who hath these two loves, and will observe them well. 

But they are very difficult to hold, so oft we all offend, 
312 For it is hard to stand long, and easy it is to fall ; 

But may Christ give us strength that we may stand, 

And permit us to repent of all our guilts. 

We long after world's weal, which may not last long, 
316 And lay all our labour on unsteadfast things. 

If we laboured for God's love half what we do for wealth, 

We should not be so beguiled nor so evilly ensnared ; 

If we served God as we do wretches, 
320 More we might have from heaven, than of earls or kings. 

They cannot protect themselves here against cold, thirst, nor 

Nor old age, nor from death, the older nor the younger. 

But there is no thirst, nor death, nor infirmity nor old age. 
324 Of this kingdom we think too often, and of that too seldom. 

We should all bethink us often and very frequently 

What we are, to what (place) we shall (go), and whence we came, 

How little while we shall be here, how long elsewhere, 
328 What we may have here, and what we shall find there ; 

If we wei - e wise men we should think of this. 

But let us be aware that this world will intoxicate us, 

Most all men it gives drink of a devil's draught ; 
332 He shall be able to shield himself well if he will not shrink. 

With Almighty God's love let us shield ourselves 

From this wretched world's love, that it may not hurt us. 

With fasts and alms and prayer let us keep ourselves from sin, 
336 With the weapons that God hath given to all mankind. 

Let us leave the broad street and the open way, 

That leads to hell the ninth part of men, and more I ween ; 

Let us go the narrow way and the green way, 
340 There journey little folk, but it is fair and bright. 

The broad street is our will, which we are loath to forsake ; 

He who followeth wholly his will, goeth by this street. 

They may easily go along the downward slope 



Alle godes lawe he ful£. Jje newe and J>e ealde 

he pe }>os twa luue haued. and wel hi wule healde 

Ac hi bu$> wunder erued-helde. swa ofte Ave gulted alle 

312 for it is strong to stonde longe. and liht it is to falle 

Ac drihte crist he 3iue us strenc}>e. stonde }>at we mote 

and of alle vre gultes. unne us come bote 

We wilnied efter worldes wele. pe longe ne mai ileste 

316 and legged al ure iswinch. on jnnge un-stede-faste 

Sswunche we for godes luue. half pat we do^ for ehte 
ne were we nout swa bi-cherd. ne swa vuele bi-cauhte 
3if we serueden god. so we do^ erninges 

320 more we haueden of heuene. Jeanne eorles oJ>er kinges 

Ne muwe« hi her werien heom wid chele. wid Jmrst. ne 

wid hunger 
ne wid elde ne wid de^. }>e eldre ne Jje ^eonger 
Ac J>er nis hunger ne Jmrst ne de^. ne vnhelj>e ne elde 

324 of J>isse riche we J>enchet oft. and of Jjere to selde 
We scolden alle us bi-J)enche. oft and wel ilome 
hwet we be^. and to wan we sculle. and of wan we come 
Hu lutel wile we be^ her. hu longe elles ware 

328 hwat we mu3en habben her. and hwet elles hware 
3if we were wise men. Jns we scolden ij>enche 
bute we wurj>e us iwar. pes worlS us wule for-drenche 
Mest alle men he 3iued drinke. of one deofles scenche 

332 he sceal him curaie sculde wel. 3if he him nele screnche 
Mid ealm[i]hties godes luue. vte we us bi-werien 
wid Jjes wrecches worldes luue. J>at he ne mawe us derien 
Mid fasten, and almesse. and ibede. werie we us wid sunne 

336 Mid J50 wepnen pe god haued 3iuen alle mancunne 
Lsete we J>e brode stret. and pe wei bene 
pe lat J>e ni^e^e del to helle of manne. and mo ic wene 
Go we jjene narewe wei. and J?ene wei grene 

340 J>er forS-fare^ lutel folc. ac it is feir and scene 
pe brode stret is vre iwil. ^e is us lod for to lete 
J>e ^e al folewed his wil. fared hi Jmsse strete 
Hi muwen lihtliche gon. mid ^ere nu^er hulde 

He who hath 
these two 
loves fulfils 
the Old and 
New laws. 

We long after 
world's weal 
instead of hea- 
venly bliss. 

We may get 
more from 
heaven than 
from earls or 

Let us think 
of the short- 
ness of tli is 

and beware 
of this false 

Let us fortify 
ourselves with 
fasts, alms, 
and prayer. 

Let us go the 
narrow and 
green way. 

The broad 
way is man's 


344 Through a goodless wood, into a bare field. 

The narrow way is God's behests, there journey very few ; 

Those are they that shield themselves well from every vice. 

These go with difficulty along the cliffs, along the high hills ; 
348 These forsake their own will in order to fulfill God's behests. 

Let us all go that way, for it will bring us 

With the fair few men before heaven's king, 

Where there is the greatest of all mirth, with angels' songs. 
352 He who is there a thousand winters, will not think it long ; 

He who hath least, hath so much that he asketh no more. 

He who forsakes the (heavenly) bliss for this (world), he will sorely 
rue it. 

In God's kiugdom there is no evil nor want, 
356 But there are many dwellings, each unlike another. 

Some there have less mirth (bliss), and some more, 

According to what they did here, according as they toiled sore. 

There shall be no bread nor wine, nor other kinds of delicacies, 
360 God alone shall be eternal life and bliss and eternal rest. 

There shall be neither yellow nor grey (fur), nor (fur of) coney nor 

Nor of squirrel, nor of martin, nor of beaver, nor of sable. 

There shall be neither sheet nor shroud, nor any world's weal. 
364 All the mirth (bliss) that is promised us shall be God alone ; 

No mirth may be so great as is the sight of God. 

He is true sun and bright, and day without night. 

He is full of every good, there is nothing that he is without. 
368 They who dwell about him lack nothing that is good ; 

There is weal without grief, and rest without toil. 

He who may and will not come thither, sorely shall he rue it. 

There is bliss without sorrow, and life without death, 
372 Those who shall dwell there for ever, blithe may they easily be ; 

There is youth without old age, and health without sickness, 

There is no sorrow nor sore, nor ever any unhappiness ; 

There shall the Lord himself be seen as he is, most certainly. 
376 He alone may and shall be the bliss of angels and men. 

And yet their eyes shall not be all alike bright, 





344 £urh ane godliese wude. in-to ane bare felde 

pe narewei is godes lies, per forS-farS wel feuwe 

pat buS ^a pe heom sculde^ 3eorne. wid elche un- 

pos god un-ie)>e to-jeanes pe cliue a3ean pe he3e hulle 
]>os lete^ al bere a3en wil. for godes bese to fulle 
Go we alle }>ene wei. for be us wulle bringe 
mid }>o faire feuwe men. be-foren heuene kinge 
per is aire merujje mest. mid englene songe 
pe J>is a ]msent wintre J>er. ne JnncS bim nobt to longe 
pe J>e lest baued. haue^ so mucbel. )>at he ne bit no 

pe ^e blisse for ^os for-lat. it him mai reuwe sore 
Ne mai non vuel ne now wane, beon inne godes riche 

356 ^eh }>er be^ wunienges fele. elc oJ>er vn-iliche 

Sume Jjer habbet lasse murh^e. and sume habbed more 
after }>an pe hi dude her. after J>an pe hi swonke sore 
Ne seal J?er ben bred ne win. ne o)>er cunnes este 

360 god one seal beo eche lif. and blisse. and eche reste 
Ne seal j>er beo fou ne grei. ne cunig ne ermine 
ne ocquerne ne martres cheole. ne beuer ne sabeline 
Ne seal Jjer beo seed ne scrud. ne woruld wele none 

364 al pe murhSe pe me us bi-hat. al it seal beo god one 
Ne mai now rnurhSe beo so mucbel. so is godes sibte 
he is so^ sunne and bribt. and dai a-buten nihte 
He is elches godes ful. nis him noting 3H vten 

368 no god nis him wane. pe wunied him abuten 

per is wele abute grame. and reste abuten swinche 
pe mai and nele }>ider come, sore it him seal of jnnche 
per is blisse abuten tre3e. and lif abuten dea}>e 

372 pe eure scullen wunien per. blij?e muwen ben ejje 
per is 3eo3e : Se bute ulde. and hele abuten vn-heFSe 
nis J»er sorewe ne sor. ne neure nan vn-seal}>e 
per me seal drihte sulf i-seon. swa he is mid iwisse 

376 he one mai and seal al beo. engle and manne blisse 
And ^eh ne beod heore e3e naht. alle iliche brihte 

The narrow 
way is God's 

The narrow 
way leads to 

In heaven 
there is no 
lack of good 
tilings ; 

but these con- 
sist not in 
bread, wine, or 
other earthly 

God alone is 
the bliss of the 

In heaven 
there is rest 
and eternal 

youth and 

All in heaven 
have not 
equal bliss, 


Because they have not all alike of God's light ; 

In this life they were not all of one virtue, 
380 Nor shall they there have God by one measure. 

Those shall see more of him who loved him more here, 

And know and learn more of his might and of his mercy. 

In him they shall find all that one may desire, 
384 In Holy Book they shall see all that they were here ignorant of. 

Christ alone shall be sufficient for all his darlings ; 

He alone is much greater and better than all other things. 

Enough he hath that hath him who ruleth all things ; 
388 On him to look is no weariness, well is them that behold him. 

God is so glorious and so great in his divine nature, 

That all that is, and all that was, is worse than he and less ; 

Nor may any man ever say with truth, 
392 How much mirth those have that are in God's bliss. 

To that bliss may God bring us, who reigneth without end, 

When he our souls unbinds from the body's bonds. 

May Christ grant that we may lead such a life here and have such 
an end here, 
396 That we may thither come when we wend hence. Amen.] 



Testis, true God, [true] Son of God ! Jesus, true God, true man, and 
^ true Virgin's child ! Jesus, my holy love, my sure sweetness ! 
Jesus, my heart, my joy, my soul-heal ! Jesus, sweet Jesus, my darling, 
my life, my light, my healing oil (balm), my honey-drop ! Thou art all 
that I trust in. Jesus, my weal, my winsomeness, blithe bliss of my 
breast ! Jesus, teach me, thou that art so soft and so sweet, and 
yet too so likesome (dear) and so lovely and so lovesome, that the 


¥i nabbed hi nouht iliche. alle of godes lihte f<ir ^,5*^ 

° not all alike of 

On bisse line hi neren nout. alle of one mihte ciods llsht - 
380 ne ber ne scullen hi habben god. alle bi one 3ihte 

po scullen more of him seon. be luuede him her more They who 

' loved him 

and more icnawen and iwiten. his mihte and his ore inost liere > 

shall see more 

On him hi scullen finden al bat man mai to lesten of llim there - 
384 hali boc hi senile i-seon. al bat hi her nusten 
Crist seal one beon inou. alle his durlinges 
he one is muchele mare and betere. banne alle obere binges 

In oh he haued be bine hauefc. be alle bing wealde^ 1 ' ms. 

r ... wealded. 

388 of him to sene nis no sed. wel hem is be hine bi-healdeS 

God is so mere and swa muchel. in his godcunuesse ah things are 

inferior to 

\at al \at is. and al bat wes is wurse. benne he and lesse GoA - 

Ne mai it neure no man ober segge mid iwisse No man may 

' , tell of the joys 

392 hu muchele niurlvSe habbet bo. be beod inne godes blisse of heaven. 


o bere blisse us bringe god. be rixlet abuten ende 
benne he vre soule vn-bint. of licames bende 

Crist 3yue us leden her swile lif. and habben her swile Christ grant 

that we may 
ende go thither 

596 bat we nioten buder come, wanne we benne wende. Amen. 

when we die. 



mHesu so^ god. godes sone. ihesu so^ go^. so^ raon. Mon *[Poi.f>56.] 

Maidene hern. Ihesu min hali loue min sikere spet- cSdl' 

nesse 2 . Ihesu min heorte. Mi sel. mi saule hele. Ihesu swete. 2 ?swetnesse. 
ihesu mi leof. mi lif. mi leome. Min halwi. Min huniter. bu al 
\>et ic hopie. Ihesu mi weole mi wimne. Min blibe breostcs 

blisse. Ihesu teke \et tu art se softe. and se swote. 3ette to what thou art 

swa leoflic. swo leoflic and swa lufsuin. ]>et te engles .a. biholdeb , W eet! 


angels ever behold thee, and yet are never full (satisfied) to look upon 
thee. Jesus, all fair (beautiful) ! before whom the sun is but a shadow, 
even she that loseth her light and becometh ashamed of her darkness 
before thy bright face. Thou that givest her light and hast all that 
light, enlumine my dark heart. Give thy bower brightness, and brighten 
my soul that is sooty. Make her (moreover) worthy of thy sweet 
abode. Kindle me with the blaze of thy enlightening love. Let me 
be thy lemman (beloved), and teach me to love thee, the loving Lord. 
Woe is me that I am so estranged from thee ! But as thou bodily hast 
departed, separate me from the world, turn me heartily and turn 
me altogether to thee, with true love and belief. I have no com- 
munion nor felloAvship, nor familiarity (privity) with the world ; for I 
know well, my darling, dare I so address thee, that carnal and spiritual 
love, earthly and heavenly love, cannot in one state dwell together in 
one breast. Whosoever hath long absence of spiritual grace, of heavenly 
mirth, it is because they have or long after comfort on earth, that is 
fickle and false, and all mingled with grief and with bitterness. There 
is no true bliss in anything external that is not dearly bought ; the 
honey that one eats therein is licked off thorns. But is he not a 
foolish chapman that buyeth dear a worthless article and refuses a 
precious thing which one offereth him for nothing, and even promises 
him a reward for accepting it 1 Jesus, Lord of (my) life, thou offerest us 
thy grace all without a request, and thereafter promisest us, if we 
accept it, heavenly blisses ; and we turn us therefrom and buy 
worldly comfort and favour of man's speech, with many a bitter grief. 
Ah ! Lord Jesus, thy succour ! why have I any delight in other things 
than in thee 1 why love I anything but thee alone 1 O that I might 
behold how thou stretchedst thyself for me on the cross ! that I 
might cast myself between those same arms, so very wide outspread ! 
He openeth them as doth the mother her arms to embrace her beloved 
child. Yea, of a truth ! And thou, dear Lord, goest spiritually towards 
us, thy darlings, with the same out-spreading (embrace) as the mother 
to her children. Each is beloved ; each is dear ; each places himself 
in thy arms ; each will be embraced. Ah ! Jesus, thy humility and 
thy great mercy ! O that I were in thy arms, in thy arms so out- 
stretched and outspread on the cross ! And may any one ever hope 


be. Ne beob heo neuer fulle. forto lokin on be. Ihmi al feir a- 

3ein hwani. be sunne nis boten a schadwe. ase beo bet leoseb here The sun 

liht. and scomeb a^ein bi brihte leor. of hire besturnesse. bu bet before thy 

jeuest hire liht and al bet leome hauest aliht mi fester heorte. 

3ef J)i bur brihtnesse. mi saule bet is suti 3et. make hire wurbe to 

bi swete wunninge. Ontend me wib be blase, of bi leitinde loue. 9 ive me th y 

let me beo mi 1 leofmon and her 2 to loue be. louie be louende >?K 

louerd. wa [is me] bet ic am swa fremede. wib be. Ah ase bu 

licomliche iwend iwend me from the worlde. wend me. and 3 3 ? ec. 

heorte-liche. and turn me allunge to be. wib sobe loue. and from the 

. world. 

bneue. Ich nabbe no mong. ne felawscipe. ne pnuete. wij> J>e 

world, for wel ich }>at 4 mi leofmo?* dear ich swa clipien. \et * read wat. 

flehsliche loue. and gostliche eorjjliche lou 5 and heouenliche. ne 5 MR. louo 

ma3en onone wise beddin in a breoste. hwa se euer haueS longe 

wone of gastliche elne. of heouenliche niurlrSe hit is for-]n ha 

haueb. ober wilneb after cunfort on eorbe. bet is fikel. and fals. This world u 
. . . . . . . false and 

and al imengd wib balewsi^. and wib bitternesse. nis nan blisse fickle. 

sobes inan bing bet is utewrS. bet ne beo to bitter aboht. bet et 

huni ber in beob liked of bornes. me nis he fol *chapmon be bub * [Foi.660.] 

deore a wac bing. and for forsakeb a deorwurbe bing. bet me 

beodeb him for naut and bi-hat him ber take mede. forto nimen 

hit. Min ihesu liues louerd bu beodest us bin elming . al wib e ■> e inung. 

uthen 7 bune. and ber after bihastest 8 us wib bon bet we neomen 'sic. 

hit heouenliche blissen. and we wendeb us ber from, and buggeb The ^. orI(I . 8 

worldles froure. wib moni sori teone. and elne of monnes speche. dearly" 

a ihesu louerd bi grib. hwi abbe ich eni 9 licung in ober bing bene 9M g ein 

in be. hwi loue ich eni 9 bing bote?i be one. hwi ne bi-hold ich hu 

bu strabstest be for me on be rode, hwine warpe ich me bitweone 

be ilke earmes. swa swibe wide to-spradde. he openeb swa be Thou.oLord, 

openeth thy 

mode?' hire eamies hire leoue child for to cluppen f se sobes and arms to re- 
ceive us, as a 
tu deorwurbe louerd. gostliche to us and to [bine] deorlinges wib mother her 

be ilke spredunge gest. as be moder to hire child, hua leof f hwa 

lif f hwa deb him be bitweonen. hwa wule beo bi-cluppet '. a 

ihesu bin eadmodnesse. and bin muchele milce. hwi nam ich in bin 

earmes. In bin earmes swa istrahte. and isprad on rode, and 

wene%> ei to beon bi-clupped bi-twene bine blisfulle earmes. In 


to be embraced between thy blissful arms in heaven, unless he pre- 
viously here has cast himself between thy piteous arms on the cross 1 
Nay, of a truth ! nay, let no man ever expect it. Through this low 
(humble) embracing we may come to the exalted one. He who will 
embrace thee there, even such as thou art there, Lord of light, must 
previously embrace thee here, even as poor as thou madest thyself for 
us wretches ; that is to say, whosoever "will have lot with thee in thy 
bliss, he must share with thee thy suffering on earth. He is no true 
fellow who will not go scot in the loss as well as in the gain. He must 
pay equal scot who will be thy fellow. O loving Lord ! he must follow 
thy steps through sore (trials) and sorrow to the abode of bliss and 
of eternal joy. Let no man think to ascend easily to the stars. Ah ! 
sweet Jesus ! O that I might embrace thee with arms of love so fast 
that nothing may thence tear away my heart ! O that I might kiss 
thee sweetly in spirit in sweet remembrance of thy good deeds ! O that 
were bitter to me all that my flesh delighteth in ! O that each worldly 
thing might appear despicable to me in comparison with the great delight 
of thy sweetness ! O that I might feel thee in my breast even as sweet 
as thou art ! Why art thou so strange towards me 1 O that I could woo 
thee with sweet love, for of all things art thou the sweetest, and of 
all things the loveliest, and most worthy of being loved ! Alas ! alas ! 
the bitterness of my venomous sins is the hindrance. My sins are 
the wall between me and thee. My sins deny me all this sweetness. 
My sins have grievously impaired me, and made me at enmity with 
thee, O lovely Lord, and that is little wonder, for I am with their pollu- 
tion so filthily defiled, that I may not, nor dare, O lovesome God, come 
into thy sight. Ah ! Jesu, thy mercy ! What avails then thy blood 
shed on the rood ] what avails then the large brook in thy soft 
side ; the streams that ran down from thy precious feet and from 
thy blessed hands 1 Is it not for to wash sinful souls 1 Is it not 
to save the sick in sin 1 Who is there unwashen that hath this saving 
moisture within his heart 1 Who need be unsaved that hath so mighty 
a salvation as oft as he thereto hath true belief? My heavenly leech 
(physician), that for us makest of thyself so mighty a medicine, 
blessed be thou for ever ! As my trust is thereto, let it be my healing, 
let it be my remedy. If my sin (evil) is great, the might (virtue) 


heouene bute he warpe. er her bitweone bine revvfulle earmes on in order to 

' embrace thee 

be rode. Nai sobes. nai. Ne wene bit neuer no mon. biu-h bis >» heaven, we 

' > ' must first 

labe clupping. me mot come beb to be ber 1 be wule bi-cluppe. be e mbiace thee 

bear swilc. ase bu art bear louercl of leome. be mot cluppe be ear 1 ? Va, or 

her swilc. ase bu makedest te her wreche. for us wrecbes. bet is 

to suggen hwa se euer wule habbe lot wib be of bi blisse i he 

mot deale wib be of bine pine on eorbe. Nis na trewe ifere be 

nule naut scottin in be lure, ase in be bi3ete f be mot scottin w e must 

share with 

efne after bis euene. [ble wule beo bin fela-je luuiende louerd. thee thy 

' ' sorrow. 

he mot fole^i bine steapes burh Bar. and burh sorewe to to 

*wunninge. of weole and of eche wunne. Ne wene na mon to *[Foi. 66&.] 

stiben wr5 este to be steon-en. A swete ihe&u hwi w[vS] earmes 

of luue ne cluppe ich be SAva faste. bet na bing ne beonne ne 

ma3e breide min heorte. hwine cusse ich be sweteliche ine gaste 

wrS swote munegunge. of bine god-deden. hwinis me bitter al bet 

mi flehs like^. hwi nis me unwurhb elc wurbliche bing. a3ein be 

muchel debt of bi swetnesse. hwi ne fele ich be in mi breostes 

swo swote ase bu art. hwi art tu me swo fremede. hwine con why am i so 


ich be wo3e wib swete luue. uor alle binge swetest. aire binge from Christ ? 
leoflucest. and luue wurSest. wei. wei. b e bitternesse of mine it is on ae- 

' count of my 

sunnen attri is be lettunge. mine sunnen beob wal bi-tweone me foul sins - 

and be. Mine sunnen werneb me al bis swotnesse. Mine sunnen 

habbeb gi'imliche iwrebed me. and iueed me towart te luuelicbe M y sins bave 

' ° ' made me at 

louerd. and ]>et is lute wunder. for swa ich am wib hare hori ^" mit y w»ta> 

fenliche ifuled. \>et ich ne mai ne ne dear cume lufsum god in 

bin ehsihbe. A ihesu bin aore hwet deb benne bi blod isched on 

be rode, hwet deb benne be large broc of bi softe side, be strunden 

be striken adun of bine deorwurbe fet. and of bine edi honden. 

Nes hit for to wasehen sunfulle saulen. Nes hit for to sauuin 

seke inne sunne. hwa is benne unwaschew be baueb bis halwende Thj blood 

may wash me 

wet mwi^ his heorte. hwa derf beon un-sauuet be haueb se clean of sins. 
mihti salue. ase ofte as he ber to haueb trewe bileue. min 
heoueneliche leche. ]>et makedest us of bi seolf se mihti medi- 
cine, iblesced beo bu euer as mi trust is ber to. hit beo mi 
lecbunge hit beo mi bote. 5ef min uuel is muchel. be mibte ber . 

° J ' ' -for drope. 

of is more, as wis ase dieope 2 of bi deorwurbe 3 blod. mahte 3 ms. deor- 



thereof is greater. As certainly as a drop of thy precious blood is 
able to wash away the filth of all folk, so indeed, living Lord, 
may the five wells that from thy blessed body sprang and poured 
down streams of blood, wash my five wits (senses) of all bodily sins ; of 
all that I have seen amiss with my eyes, heai'd with my ears, spoken 
or tasted with my mouth, and smelled with my nose, felt amiss with 
any limb (member), or sinned with the flesh. Let thy wounds heal 
the wounds of my soul ; let thy death mortify in me the pleasures 
of the flesh and the bodily lusts, and cause me to live to thee, so 
that I may say then with St. Paul, that saith, "I live, not I, but 
Christ liveth in me j" that is to say, I live not in the life that I lived, 
but Christ liveth in me through his abiding grace which quickenetk me. 
" Well was she born," Jesus may then plainly say to thee, "thou that 
art next to him, help of all helpless and heal of all sinful that put their 
trust in thee." Help me, queen of angels, heavenly lady Saint Mary, 
mother and maiden and beloved woman. For to save the sinful, Jesus 
Christ became thy son. For our sake thou, maiden, wast made mother 
of God. Thou wouldst not be what thou art, blessed above all, if 
sinful men were not as thine own sinful ones to address thee boldly, 
for whom thou hast thy bliss and thy great exaltation. Virgin mother ! 
and maiden ! and whose mother (art thou) 1 His whose daughter thou 
art. His that wrought and ruleth all that is created. His that hath not 
either beginning or end, that is ever the same without diminution, 
that remaineth ever in one state without change. O great honour to 
be the mother of such a son with the chastity of a maiden, and to 
have him so subject to thee that he desireth that all thy will everywhere 
be furthered. For to show us this he stretched forth his right arm 
as he stood on the cross, and bowed down toward thee his precious 
head, as though he would say, " Mother, all that thou wilt (desirest), 
all will I." Ah, sweet lady ! Why, lady, why have I not ever before 
the eyes of my heart these three sufferings (of Christ) — thy son was 
fixed to the cross, his feet and hands were pierced through with blunt 
nails, and his side was bloody — and thy suffering, lady, and Saint 
John the Evangelist's, weeping on both sides with sorrowful sighs ? 
O that I might ever behold this in my heart, and think that it was 
to deliver me and other sinners from hell, and for to give us the 



waschen a-wai alle folkes fulbe. ase wis lifes louerd be * ilke fif * [Fo1- 6 J a '^ 

> 'A drop of thy 

wallen bet of bi blisfulle bodi sprun^en. and strike dun strondes bl00 , d ma y 

' • r o wash away 

of blode wasche mine fif wittes of alle bodi sunnen. of al bet ich a11 mth - 
abbe mis-seien mid e3en. mid min eren iherd. mid mub ispekin. 
ober ismaht. and wrS neose ismelled. wib eini lim mis ifeled. 
and wiS flehs isuneged. bine wunden healen be wunden of mi 
saule. bi deab adeadi in me flehces licunge. and licomliche lustes. 
and do me liuien to be. ber ich ma3e. seggen f wib seinte pawel 
be seib. Ic liuie naut ic ac crist liueS in me. bet is to seggen. Ic 
liuie ic ilif bet ic leuede. ah crist liueb in me jrarh his wunewde 
grace, bet acwike^ me wel wes ba iboren bo mai ihesu bis balde- 
liche segge to be. bu bet ert eafter him alle helpleses help, and 
sunfulles hele bet to be habbeb hope, helpe me englene quene. Help me, 

<> t • • -i 7 • i i queen of 

heoueneliche leafdi semte marie moder and maiden deorwurb angels! 

wimmon forto salui sunne ibesu crist bicom bi sone. for ure sake 

bu were maked maiden godes moder. Nere bu naut bet tu art 

edi ouer alle ;ef sunfulle neren for bi a^en sunfulle to cleopien to Tiiy sinful 

ones may 

be baldeliche. for hwam bu hauest bin edinesse. and ti muchele address thee 

. . boldly. 

heh-schipe. maiden moder. maiden and hwas moder. his hwas 
dohter bu art. his bat wrahte. and wait [al] bat ischapen is. his 
bet naueb nouber ne biginnuwge bet is euer ilic wib-ute truch- 
unge. bet halt euer anon wib-ute sturunge. O. muchele menske 
to beon moder of swuche sone. mid holscipe of maiden and 
habben him swa abandun. bet he wule bet al bine wil ihwer beo 
iforbed. forto schawen us bis he strahte forb his riht earm ase 
[he] stod o rode, and bereb 1 dun towart te his deorwurbe heaued ' ?beieb. 
ase bah he saide. Moder bet bu wult * 

* For remainder of text, see p. 203, 11. 10 — 21. 


bliss of the kingdom of heaven ! This thought would surely enkindle 
true love within me, let the heart be ever so cold. Where this burning- 
may be, there should sin never have any further entrance. Ah, Jesus ! 
whither shall I flee when the devil hunteth after me, but to thy cross ? 



Christ's meek mother, Saint Mary ! 
My life's light, my beloved lady ! 

To thee I bow and my knees I bend, 
4 And all my heart's blood to thee I offer. 

Thou art my soul's light, and my heart's bliss ! 

My life and my hope, my safety therewith indeed ! 

I ought to honour thee with all my might, 
8 And sing the song of praise by day and by night ; 

For thou hast holpen me in many ways, 

And brought me out of hell into Paradise. 

I thank thee for it, my beloved lady, 
12 And will thank thee while I live. 

All Christian men ought to worship thee, 

And sing thee a song of praise with exceeding great joy, 

For thou hast delivered them out of the devil's hand, 
16 And sent them in bliss to angels' land. 

Well ought we to love thee, my sweet lady ! 

Well ought we for thy love to bow down our hearts. 

Thou art bright and blissful above all women, 
20 And good thou art, and to God dear above all men. 

All the company of maidens honour thee alone, 

For thou art the flower of them all before God's throne. 

There is no woman born that is like to thee, 
24 Nor is any thy equal within heaven's kingdom. 

High is thy royal seat above cherubim, 

Before thy dear Son among seraphim. 

Merry sing the angels before thy face, 





[Fnl. l?0fc]. 

/"^ristes mikle moder seynte marie. 

^ Mines Hues leome mi leoue lefdi. 

To pe ich buwe and mine kneon ick beie. 
4 And al min heorte blod to $e ich offrie. 

pu ert mire soule liht. and mine heorte blisse. 

Mi lif and mi tohope min heale mid iwisse. 

Ich ouh wurSie ^e mid alle mine mihte. 
8 And singge pe lofsong bi daie and bi nihte. 

Vor pu me hauest iholpen aueole kunne wise. 

And ibrouht of helle in-to paradise. 

Ich hit ponkie ^e mi leoue lefdi. 
12 And ponkie wulle pe hwule ^et ich liuie. 

Alle cristene men owen don <5e wurschipe. 

And singen £e lofsong mid swuo'e muchele gledschipe. 

Vor &U ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde. 
1G And i-send mid blisse to englene londe. 

Wei owe we pe luuien mi swete lefdi. 

Wei owen we uor pine luue ure heorte beien. 

pu ert briht and blisful ouer alle wummen. 
20 And god ^u ert and gode leof ouer alle wepmen. 

Alle meidene were wurSe^ pe one. 

Vor pu ert hore blostme biuoren godes trone. 

Nis no wummon iboren pet 8e beo iliche. 
24 Ne non per nis pin efning wrS-mne heoueriche. 

Heih is pi kinestol onuppe cherubine. 

Biuoren ^ine leoue sune wi^-iraien seraphine. 

Murie dreamed engles biuoren pin onsene. 
* Cotton. MS. Nero A xiv. 

To thee, 
Christ's meek 
mother. I 
bend my 

I will siiiR 
unto thee by 
day and by 

Thou hast 
released mnn- 
kind out of 
the devil's 

Thou art 
above all 

Thy throne ifi 
above the 


28 Playing, carolling, and singing between (at intervals). 

Full well it pleaseth them to be before thee, 

For they are never tired of beholding thy fairness, 

Thy bliss may no one understand, 
32 For all God's kingdom is under thy hand. 

All thy friends thou makest rich kings ; 

Thou givest them royal robes, bracelets, and gold rings. 

Thou givest eternal rest, full of sweet bliss, 
36 Where that death never - comes, nor harm, nor sorrow. 

There bloom in bliss blossoms, white and red, 

Where never 6now nor frost may hurt them, 

There may none fade, for there is eternal summer. 
40 No living thing there is weak or sorrowful. 

There they shall rest who here do honour thee, 

If they keep their life clean from all evil ; 

There they shall never sorrow nor toil, 
44 Nor weep, nor mourn, nor hell-stinks smell. 

Thei*e shall they be presented with golden cups, 

And have poured out to them eternal life, with angels' joy. 

No heart may think nor aught imagine (reach), 
48 Nor no mouth utter, nor tongue teach, 

How much good thou preparest within Paradise, 

For them that work day and night in thy service. 

All thy household is clothed with white ciclaton, 
52 And they all are crowned with golden crowns. 

They are as red as the rose, as white as the lily, 

And evermore they shall be glad, and sing throughout merrily. 

With bright gemstones (jewels) their crown is all bedecked, 
56 And they all do what pleaseth them, so that nothing thwarts them. 

Thy dear son is their king, and thou ai-t their queen. 

They are never annoyed by wind nor by rain. 

With them is evermore day, without night, 
60 Song without sorrow, and peace without fight. 

With them is mirths (joys) manifold, without trouble or annoy ; 

Music and games, abundance of life's pleasure, and eternal play. 

Therefore, dear lady, long will it appear to us wretches 



28 PleieS. and sweie^. and singeS. bitweonen. 

Swu^e wel ham like^ biuoren J>e to beonne. 

Vor heo neuer ne beo^ sead pi ueir to iseonne. 

pine blisse ne mei nowiht understonden. 
32 Vor al is godes riche an under pine honden. 

Alle ]>ine ureondes pu makest riche kinges. 

pu ham jiuest kinescrud beies and gold ringes. 

pu 3iuest eche reste ful of swete blisse. 
36 per ^e neure deaS ne com '. ne herm ne sorinesse. 

per blowe^ mne blisse blostmen. hwite and reade. 

per ham neuer ne mei. snou. ne uorst iureden. 

per ne mei non ualuwen. uor per is eche sumer. 
40 Ne non liuiinde ping woe per nis ne 3eomer. 

per heo schulen resten pe her ^e do£ wurschipe. 

3if heo 3eme : 5 bore lif cleane urom alle queadschipe. 

per ne schulen heo neuer karien ne swinken. 
44 Ne weopeu ne murnen ne helle stenches stinken. 

per me schal ham steoren mid guldene chelle. 

And schenchen ham eche lif mid englene wille. 

Ne mei non heorte penchen ne nowiht arechen. 
48 Ne no muS imelen ne no tunge tegen 1 . 

Hu muchel god ^u 3eirkest wrS-inne paradise. 

Ham pet swinke^ dei and niht rSine seruise. 

Al pin. bird is i-schrud mid hwite ciclatune. 
52 And alle heo beo^ ikruned mid guldene krune. 

Heo beo^ so read so rose so hwit so pe lilie. 

And euer more heo beo^ gled and singed puruhut murie. 

Mid brihte 3imstones bore krune is al biset. 
56 And al heo do^ pet ham like^. so pet no ping ham ne let. 

pi leoue sune is hore king and pu ert hore kwene. 

Ne beo% heo neuer i-dreaued mid winde ne mid reine. 

Mid ham is euer more dei wi3-ute nihte. 
60 Song wrS-ute seoruwe and sib wrS-ute uihte. 

Mid ham is murulvSe moniuold wi^-ute teone and treie. 

Gleobeames and gome inouh lines wil and eche pleie. 

pereuore leoue lefdi long hit punched us wrecchen. 


The angels 
sing and play 
before thee. 

Thou givest 
them royal 
robes, I 'nice- 
lets, ami gold 

Those that 

I our tlu-e 

and lead pure 
Uvea shall 
have rest in 


1 ? techen. 

All thy 
household are 
crowned with 


Thy son is 
their king 

and thou art 
their queen. 

194 A GOOD orison of our lady. 

64 Until thou from this poor life to thyself us fetch. 

We may never have perfect joy (gladship) 

Ere we to thyself come, unto thy high honour (worship). 

Sweet mother of God, gentle maiden and well-beloved, 
68 Thine equal was never born, nor evermore shall be. 

Mother thou art, and virgin void of all vice ! 

Throughout high and holy in angels' rest. 

All the host of angels and all holy things 
72 Say and sing that thou art of life the well-spring, 

And they all say that thou art never wanting in mercy, 

Nor shall any man that worships thee ever be lost. 

Thou art my soul's (light) without leasing, 
76 After thy dear son, most beloved of all things. 

All heaven is full of thy bliss, 

And so is all this earth of thy mercy. 

So great is thy mercy and gentleness, 
80 That no man that earnestly prayeth thee may lack (miss) thy help. 

Each man that looketh to thee thou givest mercy and grace, 

Though he may have much offended and grieved thee sorely, 

Therefore I entreat thee, holy queen of heaven, 
84 That thou, if it be thy will, hear my petition (boon). 

I entreat thee, lady, for the greeting 

That Gabriel brought thee from our heavenly King, 

And also I beseech thee for Jesus Christ's blood, 
88 Which, for our benefit, was shed on the cross, 

For the great sorrow that was in thy mind, 

When thou at his death before him stoodest, 

That thou make me clean, outwardly and inwardly, 
92 So that not any kind of sin may ruin me. 

The loathsome devil and errors of all kinds 

Banish from me far away, along with their foul filth. 

My dear life (love), from thy love shall nothing separate me, 
96 For on thee depends my life, and my salvation also. 

For thy love I toil and sigh very often, 

For thy love I am brought into bondage, 

For thy love I forsook all that was dear to me, 



61 Vort pu of pisse erme Hue to ^e suluen us feeche. 
We ne muwen neuer habben fulle gledscbipe. 
Er we to pe suluen kumen to pine heie wurschipe. 
Swete Godes moder softe meiden and wel icoren. 
pin iliche neuer nes ne neuermore ne wurS iboren. 
Moder pu ert and meiden cleane of alle laste. 
puruhtut bei and holi in englene reste. 
Al englene were and alle bolie ping. 
Sigge^ and singed pet tu ert Hues welsprung. 
And beo sigge^ alle pet ^e ne wonted neuer ore. 
Ne no mon pet ^e wui-^e^ ne mei neuer beon uorloren. 
pu ert mire soule wi^-ute leasunge. 
Efter pine leoue sune i leouest aire pinge. 
Al is pe beouene ful of pine blisse. 
And so is al pes middeleard of pine mildheortnesse 
So mucbel is pi milce and pin edmodnesse. 
pet no mon pet ^e 3eoi'ne bit of belpe ne mei missen. 
Ilch mon pet to pe bisilrS Jju 3iuest milce and ore. 
paub he ^e habbe swirSe agult and i-dreaued sore, 
pereuore icb ^e bidde holi beouene kwene. 
pet tu 3if pi wille is iher mine bene. 
Ich Se bidde lefdi uor pere gretunge. 
pet Gabriel ^e brouhte urom ure heouen kinge. 
And ek ich ^e biseche uor ihesu cristes blode. 
pet for ure note was i-sched o^ere rode. 
Vor ^e muchele seoruwe $et was o^ine mode, 
po pu et ^e dea^e him bi-uore stode. 
pet tu me makie cleane wi^-uten and eke wr3-mnen. 
So pet me ne schende none kunnes sunne. 
pene lo^e deouel and alle kunnes dweolulrSe. 
Aulem urom me ueor awei mid hore fule ful<5e. 
Mi leoue lif urom pine luue ne schal me no ping to-dealen. 
Vor o^e is al ilong mi lif and eke min heale. 
Vor pine luue i swinke and sike wel Home. 
Vor pine luue ich ham ibrouht m to peoudome. 
Vor pine luue ich uorsoc al pet me leof was. 








Sweet mother 
of God, thou 
bast no equal. 

Thou art the 
well-spring of 



Heaven is full 
of thy bliss. 

Thou givest 
mercy to all 
that ask it. 

Make me 
clean, within 
and without. 

For thy love 
I toil and 


100 And gave thee all myself. Dear life (love), think thou of that. 

That I have at times made thee angry, I am truly sorry. 

For Christ's five wounds do thou give me mercy and grace. 

If thou hast no mercy upon me, I know full well 
104 That in hell -pain I shall swelter and burn. 

Full well thou sawest me, though thou wert silent, 

Where I was, and what I did, yet thou didst bear with me. 

If thou hadst taken vengeance upon my wickedness, 
108 Truly I had wholly lost the bliss of Paradise. 

Thou hast yet borne with me for thy goodness, 

And now I hope to have full forgiveness. 

And now I hope never to fall into hell-pain, 
112 Since I have come to thee and am thine own servant. 

Thine I am, and will be now and evermore, 

For on thee and on God's mercy depends all my life. 

My dear sweet lady, for thee I long exceedingly. 
116 Unless I have thy help, I shall never be joyful. 

I thee entreat that thou come to my death, 

And chiefly then manifest thy love. 

Receive my soul when I depart from this life, 
120 And shield me from sorrow and everlasting death's care (grief). 

If thou wilt that I thrive, take good heed to me, 

For I shall never prosper unless it be through thee. 

With very evil vices my soul is fast bound ; 
124 Nothing so well as thou can heal my wounds. 

To thee alone is all my trust, after (next to) thy dear Son, 

For his holy name, of my life grant me the loan. 

Suffer not the devil (enemy) to touch me, 
128 Nor to draw me into hell-pain. 

Take heed to me, so that, be what may, it will ever be best for me, 

For thine is the worship, if I, wretch, may well thrive. 

Thou forsakest no man for his wickedness, 
132 If he is ready to repent and prayeth thee for forgiveness. 

Thou canst easily, if thou wilt, all my sorrow allay, 

And much better see (what is needful) for me, than I can say (ask). 

Thou canst easily requite my greeting (complaint), 



100 And 3ef ^e al mi suluen. looue lif ipench pu pes. 

pet ich ^e wre^ede sume srSe hit me reowe^ sore. 

Vor cristes fif wunden ^u 3if me milce and ore. 

3if pu milce nauest of me |>et ich wot wel 3eorne 
104 pet. ine helle pine swelten ich schal and beornen. 

Ful wel pu me iseie pauh pu stille were. 

Hwar ich was and hwat i dude ]>auh pu me uorbere. 

3if pu heuedest wreche inumen of mine luSernesse. 
108 Iwis ich heuede al uorloren paradises blisse. 

pu hauest 3et forboren me uor pine godnesse. 

And nu ich hopie habben fulle uo^iuenesse. 

Ne wene ich neure uallen in-to helle pine. 
112 Hwon ich am to fte ikumen and am %in owune hine. 

pin ich am and wule beon nu and euer more. 

Vor o^e is al mi lif ilong and o godes ore. 

Mi leoue swete lefdi to pe me longed swuSe. 
116 Bute ich habbe pine help ne beo ich neuer bli^e. 

Ich pe bidde pet tu kume to mine uorS-srSe. 

And nomeliche peonne pine luue kuSe. 

Auouh mine soule hwon ich of pisse liue uare. 
120 And i-schild me urom seoruwe and from eche dea^es kare. 

5if pu wult ^et ich r£eo gode 3eme nim to me. 

Vor wel ne wurSS me neue?* bute hit beo puruh ^e. 

Mid swupe luSere lasten mi soule is jniruh bunden. 
124 Ne niei no ping so wel so pu healen mine wunden. 

To pe one is al mi ti'ust efter pine leoue sune. 

Vor is holie nome of mine liue 3if me lune. 

Ne pole pu pene unwine pet he me arine. 
128 Ne pet he me drawe in-to helle pine. 

Nim nu 3eme to me so me best a beo ^e beo. 

Vor pin is pe wurchipe 3if ich wreeche wel ipeo. 

pu ne uorsakest nenne mon uor his luSernesse. 
132 3*f he 1S to bote 3eruh and bit pe uoi^iuenesse. 

pu miht lihtliche 3if pu wult al mi sor aleggen. 

And muchele bet biseon to me pen ich kunne siggen. 

pu miht for3elden lihtliche mine gretunge. 

Give me 
mercy for 
the sake of 
Christ's five 

Tliou hast 
borne long 
wiili my sins. 

Without thy 
help I shall 
never be 

With vile 
sins my soul 
is fast bound. 

Let not the 
devil touch 

[Fol. 123a.] 

Thou canst 
allay all my 


136 And all my labour, and my sorrow, and my kneeling. 

In me there is nothing fair to be seen, 

Nor anything that is worthy to be before thee, 

Therefore I pray thee that thou wash me and clothe, 
140 Through thy great mercy that spreadeth so very wide. 

It is not to thy honour that the devil should entice me (to sin) ; 

If thou wilt permit it, truly he will greatly rejoice (to do s >), 

For he would never that thou shouldst have honour, 
144 Nor that any man that honoured thee should have gladness. 

Thou knowest full well that the devil hateth me, 

And chiefly because I worship thee. 

Therefore I entreat thee to guard and protect me, 
148 So that the devil may not trouble me, nor error harm me. 

So thou dost and so thou shalt for thy mercy, 

Thou shalt give me a fair portion of heavenly bliss. 

If I have broken (sinned) much, much will I repent, 
152 And perform my shrift, aud fair thee pray, 

The while I have my life and health. 

From thy service shall nothing separate me. 

Before thy feet I will lie and cry, 
156 Until I have forgiveness of my misdeeds. 

My life is thine, my love is thine, my heart's blood is thine, 

And if I dare say it, my dear lady, thou art mine. 

All honour have thou in heaven, and also on earth, 
160 And all joy have thou as much as thou deservest. 

Now I beseech thee by Christ's charity (love), 

That thou thy blessing and thy love give to me ; 

Preserve my body in purity. 
164 God Almighty grant me, for his mercy, 

That I may see thee in thy exalted bliss, 

And that all my friends may be the better now to-day, 

That I have sung thee this English lay. 
168 And now I beseech thee, for thy holiness, 

That thou bring the monk to thy joy, 

That made this song of thee, my dear lady. 

Christ's meek mother. Saint Mary ! Amen. 












Al mi swine and mi sor and mine kneouwunge. 

Ine me nis no-Jung feier on to biseonne. 

Ne no ping \et beo wurSe biuoren pe to beonne. 

pereuore ich pe bidde \et pu me wassche and scbrude 

puruh pine muchele milce ]>et spert 1 so swuSe wide. 

Nis hit ^e no wur£scipe pet pe deouel me to-drawe. 

3if pu wult hit rSauien iwis he wule fturchut fawe. 

Vor he nolde neuere \et pu hefedest wur^schipe. 

Ne no mon \et pe wurSeS pet he hedde gledschipe. 

pu hit wost fid 3eorne pet pe deouel hate^ me. 

And nomeliche pereuore pet ich wurSie )>e. 

pereuore ich pe bidde pet pu me wite and werie. 

pet pe deouel me ne drecche ne dweoVSe me ne derie. 

So pu dest and so pu schalt uor ^ire mild-heortnesse. 

pu schalt me a ueir dol of heoueriche blisse. 

3if ich habbe muchel ibroken muchel ich wulle beten. 

And do mine schrifte and pe ueire greten. 

pe hwule pet ich habbe mi lif and mine heale. 

Vrom ^ire seruise ne schal me no ping deale. 

Biuoren pine uote ich wulle liggen and greden. 

Vort ich habbe uoi^iuenesse of mine misdeden. 

Mi lif is pin mi lime is pin mine heorte blod is pin. 

And jif ich der seggen mi leoue leafdi pu ert min. 

Alle wurSschipe haue pu on heouene and ec on eorSe. 

And alle gledschipe haue pu al so pu ert wurSe. 

Nu ich pe bi-seche ine cristes cherite. 

pet pu pine blescinge and pine luue 3iue me. 

3eme mine licame ine clenenesse. 

God almihti unne me vor his mild-heortnesse. 

pet ich mote pe iseo in ^ire heie blisse. 

And alle mine ureondmen pe bet beo nu to dai. 

pet ich habbe i-sungen pe oesne englissce lai. 

And nu ich pe bi-seche vor ^ire holinesse. 

pet pu bringe pene Munuch to pire glednesse. 

pet funde ^esne song bi ^e mi looue leafdi. 

Cristes milde moder seinte marie, amen. % 

1 ? spret. 

It is not to 
thy honour 
that I should 
fall into sin. 

Preserve me 
from the devil 
and from all 

Before thy 
feet I will cry 
until I have 
thy forgive- 

[Fol. 1236.] 

Give me thy 
love and keep 
me pure. 

Bring the 
author of this 
lay unto thy 





Jesus, true Tesu scrS god. so^ godes sune. Iesu so^ god. soS mon. and 

God, true son 

of God, true -■- so^ meideiies bern. Iesu niin holi luue. Mi sikere swet- 

bod of a 

virgin! nesse 1 . Iesu miu heorte. mine soule hele. Swete iesu mi leof. 

i MS. spet- ... . . 

nesse. mi hf. mi leome. niin healewi. min huni ter. bu ert al bet ich 

heart's and liopie. Iesu mi weole. mi wunne. mi bli^e breostes blisse. 

soul's joy ! 

iesu teke bet bu ert so softe. and so swete. %et perto pu ert so 

leoflicli. so louelich. and so lufsum. bet te engles euer bi-holde^ 

be. ne ne beo^ beo neuer ful. forto logen on be. Iesu al feir. 

The sun pales a-sein bwam be sunne nis buten ase a scheadewe. ase beo bet 

before thy • ' ' ' 

light. leose^ hire libt '. and schine^ a-3ein bine brilite leore uor hire 

beosternesse. bu bet 3eouest hire liht. and al ^et leome haueft. 
aliht mine beostri heorte. 31^ mi bur brithnesse. and brihtte mine 

*LFoi.i24a.] soule *bet is suti. and make hire wur<5e to bine swete wuninge. 

Knkindie me Oiitend me wrS blase, of bine leitinde luue. Let me beon bi 

with thy ' . .. ' 

light. leofmon. and ler me for to louien be liuiinde louerd. woa is me 

bet ich am so freomede wrS be. auh ase bu al hauest licamliche 

Let me have iwend me from be worlde '. wend me ec heortliche. and turn 

no fellowship ' 

with the me aliunde to be. wrS so^e luue. and mid bi-leaue. bet ich nabbe 

world. or r 

no mong. ne felauhschipe. ne speche. ne priuite wrS be worlde. 
for ich wot mi leofmon. der ich so cleopien be. ^et fleschlich luue 
and gostlich. eorSlich luue and heouenlich '. ne muhen onone 
wise bedden in one breoste. lnvoa so euer haue^ longe wone of 
gostlich elne. of heouenliche mur'Se '. hit is for-bi. ^et heo liaue^. 
o^er wilned '. efter cumfort on eorSe. ^et is fikel. and fals. and 
worldly al imeragd wrS baluhsrS. and wrS bitternesse. Nis no blisse 

dearly so^es ibinge ¥et is wtewrS f ^et ne beo to bitter abowt. ^et tet 

uni ^er inne. ne beo ilicked of bornes. Me nis he fol chepmon. 
¥et bu^ deore awoc bing. and forsake^ a deorwur¥e bing. ^et me 

* For Translation, see pp. 182-190. 


beot him for nowt. and bihat him ber teken mede. for to nimen 

hit '. Mi iesu hues louerd. bu beodest bin elning. al wrS-ute Thou, o Lord, 

* offerest us thy 

bone, and ber efter bihotest us wi$ ben Set we nimen hit. e race without 

' ' our asking fur 

heouenliche blissen f and we wended us ber from, and bugged u - 

worldes froure. wv6 moni sor. and teoue. and elne of monnes 

speche f af iesu louerd. bi grrS. hwi habbe ich eni *licunge. in *[Foi.i2t&.] 

o$er binge f ben i be. hwi luuie ich ei bing bute be one '. hwi ne 

bi-hold ich hu bu streihtest be for me on be rode f hwi ne Avorpe 

ich me bi-tweonen beo ilke ermes so swrSe AvrSe to-spredde. and o that t might 

' * throw myself 

i-openeS so be moder deS hire ermes. hire leoue child for to bi- betwe r en th y 
cluppen f 3e so^es. and bu deorewurSe louerd gostliche to us 
and to Sine deorelinges. AvrS be ilke spredunge 3eiest. ase be 
moder to hire childe. hwo leof i hwo lif f hwo deS him her 
bitweonen f hwoa wule beon bi-clupped '. a iesu bin edmodnesse. 
and bi muchele milce. hwi nam ich ibin ermes so istreihte. and 
ispred on rode '. andweneS ei to beon bi-clupped bitweonen bine Wemust 

suffer even as 

blisfulle ermes in heouene. bute he Avorpe er him her \ bi-tweon- *•'"" ^st 

1 suffered. 

en bine rew^ful ermes oSe rode f Nai soSes nai f ne wene hit 
ueuer nomon. buurh bis lowe cluppinge. me mot come to be 
heie '. bet wule bi-cluppen be ber swuch '. ase bu ert ber louerd 
of leoue. he mot cluppen be er her '. swuch ase bu makedest be 
her. wrecche i for us wrecches. Set is to seggen. hwoa so euer 
wule habben lot wvS be of bine blisse '. he mot delen wrS be f w T e must 

' * ' share thy 

of bine pine on eorSe. nis he nout treowe ifere bet nule nout sorrows. 

scotten ibe lure '. ase ibe bi-3ete. he mot scotten efne efter his 

euene. bet wule beon bi felawef liuiinde louerd. *he mot folewen *[Foi.i25a.] 

bine steopes. buruh sor. and buruh seoruwe. to Se wununge of 

weole f and of eche wunne. Ne wene nomon to stihen AA'iS este We cannot 

ascend with 

to be steorren. A swete iesu. hwi mid ermes of luue ne cluppe ease to the 

. . 8tars - 

ich be so feste. bet no bing beonne ne muwe breiden mine heorte f 

hwi ne cusse ich be sweteliche ine goste. wiS swete munegunge 

of bine goddeden f hwi nis me bitter, al \et mi flesch likeS. hwi 

nis me umvurS euerich wordlich bing a-jein be muchele delit of 

bine swetnesse '. hwi ne iuele ich be imine breoste so swete ase 

bu ert f hwi ertu me so freomede 5 hwi ne con ich Avowen be. 

W$5 swete luue wordes aire binge swetest. and aire binge leoflu- theewith 00 

sweet words. 


kest and luue wurSest f wei wei. be bittemesse of alle mine 
My sins are a attri sunneii is be lettunge. Mine sunnen beo^ wal bi-tweonen 

wall between 

me and thee. me. and be. Mine sunnen wernefc me f al bis swotnesse. Mine 
sunnen habbeS grimliche iwursed me. and iueied me toward be 
luueliche louerd f and \et is lutel wunder. forso ich bam wrS 
bore borie fenliche ifuled f \et ich ne mei. ne ne der lufsum 
Godd '. cumen ibine eihsilrSe. a f iesu bin ore. hwat deih beonne 

Thy blood bi blod isched obe rode, hwat deih beonne be large broc of bine 

shed on the ' ' . 

cross can wash softe side, be streames bet striden adun of bine deorewurSe uet. 

our sinful ' ' ' 

souls - and of bine eadie honden. nes hit forto waschen sumfule 1 soulen f 

1 So in MS. 

*[Foi.i256.] nes hit for to *saluen seke ine sunnen '. hwoa is beonne un- 
weaschen. bet aue^ bis halwende wet inwrS his heorte 1 hwoa 
berf beon unsalued. bet haue^ so mihti salue. ase ofte ase he ber- 

Thou art our to haue^ treoue bileue '. Min heouenliche leche. ^et makedest us 


physician. f j,} se olf so mihti medicine, iblesced beo bu euer. ase min trust 
is ber to f hit beo mi lechuunge. hit beo mi bote. 3if miw uuel is 
muchel f be mihte ber of. is more, ase wis ase a drope of bine 
deorewurSe blode. muhte weaschen awei alle folkes fulSe i ase 
wis liues louerd beo ilke fif wellen of bine blisfule bodie sprungen 

wash my five and striken dun strundes of blode. weaschs mine fif wittes f of 

wits from all 

sins. alle blodie sunnen. of al \>et ich habbe mis-iseien mid eien. and 

mid min earen ihei'd. wrS muSe ispeken. o^er ismauht and 
wrS noese i-smelled. wrS eni lim mis-iueld. and wrS fleschs 
isuneged. bine wunden helen be wunden of mine soule. bi 
dea^ f a-deadie in me flesches licunge I and licamliche lustes. 
and maiden me liuien to be £et ich muwe seggen wv6 seinte 

Christ liveth powel %et serS. Ich liuiee nout ich f auh crist liue^ in me. ^et 

in me through _ ,, , 

his grace. is to seggen. ich liuie nout ine hue bet ich liuede. auh crist hue^ 

in me. buruh his wuniinde grace i ^et acwike^ me. wei was he 

ibeoren bet mei iesu bis baldeliche seggen to be. : bu ^et ert efter 

*[Foi.i26o.] him. alle helplease help, and sunfules hele bet to *be habbeS 

Help me, o hope, help me englene cwene of heouene '. heouenliche leafdi. seinte 

mother and 

maiden, most marie. Moder and meiden deorwurSe wimuion. for to saluen 

precious of 

women. sunfule '. iesu crist bi-com bi sune. and for ure sake bu were 

imaked meiden i godes moder. Nere bu nout ^er bu ert. eadi 
ouer alle '. }if sunfule neren. for bi owe sunfule. for to cleopien 


to be baldeliche f for hwam bu hauest bin eadinesse. and \>'me 

muchele heihschipe. Meiden. and moder. Meiden \and\ hwas Thou art the 

mother of him 

moder [his hwasl dohter bu ert his bet wrohte and welt, al bet who created 

L J ' r ' and ruletli all 

ischeapen is. his bet naue^ noirSer ende '. ne biginnunge. \>et is th "ws. 

euer i-liche. wi&-lite sturiunge obe muchele menske to boen 1 'SoinMS. 

moder of swich sune wrS iholschipe of meiden. and habben him 

so abaundune. ^et he wule ^et bin wille oueral beo i-uorSed. for 

to scheawen us bis '. he strecche^ bene ritht 2 erm uorS. ase he 2 Soin MS. 

stout orode. and beie^ adun toward be. his deorewurSe heaued. 

ase bauh he seide. Moder al \et bu wult 1 al ich wulle. aswete 

leafdi. hwi leafdi hwi '. nabe ich euer bi-foren mine heorte eihen. Mft y i ever 

keep before 

beo ilke breo stondung'es. bi sune was ituht ou rode, burh driuen me the three 

' > ° ' > sufferings of 

fet and honden. w¥6 dulte neiles. blodi his side, and bi stondunge suffer';/, 11 a nc i 

leafdi. and sein iohanes ewangelistes weopinde otwo half wrS j^j^ 

sorbfule sikes '. hwi ne bi-hold ich bis euer in mine heorte. and 

benche ^et hit was for me. and for o^re sunfule *to aredden of *[Foi.i26&.] 

belle, and forto 3iuen us heoueriche blisse '. bis boht wolde siker- 

liche ontenden so so^ luue on me. Nere be heorte so cold, bet 

ne schulde neuer sunne habben forSer in-yong. ber bis brunc 

were, a iesu hwuder schal ich fleon hwon be deouel hunted efter 

me bute to bine rode '. 




Sweet Lady Saint Mary, maiden above all maidens, that barest the 
blissful bairn (child) that raised up all mankind that had fallen 
down through Adam's sin. Through his holy passion he cast down 
the devil and harrowed hell. I, a sorry, sinful thing, ask thy mercy, 
that thou be my pleader against the foes of my soul, that they may 
not accuse it ; but protect me and help me, merciful maiden, in all 
my necessities. My enemies have encompassed me about on every side, 
and seek the death of my soul. Wicked men and devils have pierced 
me with many wounds that kill my soul, except thou be my leech. 
I have oft been obedient to all my three foes — to the devil, and to the 
world, and to the sins of my flesh. I acknowledge myself guilty, and 
cry thee mercy, Lady, for I have made gates of all my five senses for 
the entrance of sinful vices. I have looked amiss, hearkened amiss, 
felt amiss, spoken amiss, loved sweet smells. Pride and desire of praise 
have sore wounded me ; also wrath and envy, leasing, perjury, un- 
faithfulness, cursing, backbiting, and flattery. Sometimes I have had 
wrongful possession of other men's goods, and have given amiss, and 
received amiss, and often withheld amiss ; quick to do evil, slow to do 
good ; negligent and slothful ; sometimes too playful, at other times too 
moody. I have sinned both in meat and in drink, and with the filth 
of the flesh defiled myself. Thus I am loathsomely hurt in body and 
in soul with sins of all kinds ; for though the work was not in the 
body the will was in the heart. All this I acknowledge to thee, sweet 
Lady Saint Mary, highest of all saints. Intercede for me and protect 
me, for I am worthy of torment. Beseech thy blessed Son to show 
me kindness, mercy, and grace, for he may deny thee, maiden, who 
barest him, nothing of thy requests. I pray thee, and beseech thee, and 
entreat thee (if it be needful for me), by his conception in thy holy 
body, by his birth, by his humble fasting in the wilderness, by the 





wete leafdi seinte marie meiden ouer alle meidnes. bet bere Sweet lady, 

have mercy 

^et blisfule bern. bet aredde 1 al inoncun up. bet was adun upon a sorry, 

' ' sinful thing. 

a-fallen. ^et 2 buruft adames sunne. and ^et 2 buruh his holi pas- i?arerdde. 
siun werp bene deouel adun. and heriede belle, icb on sori sunfule •5 e r| g '" a 
bing f bidde bin ore. ^et tu beo mi motild a2eines mine soule ue my advo. 

* ° * cate against 

fon. bet heo hire ne muwen bitellen. auh were me. and help me my soul's foes, 
milzfule meiden f in alle mine neoden. Mine widerwines habbeSS 
biset me on euche half abuten f and seche$ mine soule dea^. 
lu^re men and deoflen. heo habbe'S monie wunden on me ifestned f 
bet acwelle^ mine soule. bute bu beo mi leche. ich habbe ofte 
ibuwen to alle mine bi'eo i-fon. to be feond. and to be world, and the world, 

T I J flesh, and the 

to mine flesches sunne. ich icnowe me gulti. and creie be leafdi devil - 
merci. for ich habbe imaked jetes of alle mine fif wittes. to sun- ihave sinned 

J with all my 

fule unbeawes. mis i-loked. Mis ihercned. Mis ifeled. mis ispeken. five " it3 - 

iloued swote smelles. prude and wilnunge of pris f me habbe^ 

sore iwunded. *ase wre^e. and onde. lesunge. missware. vuele *[Foi 127a.] 

i-holden treou^e. cursunge. bac bitunge. and fikelunge f summe 

tide, ich habbe iheued of o¥er monnes mid woh. and mid unriht 

iseuen mis. and inumew mis. and mis etholden ofte. tovel i spac. i have been 

■* quick to do 

and slow f to Godd. semeleas I and unlusti. sumehwile to pleiful f evil - but s ' ow 

J l to do good. 

to drupi o^er hwiles. ich habbe i-suneged ine mete, and ine 
drunche bo^e. and mid flesches ful^e ifuled me. Jms ich am lod- 
liche i-hurt ine licame. and ine soule f wrS alie cunnes sunnen. 
for bauh Jjet were nere i be bodie '. be wil was in be heorte. al 
bis ich i-cnoulechie be swete leafdi seinte marie, heiest aire hale- 
wen. Nim mot for me and were me. for ich am pine wurSe. bi- intercede 

1 with thy son 

sech for me bine seli sune f Milce. and merci. and ore. for nout forme - 
ne mai he werne be f maiden be bine bere of alle bine bisocnen. 
Ich bide be and biseche be and halsi 3if me howeS bit '. bi his 
flech founge of ]>me eadie bodie. bi his iborenesse. bi his eadi 


hard injuries (hurts) and by the unworthy wrongs that he willingly 
suffered for us sinful creatures ; by his mortal agony, and by his 
bloody sweat ; by his blessed prayers in the hills by himself; by his 
capture and binding ; by his leading forth ; by all that he was doomed 
to ; by his change of raiment, now red, now white, (put) on him in 
mockery ; by his scorning, and by his spitting and buffeting, and by 
his blinding ; by the crown of thorns ; by the sceptre of reed given 
him in scorn ; by his own cross, so hard dragging on his soft shoulders ; 
by the blunt nails ; by the sore wounds ; by the holy rood ; by the 
opening in his side ; by his bloody stream that ran in many places, 
in his circumcision, in his blood-sweating, in his pain through the crown 
of thorns ; (through the nails) first in his one hand and then in his other ; 
lastly in the piercing of his side, besides (other) sore wounds. Yet, some 
saints think that the true blood-stream was in his first capture, in the fast 
binding, when the blood was wrung out of his blessed nails. I entreat 
thee that thou beseech him, by his shame, by his sorrow, by his death 
on the cross ; by all that he said, did, and suffered on earth ; by the 
holy sacrament of his flesh and blood that the priest sanctifieth ; 
through the grace of baptism ; through all the other sacraments that 
Holy Church followeth and useth ; — through all these I beseech thee, 
God's precious mother, that their might may help me, and their 
strength go forth (prevail) where my offering faileth ; for my belief is 
that I, through them, shall be saved. Jesus, thy Son and God's Son, 
gave us himself altogether ; and all is ours — what he spake, and did, 
and suffered on earth. May his torment on the cross and his death de- 
stroy my sins ; and may his arising (resurrection) raise me into holiness 
of life ; and may his uprising (ascension) cause me to advance upwards in 
high and holy virtues, from high to higher (virtues) ever until I see 
in Zion, the high tower of heaven, the Lord of light, whom the angels 
ever behold and ever the longer (they behold him) the more they desire 
it. And because in that happy song is all we seek, Lady, through 
thy intercession make known my petition to thy blessed Son. Amen ! 


festunge ibe wildernesse. bi be herde hurtes and be unwur^e i entreat thee 

° ' > '_ by all his 

wowes Set he for us sunfule willeliche bolede. bi his deaSfule sufferings and 

> wrongs, 

grure. and bi his blodie swote. bi his eadi beoden in hulles him 

one. bi his nimunge. and bmdunge. bi his ledunge forS. bi al bet 

me him demde. bi his clones wrixlunge. Nu red. nu hwit. him 

on hokenmge. bi his scornunge. and bi his spotlunge. and bufet- 

tunge. * and his heliunge. bi be bornene crununge. bi £e kine3erde *[Foi. 1276.] 

of rode. 1 him of scornunge. bi his owune rode, on his softe schul- ' = rede. 

dres. so herde druggunge. bi be dulte neiles. bi be sore wunden f 

bi be holie rode, bi his side openunge. bi his blodi Rune bet ron and by tiie 

stream of 

inne monie studen. In umbe keoruunge. in his blod swetunge . Wood that 

ran in many 

in his pine bornene crummge. erest in his one bond and seo&Jen places. 

2 A word 

in his o^er. olast in his side burlunge wrS-ute sore wunde. ^et erased. 

ase halewen weneS. bet to^e 3 blod rune, was in his ereste. 3 ■> so $ e- 

nimunge in be feste bindunge. bet tet blod wrong ut et his eadie 

neiles. ich halsi be bet Su bi-seche him bi his schome. bi his sor. 1 entreat thee 

. . . } >y a11 his 

bi his deaS on rode, bi al bet he seide wrohte and bolede in sorrows and 

' ' shame. 

eorSe. bi be holi sacrement of his flech and of his blod bet Se 
preost sacred, burh be grace of fuluht. burh alle be o^re sacre- 
menz. bet holi chirche foluweS and useS. burh alle ich bi-seche 
be godes deore-wurSe moder bet heore mihte helpe me. and hore 
strencSe go forS. ber min oflxirage wonted, for min bileue is bet 
ich schal buruh ham beon iboreuwen. iesu bi sune and Godes 
sune. 3if us al him suluen and al is ure bet he spec and wrohte 
and bolede in orSe. his pine on rode and his deaS acwellen Mine May his death 

... ... . destroy my 

sunnen. and his ariste arere me in lif holinesse. and his *up sins 
ariste do me stepen uwward in heie and holi beawes. from heih May ins re- 

7,1 v a • i • • 1 i • a pi r surrectiouand 

and to nerre euer Set ich lseo m syon be heie tur 01 heouene f ascension 
bene louerd of leome. bet te engles euer biholdeS. and euer so advance 

1 1 • p t • higher and 

lengrre so heo 3irne : S hit more, lor \\>et sen song is al bet me higher. 
secheS. leafdi burh bin erndinge tuSe 5 me mine bone to bine eadi 5 ? cufte. 
sune aniew. 




Jesus Christ, God's Son, true God and true man, born of the blessed 
maiden Mary, who is maiden and mother without a mate. I am 
of all sinful men, as I fear, the most defiled with sin. I pray and 
beseech thee with inward (true) heart through thy conception in the 
maiden's body of the Holy Ghost, and through thy birth without breach 
of her body ; and through all that thou taughtest, and sufferedst for 
sinners upon earth ; through thy five wounds and the blessed flood that 
flowed from them ; through the iron nails and the crown of thorns ; 
and through thy pains and shames, and thy precious death on the cross ; 
and through the same cross, hallowed of thy precious limbs, upon which 
thou meekly outstretchedst thyself ; and (through) thy mother's wail and 
St. John's sorrow when thou unitedst them as son and mother ; for 
pity of thy pains ; and through thy blissful arising the third day from 
death, and through thy honourable ascension into heaven ; through the 
grace and gift of the Holy Ghost, whom thou on Whit Sunday sentest 
to thy beloved disciples and pouredst out upon those that rightly loved 
and believed upon thee ; and through thy awful coming at Doomsday 
to judge both quick and dead; and through thy blessed flesh and 
thy blessed blood hallowed upon the altar; through the virtue of 
baptism ; through all the other sacraments in which Holy Church 
believes ; through thy great kindness and mercy, that is greater than 
all that is named, except the grace of the Holy Ghost, who is equal 
with thee and with thy blessed Father, God full of all good ; — have mercy 
upon me, and hear my petitions through the blessed prayers of thy 
meek mother and St. John the Evangelist, and all thy saints. Forgive 
me my sins that are dreadful and horrible in thy eyesight. Lord, I 
view them in great dread of thine awe ; behold thou them not, lest 




csu crist godes sune acrS godd and scrS men of be eadie meiden Lord Jesus, 

.-,... . have mercy 

iborcn mana. bet is meiden and bute make moder. lcb of upon me, de- 
filed with fain . 

tdle sunfulle am on most ifuled of sunne ase icb drede*. icb bidde 
and bi-secbe be wr8 inwarde heorte burh bin akennednesse ine 
meidenes licame of be holi Goste. and buruh jjin iborenesse wrS 
uten brucbe of hire bodie buruh al bet ^u tawbtest. and Jjoledest 
for sunfule in eorSe. burh bine vif wunden. and be eadie flod I beseech thee 

by thy pas- 
bet of ham fledde. b?«7t ^e irene neiles and be bornene crime, sion, death, 


and burh be pinen and be schomen and bi deorcwurSe dea$ o^e ill,a ascen- 

> ' l > > sion ; 

rode and buruh ^e ilke rode i-halewed of bine deorewurSe 
limen. ^et bu on hire mildelicbe streibtest. and bine moderes 
ream and sein i[o]hanee soruwe bo |m Bomnedest bam ase sune 
and moder. uor rew^ie of bine pinen and burch bine blisfule 
ariste be bridde dai of dea%e. and burh bine wurSful astiunge 
into beouene. burh ^e grace and be 3eoue of be bob goste. bet by thy gift of 

the Holy 

bu on bwite sune dai sendest bine deorewurSe *deciples. and Ghost; 

jettedest to beo bet rith luuie^ be and leued. and burh jane 

eisfule cume a domesdai to demen bo^e cwike and deade. and i>y thy coming 

at Doomsday ; 

burh bine eadi flesche and bine iblescede blode i-sacred o^e 

weouede. burh be mibte of fulubt. bark alle be o^re sacremens. by the sacra- 
ment of thy 
bet holi chirche ileueS. bv/rh bine mucbelc milce and merci bet tiesh and 

is more ben al bet is inempned wrS-ute be grace of be oli goste. 

bet is efne wr5 be and wr5 bin eadi feder. Godd of alle godd 

ful. haue merci of me and iber mine bonen. buruh be selie hear my 


bonen of bine milde moder and seint iohannea ewamjeliste. and through the 

' prayers of thy 

alle bine halewen. for-2if me mine sunncn bet ateliche beoft and l,les f ed 


grisliche i bine eih sib¥e. louerd ich i-seo bain wrS mucliel ugge 
of bin cic. ne bi-hold bu ham nout leste bu wreoke ham on 



thou avenge them upon me in the furiousness of thy wrath. Lord, 
thy apostle saith thus, " If we condemned ourselves, we should not else- 
where be condemned." Meek merciful God, I judge myself before thee, 
after thy mercy that is greater than all my sins, as truly as a drop 
of thy precious blood that thou sheddest on the cross were enough to 
wash away the filth of all folk. Through the stark streams and the flood 
that flowed from thy wounds for to heal mankind, cleanse and wash 
my sinful soul ; through thy five wounds opened on the cross, pierced 
through with nails, and sorrowfully filled up, heal me sore wounded 
through my five wits with deadly sins, and open them, heavenly king, 
toward heavenly things, and turn to the world thy precious cross upon 
which thou outstretchedst thyself. Be my shield and protection in every 
quarter against the darts of the devil, which he (the traitor) shooteth 
at me. Let thy passion quench the passion of sins that abideth within 
me. Let thy pains preserve me from the pains of hell, and let thy 
precious death keep me from the death that never dieth, so that thy 
death may mortify the deadly lusts of my body and the laws of my 
limbs. Let the world be (dead) to me, and me to the world. Through 
thy arising to life immortal, Lord, raise me from the death of the soul ; 
and give me life in thee ; that I love not this world, but only thee, 
living Lord, and whatever is good before thee ; that I may be dead to the 
world, and ever live to thee, so that I may say with St. Paul who saith, 
" I live, not I, but Christ liveth in me." Lord (grant me) thy rnercy, since 
I have climbed so high with this same petition, and yet lie so low, and 
because earthly losses excite so much displeasure in my heart. Meek 
God, thy mercy ! for hereby I die, who erewhile spake of such things, 
and (yet) sin deadly. High (exalted) Saviour, God, help me and heal my 
heart thereof. Dear Lord Jesu Christ, look toward me as I lie thus low 
and bemoan to thee of things that trouble me now most, next to my sins. 
High Saviour, bow thyself to me, and incline (thine ear) to my prayers. 
I have in me neither wisdom nor honour, and am devoid of counsel ; I 
have not wherewith to lead my life in this world, and am helpless. I am 
in many wise disgusted in mind and heart, sick with sorrow, and have not 
any one to comfort me. Precious Lord, as thou art the counsellor of the 


me iwodschipe of bine wreSSe. louerd J>in apostel seiS bus. ^ii 
we ne fordemden us seolue?4 ne schulde we nout beou elles hwar 
for-demed. milde merciable godd icli deme to be '. efter bine i condemn 

myself before 

milce bet is [mo] re ben al min [uu]el is 1 ase wis [as]e a drope tliee - 

of bine deorewurSe blode ]>et tu o rode scheddest were i-nouh 

to weaschen alle folkes fulSe. beo sterke stremes and j?et flod 

bet fleaw of bine wunden. moncun uor to helen' clense and wash my 

' ' sinful sou] in 

waschs mine sunfule soule hurh bine fif wunden iopened o i*ode. *! ie Wood of 

>s x thy wounds. 

wiS ncilts uor-driuene and seorulifulliche fordutte. hel me 

uorwunded *]>urh mine fif wittes wrS deadliche sunnen. and *[Foi.i29a.] 

opene ham heouenliclie king touward heouenliche binges, and 

turn to be worlde bi wurSfule rode \>et bu spreddest be on. beo 

mi scheld and mi warant on euehe half! ajcin bes feoudes flon i$e my shield 

against the 

\et he scheot to me on euche halue be swike. bi passiuw acwenehe darts of the 
be passiun of sunnen bet wunieS wiS inne me. J>ine pinen 
buruwen me from be })inen of belle, and bi dereowurSe 1 deaS tsic. 
from bene deaS Set neuer ne deieS. \et Si deaS a-deadie pe 
deaoliche lustes of mine licame. and te lawen of mine limen Let me he 

dead to the 

beo Se world [dead] to me. and me to be worlde. burh bine world and live 

L J ' ' ' to thee. 

ariste louerd to liuef bate deaSe. of soule deaSe arer me. and 
3if me lif in Se. ]>et ieh ibisse worlde ne luuie nout bute J>e 
liuinde louerd. and liwat so god is uor be. Ipet ieh to be 
world beo dead, and euer liuie 2 to be. \>et ieh muwe siggew - a stroke 

too many in 

wiS seinte powel bet seiS. ieh liuie nout ieh '. auh crist liueS Ms. 

in me. louerd bi merei ase ieh ham heie iclumben wiS bis ilke 

bone, bet ligge so lowe. and uor eoi*Sliche luren so muche 

mislicuiige habbe in mine heorte. Milde godd bi milce. for 

herburh ieh deie bet spec er of swuche binge, and deaSliche 

sunegi. heie helinde godd help me. and hel herof mine heorte. 

leoue louerd iesu crist loke toward me ase ieh ligge lowe. and Look towards 

°° _ me as I lie 

mone to Se of binge Set me derueS mest nuSe efter mine sunnen. tIlus Iow - 
heie helinde *beih be to me. and buh to mine bonen. Nabbich *[f<jU2<*.] 
nowSer in me wisdom ne wurschipe and am redleas nab ieh lam without 


[h]\varemide le[de]n mi lif i bis[se] Avorlde and am helples. icb devoid of 
habbe on monie wise mislicunge of bonke and heorte sec of lie 'P- 
sorwe. and oabbe hwoa me froure. DeorewurSe drihten ase 


perplexed, counsel me that am helpless and uncertain what to do, how I 
ought to conduct myself and live on earth in maidenhood and purity of 
both soul and body. As thou art help of the helpless, behold, high Lord, 
how man's help faileth me. Let me receive thy help the more readily, 
so that I shall trust on thee alone, and confide (in thee) ever without end. 
Had I done so of yore, I know of a truth it would have been better 
for me than it is now. For the while that I trusted upon man thou 
saidst " Hold thee to them," and leftest me wholly ruined by those that 
I trusted upon, and they have become traitors to me, heavenly Lord, 
I believe, for my good. I honour and thank thee that thou hast de- 
prived me of them, for thou sawest that trust in them deceived me, and 
thou desirest that I should hope and trust in thee alone. For to show 
me how this hope in thee alone shall avail me better than did pre- 
viously the trust in the others, thou hast deprived me of man's help, 
for thou wilt give me thine. Blessed be he that thus turneth loss to 
gain. Truly all my woe on earth shall turn for me into joy if I love 
God with my true belief. Lord, I believe it, and love and will love 
thee more, Lord, through this affliction than I did previously in all 
my weal, for I know assuredly it would have wholly deceived me, if 
it were not, Lord, for the help of thy grace. Lord, I beseech thee 
with inward heart to give me neither too much nor too little, for through 
either many a man ofttimes sinneth ; but grant me that I may truly say 
with the maiden that saith of thee these words, " My beloved's left arm 
holdeth up my head," she saith, " and his right arm shall embrace me." 
Let me be thy beloved, and say as she saith, " Beloved, with thy left 
arm," that is, with thy worldly gifts, " hold up my head," that I through 
too much poverty fall not into the filth of sin. And " Beloved, with thy 
right ami," that is in heaven, with endless blessings, "embrace me," so 
that whatsoever I shall thenceforth, sweet gentle Lord, pray or desire, 
I may pray thee that I may receive in obedience, both poverty and 
wealth, according to thy good pleasure. Though I have not entirely 
all that I want, nor contest thou to me as soon as I desired it, I do 
not mistrust thee, but am confident that thou wilt take from me all 
that may do me harm, and give me, sweet merciful Lord, what is 
needful for me ; but thou that seest all things abidest thy time. Now 


bu ert redlcase fed. red me bet am helples and redles. hu ich 

schule leden me and Iiuien on eorSe wrS meidhod and ine 

clennesse of soule. and of bodie bo^e. ase bu ert neodfulles help 

bi-hold heie louerd hu nionnes help truke'S me. bin help beo Letme receive 

r . l thy help, 

me be ^arewere forto be one ich chulle trusten and hopien euer 

buten ende. hefdieh 3are so idon me stode betere ben me de^ 

ich hit wot to so^e. uor beo liwile ^et ich truste uppo mon Man's help 

faileth me. 

bu seidest. hold be to ham and lettest me al iwurden wrS beo 
bet ich truste uppon. and beo beo^ me itrukede heouenlich 
louerd. ich i-leue for mine selh¥e ich herie be and bonke. bu 
liam hauest bi-nume me. uor bu iseihe. bet te hope of ham bi- 
swoc me and wult bet ich hopie end truste to be one. for to 
schewen hu ]?is hope to pin ones help schal gon me betere ut. 
ben dude er be o^res. bu hauest binume me fulst of monne 1 
uor bu wult bin 3eouen me. Iblesced beo bet bus went lure Blessed be 

thou that 

to biseate. sikerliche al mi woa on eorSe schal turnen me to tumest my 

woe into joy. 

ioie. }if ich Godd luuie mid treowe bileaue. louerd *ich ileue *[p i.i3o«.j 

hit and luuie and wulle luuien J;e more louerd burh Jus wondred 

ben er in al mine weole. uor ich wot to so^e hit wolde habben 

al bi-swike me. $]£ N help nere louerd of bine grace, louerd 

ich bi-seche ^e wrS inwardc heorte ne 3if bu me nouSer to ewe me nei. 

ther too much 

muchel ne to lutel. uor ]>urh ev6ev moni mon sunegge^ i-lome. nor too little. 

auh leue me ^et ich mote so^liche seggen wrS ^e meiden bet 

of be seiS beors 1 wordes. Mi leofmoranes luft erm halt up min i s ie. 

1 leaned heo serS. and his riht erm schal biclupen me abuten. 

let me beo bi lcouemon and siggen ase heo serS. leof wi^ bi 

luft erm. bet is. wi^ bine worldliche 3eouen hold up min heawed 

^et ich burh to mucbe wone ne falle i fuFSe of sunne. and leof Support me 

with thy right 

wiS bin riht erm. bet is in heuene wrS endelease blissen bi-clupe arm. 

me abuten. al schal beon bet ich wulle beonne forS swete milde 

louerd bidde ooer wilni ich biddc ^e ^et ich mote under-uon 

in obedience bo^e wone and weole be ine cwemnesse. bauh ich 

nabbe nout one al Set me biheouede ne me ne cume nowt ase 

sone ase ich wolde. ich ne mishopie be nout auh am al siker 

of Set ]>u wult binime me r>et me wolde herm don. and 3ife me Give me what 

.,„.,,, it • t' 1011 deemtst 

bet me is biheue swete nnlzlule louerd. auh bu bet allc bnig needfnlfor 



I have lost the comfort of all mankind, I know that thou wilt send 
me the Holy Ghost to comfort me, and advise me and help me and 
comfort me, better than all those might in whom I trusted ; for thus 
saith the Psalmist David in the Psalter, " The world hath forsaken me, 
and God hath received me." Again he saith elsewhere, " Have thy de- 
light in God, and he will give thee the wishes (prayers) of thy heart ; 
make known to him the way that is thy desire, and he will accomplish it 
for thee." Thou knowest what I desire, omnipotent God, but of that as of 
all else, ever let thy will be done, for thou wilt soon enough clo better by 
me than I may desire ; and I obediently beseech thee, Lord, not through 
anything I deserve from thee, but through this hope and in this trust in 
thy great mercy, that thou be now my counsel, my help, and my grace. 
But I will love thee now, before them that I previously loved, trusted, 
and hoped in. For now I understand how true it is what St. Austin saith 
in his book, " Unhappy is he that is with love tied to any earthly thing, 
for ever is that sweet dearly bought with a twofold of bitter; but we 
understand it not ere that we lose it, and it turns to loss, from which 
quarter so ever it befalleth, before we least expect it." 

Qweet soft Jesus, blessed be those that love thee and thy sure sweet- 
*^ ness, that no one may lose except he lose faith in thy love. But 
without thy gifts none may love thee. With the flame, Lord, of the Holy 
Ghost, that is, thy Father's love and thine, inflame my heart and con- 
sume all that is hurtful therein, and feed it so forwardly that it may 
enlumine me ever in thy belief and in thy love, the longer the more 
so. My love and my counsel, all my help and my comfort, help me 
ever for good and turn me from sin, and give me will and might and 
wisdom to forsake every sin, and to work Avell. Precious Lord, thou 
owest not any man anything for his deserts, but doest all that thou 
doest through thy sweet grace, wholly unmerited by us. Make known 
in me what mercy is, and that grace is (of thy) grace and not of our 
works. But do so by me that my foes may grin (with rage), and good 
men may rejoice and bless thy name and honour it without end. What 


isihst ¥et abidest his time. Nu ich habbe uorloren al moncunne i have lost the 

comfort of all 

froure ich wot *\>et bu wult sendcn me bene holi gost to clnen mankind. 

me. and reden me and helpen me and froure me betere ben alle 

beo ilke muhten pet ich on truste. uor bus sei<5 be salmwruhte 

daurS ibe sawter. be world haue¥ for-let me. and godd hawe^ 

underfo me. eft elles bwar be serS. baue bi licunu ine godd and Let my de- 

. . . h s ht be in 

be wule }iuen be bonen of bine beorte. vnwrih him bene wei pet thee. 

is bi wilnunge. and he wule hit forSen. bu wost hwat ich wilni 

al weldinde Godd. auh of pet ase of belles hwat i iwurSe bi 

wille euer. uor bu wult inouhre^e don betere bi me ben is pet 

ich wilni. and ich buhsumliche bi-seche be louerd buruh non of- 

seruunge to ^e. auh purh bis hope, and i bis trust to bine 

muchele milce. ^et bu beo mi red nu. Min help and min cine. 

auh be ich chulle luuien nu. uor ham pet ich luuede er and 

truste to and hopede. uor nu ich understonde bu so^ hit is 

^et seint austin ser8 in his hoc. uniseli is ^et is wi*5 luue to Unhappy is 

he that is 

eni corSlicb biug iteied. uor euer h\& oet swete f abouht mid attached to 

earthly tilings, 
twofold of bittre. auh me ne hit underwit nout er ben me bit 

leose. and to lure hit bi-kumeS of hwuche half so hit failed i 

er me lest Avene. 

Qwete softe iesu iseli beo^ ^et be luuieS and bine siker swet- 

^ nesse. pet no mon ne mai leosen bute he be treulac of 

bine luue lete auh wrS-uten bine 3eoue ne mai be non *luuien. *[FoU3ia.] 

wv6 be lai louei'd of be holigost. bet is bi feder luue and bin. Enkindle 

within me the 

tend mine heorte and uorbern al bat is baluful. ber inne and love of thee. 
fed bit so forSward. pet hit ontende me euere ibine bileaue Enlighten me 

7 • • i i -\r- i 7 • i , ever with thy 

and in bine luue. so lengre so more. Mi luue and mi red al ueiief. 

min help and mi froure fulst me euer to gode and cher me 

from sunne. and yif me wil and mihte and wit to leten eucb 

uuel and wel uorto wurcben. deorwurSe drithen bu nowest none w e deserve 

7 i • c it nothing at 

mon nowitht purk his of-seraunge auli dest us al pet bu dest thy hands. 
purh bine swete grace al unofserued cuiS in me hwat is milce ah we have 
and pet grace is grace nout hure werkes auh do so bi me. 
pet mine fon grennen and gode gladien arid blescien bine nome. 
and herien buten bende. hwat mote ich milzfule louerd to be 


may I do, merciful Lord, for thee that mayest and canst do all things 
and wilt well do, and desirest all that is good 1 All that is needful for 
me (give me), I beseech thee, God full of all good, with these three 
words, as thou mayest (art able) and canst and wilt. Merciful Lord, 
have mercy upon me and upon all Christian men. Amen. 


T believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth : 
-*- and in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who was conceived through 
the Holy Ghost, and born of the maiden Mary, suffered under Pontius 
Pilate, was nailed on the cross, was dead and buried, and he lighted into 
hell ; and the third day he arose from death to life, and ascended into 
heaven, where he sits on the right hand of God the Father Almighty ; 
thence he will come to judge the quick and the dead. I believe in the 
Holy Ghost, and in the holy church, and the communion of saints, the 
forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and eternal life after 
death. Amen. 



Our Lord Almighty God desires and commands us that we love him 
and think of him and speak of him, not for his benefit, but our 
advantage and help ; for to him may all creatures say, Bonorum meorum 
non iiidiges — Of my goods, O Lord, thou standest in no need. But 
as Saint Austin saith, " If no man thought of God, none would speak of 
him ; if none spake of him, none would love him ; if none loved him, 
none would come to him, nor would participate of his bliss, nor of his 
greatness." It is most sweet to speak of him. Think ye that each word 
of him is sweet as if a honey-drop fell upon your hearts. He is heaven's 
light and earth's brightness, the welkin's gleam, and gemstone (jewel) of 
all creation ; bliss of angels, and joy and hope of mankind ; the strength 
of the righteous and solace of the needy. He is the beginning of 
all things, and both beginning and end ; he is beginning for he was 
ever ; he is end without any ending ; he is King of all kings, and 


\et alle J>ing nieiht. and const, and wult wel don. and wult al 
\et god is. al be£ me euer is neod. ich biseche be godd of allc 
godd ful wr5 beos breo wordes. ase bu meiht. and const. aw? 

wult. Milzfule louerd haue merci of me and of alle cristene Have mercy 

upon me and 

men. ame?l. all Christian 



Ich bileue on god feder al-mihti. schuppare of heouene and i believe in 

.... G°d" tl,u 

of eorSe. and on lesu crist bis onlepi sune ure louerd* Father, 

Creator of 

bet was ikenned buruh ¥>e boli aroste. iboren was of ^c meidene heaven and 

' ' ° earth; 

marie, ipined was under ponce pilate. moiled was o¥e rode, in Jesus 

Christ his 

dead and iburied. be lihto 1 in to belle, ^e bridde dei be a-ros only son our 

' Lord ; 

from deaoe to Hue. and steili in to heouene. ber he sit o godes i react niite. 

rithond feder al-mihti. }>onene he kumefc to demen ¥>e quike and 

^e deade. Ibileue on *¥>e holi goste. and on boli cbircbe. in the Holy 

e 1 i • c ii -x Ghost; in the 

lmennesse ot baluwen. uoi^menesse ol sunnen. uleches up ariste holy Catholic 

church, etc 

eche lif eftcr dea^ f amen. * [Pol. 1316.] 


[DE INITIO CREATURE.*] *[Foi.s4.] 

Vre hlaford almihti3 god wile and us hot. bat we bine lufie. God bids us 

7 'C 1 • - 7 11' - " 1 1- '° Ve ' tl[i,lli - 

and of him smaae and speee. naht him to mede ac hus to and speak of 

.. him. 
freme and to fultume. for. him sei"3c alle hiscefte. Bonorum. 

tneorum now [m]-diges. hlaford to mine gode ne beniede^ be. Ac 

alswo sanctus augustinus cwe^. Gif non man ne poht of Gode. The words of 

St. Austin. 

non ne spece of him. Gif non of him ne spece non bine ne 
lufede. Gif non bine ne lufede. non to him ne come, ne delende 
neVe of his eadine'sse. nof his merlrSe. Hit is wel swete of him 

to specene. benche jie aelc word of him swete. al swa an huni Each word of 

'•if ,.i 7 v, -i .1 Cod is sweet. 

t'ar felle upe 31'ure hierte. Heo is hefone lilit. and eorcSe briht- 
nesse. loftes leom. and all hiscefte 3imston. anglene blisse. and 
mancenne hiht and hope, richtwisen strenhebe. and niedfulle 

frouer. Heo bis selra pinga angin. and hordfruma and sende. God is the 

' beginning of 

he his ord for he wes efre. he is sende buton selcere jjiendunje. a11 things. 

* Cott. Vesp. A. 22. 


Lord of all lords. He hokleth with his might heaven and earth and all 
creatures without toil. No creature may perfectly comprehend nor 
understand concerning God. He formed his creatures when he would. 
Through his Wisdom (the Son) he wrought all things, and through his 
Will (Holy Ghost) he endowed them all with life. This Trinity is one 
God, that is, the Father and his Wisdom (of himself ever begotten) and 
the Will of them both, that is, the Holy Ghost, that proceedeth of the 
Father and of the Son alike. He created ten hosts (or states) or com- 
panies of angels, that is angeli (messengers), archangeli (high messengers), 
throni (thrones), dominationes (lordships), princijxdus (chiefs), potestates 
(spirits of powers), virtutes (mighty spirits), cherubim (fulness of know- 
ledge), seraphim (burning or inflaming). Wherefore they ai'e thus named 
shall be told in another place. Here ai*e nine orders (or states) or hosts 
of angels. They have no bodies, but they are all spirits, very strong and 
mighty and of great beauty, formed for the praise and honour of their 
Creator. The tenth order revolted and became evil (or as many as might 
have completed the number of the tenth host). God created them all good 
and let them have their own choice (discretion) to choose whether they 
would love their Creator or renounce him. Now the elder (chief) of the 
tenth order was beautifully formed, so that he was called "Light-bearing" 
(Lucifer). Then began he to be moody (grow proud) for the fairness 
that he had, and said in his heart that he would and easily might be equal 
to his Creator, and sit in the north part of the kingdom of heaven, and 
have power and dominion against God Almighty. Then he confirmed 
this counsel (resolve) with the order over which he presided, and they all 
were obedient to this resolve. When they all had determined upon this 
plan amongst themselves, then came God's wrath upon them all, and they 
all lost that fair hue (form) in which they were created, and became loath- 
some devils ; and very rightly it so befell them when they would with 
pride be better than they were created, and their elder (chief) said that 
he might be equal to God Almighty. Then became he and all his com- 
panions more perverse and worse than any other creatures ; and whilst 
that he meditated how he might share dominion with God, the Almighty 
Creator was preparing hell-torment for him and his fellows, and drove 
them all out of the mirth (joy) of heaven's kingdom and caused them to 


heo is alra kinsrene kins:, and alra hlafoi'dera hlaford. he halt iieistiio 

° king of all 

mid his mihte hefene and eorSe. and alle 3escefte buton je- i™gs. 

Bwince. Ne me3 nan iscefte fulfremedlice sme^an ne under- 

stonden embe god. heo 3escop 3esceafte bafta he wolde. burh his 

wisdom (se sune) heo jeworhte alle bing. and burh his wille (ali 

gast.) he hi alle 3eliffeste. beos brimnis is an god. ]>at is se fader. The Trinity 

and his wisdom, of him selfe efre acenned. and hare beire wille 

bat is se hali sjast. he g&6 of be fader and of be sune selice. He c.od created 

r &> te f r 3 ^ ten orders of 

3escop tyen engle werod. (o^er had.) o^er hapes. bat beo& angeli angels. 

(boden.) archangeli. (hahboden.) Troni. (brimsetles.) Domina- 

tio?ies. hlafordscipe. Principals alderscipen. Potestates. an- 

wealda gastes. Uirtutes. mihti gastes. Cherubim. 3efildnesse of 

ywitte. Seraphiw birninde oSer anhelend. for wan hi beo^ buss 

icwe^e me seel sigge, an o^re stowe. Her beo^ ni3en anglen Nine are good 


hapes. [o$er had.] o^er werod. Hi nabbed nenne lichama. ac hi 
ba#> alle gastes. swi¥e strange and, mihti an mucele feirnesse 
isceapew to lofe and to wurhminte hare sceoppinde. bat teonSe The tenth re- 

_ m helled against 

werod abrea^. and awende on yfele o^er al swa fele be me mihte G «d. 

bat tio^e hape fulfellen. God 3esceop alle gode. and let hi hi 

habben a^en chire. to chiesen 3ief [h]y wolden hare sceappinde 

lufie. o^er hine ferleten. pa wes bes tyendes hapes alder swibe 

feir isceapen. swa bat heo was 3ehoten leoht berinde. pa be-gan Tiieir leader 


he to modienne fer bere feirnesse. be heo hafde. and cwe^ an his wanted to he 

equal to God. 

herto. bat he wolde and ea^e mihte bien his sceoppende 3elic. and 

sitte an norSdele hefene riches, and habbe anwealda and riche 

an3en godelmichti ba yfesten[d]e [he] bisne red. wrS ban hape 

be [he] bewiste. and hi alle to rede gebu3on. pa be li 1 alle hafeden ' ? hi. 

bisne i*ed betwuxe ham 3efestnod. ba be-C07» godes grama ofer came upon 

ham alle. and hi alle wurSore * awende of ban fe^re hiwe be hi * pp'oi. 546.] 

an3escapen were to lo^lice deoflen. and swrSe richtlice ham swa and they 

became lnath- 

belamp. pirSe hi wolde mid modinesse beon betere bonne he some devils, 
3esceapew we're, and cweS hare alder bat he mihte beon bam 
selmihti god jelic. ba warS he and halle his ifeVen forcirSran and 
wursan bamie amis? o^er jesceafte. And ba wile be he smeade hu he and were 

1 ' driven out of 

mihte delen rice wrS god. ba wile 3earcode se almihti sceappende heaven, 
him and his iferen helle wite. and hi alle adrefde of heofan rices 


fall into the eternal fire that was prepared for them fur their pride. 
Then forthwith the nine hosts (or orders) that were left, bowed to their 
Creator with all humility, and resigned their purpose to his will. Then 
strengthened the Almighty God the nine orders (hosts or states) of angels 
and established them so that they never afterwards might be able, nor 
desire, to depart from his will. Neither may they nor desire they to 
perpetrate any sin, but ever they are [meditating] about this alone — 
how they may obey and please God. So might also the others have 
done that there fell, if they had been willing; for God had created them 
great angels, and let them have their own will, and would never have 
inclined nor forced them to that evil counsel, neither to think nor to 
act wrongly. Then would God supply and make good the loss that had 
been suffered in the heavenly host (or state), and said that he would create 
man out of earth, so that the earthly man should prosper and obtain 
by humility the abode in heaven which the devil lost through his pride. 
And God wrought a man of loam (earth) and blew spirit into him, and 
endowed him with life, and he then became man formed in soul and in 
body, and God gave him the name of Adam, and he was for some time 
alone. God then brought him into Paradise and there lodged him and 
said to him : " Of all the things that are in Paradise thou mayest 
enjoy, and they are all given unto thee, except one tree that standeth in 
the midst of Paradise. Touch thou not this tree's fruit, for thou shalt 
become deathly (mortal) if thou eatest this tree's fruit." Why would 
God, who such other great things assigned him, forbid him such a small 
thing % In order to make him understand that he was his Lord, and 
that he should be obedient to him, and observe his behests ; as if he 
should say to him, ' Forego thou the fruit of one tree and with this easy 
obedience thou shalt obtain the mirth of heaven's kingdom, and the 
place from which the devil fell through disobedience. If thou breakest 
this little behest thou shalt perish by death.' And then was Adam so 
wise that God brought unto him neat and deer-kind and fowl-kind, when 
he had made them, and Adam gave them all names. Then spake God : 
" It is not meet that this man be alone and have no helper ; but let us 
make him a companion for his help and comfort." And God then caused 



mirh^e. ami let befallen on bat ece fer be ham 3earcod was fer <i» d f «" into 

hare prdde. pa sona be nigon werod [o^e hapes]. be ber to 

lafon were, biigon to hare scyppende. mid selra sedmodnisse. 

and bete'hton bare r6d to bis wille. pa 2efestnede se admihti The nine 

orders were 

god ba nigen angle wserod [heapes. bad.], and 3estebelfaste swa strengthened 

bat hi nefre ne mihteft ne noldan si^San. fram his wille Jebugon. could neither 

> jo ciimmit or 

ne hi niu^en ne hi nedle^ nane synne 3ewercon. Ac hi efre beo^ ^",'^1,, 

ymbe bat in bu hi mugon god hihersamian and him 3ecwemen. 

Swa micbte a?ac be o¥re be ber fellon don %6f hi wolden. forSi ^e 

god hi 3eworhte to meren anglen. and let ham h&bba ag&me 

cire. and hi nefre ne bide nane niede to ban yfele re'de. ne yfel to 

bence. ne to dorane. pa wolde god sefyllan and seinnian bone God made 

s . J J * Y good the I033 

lere be forloren was. of ban hefenliee werode \ve\ hade.l and of the tenth 

' L order by the 

cweft bat he wolde we*rcan man of eorSan bat he eorSlic man creation of 

' > man, 

sceolde 3e : 6eon. and gearnian mid admodnisse. b 1 wuniunge on 1 p be or J>a. 

befeii rice, be se deofel forwo[r]hte mid modinesse. And god ba whom he 

, created out of 

3eworhte senne man of lame, and him on bleow gast. and bine earth, 
3eliffeste. and he war?) ba man 3esceapen on sawle. and on 

lichame and god hiwi sette nama. adam. and he wes to sume and called 

^ . . him Adam. 

wile anstandende. God J>a nine brobte into paradis. and bine 

3elogode and him to cwe%. ^Elra bara binge be on paradis beo^ lie forbad 

- 7 111-1 /I ''"" '" eat °^ 

bu most bruce. and alle hi beo^ be betebte. buton ane treovve be tll(; free >" 

' J the middle of 

stent on midden paradis. ne hrdpe bu bes trowes westm. for ban Paradise. 

bu wurst dea^lic. 3ef bu bes trowes westm 3eetst. Hwi wolde god 

swa litles binges him forwerne. be him swa my eel o^er bing 

betohtel forte don hi«i understonden. bat he his hlaford was. 

nii'l bat he sceolde to him bugon and his 3ehese healde. Al se 

he to him cwe^e. forging bu ones treowes westm. and mid bare Death was 

se^elice hyrsumnesse. bu 3earnest hefen rices rnerbSe. and bane penalty it he 

stcde be se deofel of hafel \ burh unihersamnesse. Gif bu banne command. 

bis litle bebod to brecst. bu scealt dea^e sweltan. And ba was 

adam swa wis. bat god 3eledde to him niatenu. and deorcen. and 

fugcl cyn. ba&a he 3esceapen hafede. and, adam ham alle namen 

jesceop. pa cwe$ god. Nis hit ntiht 3edanfenlic. bat bes man c.od said it is 

i 7 pi • i • not meci f° r 

ane beo. and nab[l>e] nenne lultume. ac uton wircan hiwj. 3emace man to be 


hi?//, to fultume and to froure 2 . And go[d] ba 3eswefede bat a Ant it 

written above 
u in the MS. 


Adam to fall asleep ; and when he slept he took a rib from his side, and 
made of that rib a woman; and Adam named her Eva, that is, life, 
because she is mother of all living. All creatures God created and made 
in six days, and on the seventh day he ended his work, and then ceased 
and hallowed that day. All things God wrought through his word. 
But when he created man he said not, Let there be man, as of other 
creatures, but he said, " Let us make man in our likeness," and he then 
wrought man with his hands, and breathed into him a soul, wherefore 
man is better, if he does what is good, than other creatures, except 
angels ; for they all come to nothing (perish), and man is eternal in 
one part, that is, in his soul. The body is mortal through Adam's 
guilt, but nevertheless God will raise again the body to eternal things 
at doomsday. When the devil perceived that Adam and Eve were so 
created that they should obtain, through humility and obedience, the 
abode in heaven from which he fell for his pride, then took he much 
anger and envy towards man, and considered how he might ruin them. 
He afterwards came in an adder's form to the two men (persons) — first to 
the wife, and thus said unto her: "Why has God forbidden you this tree's 
fruit which stands in midst of Paradise?" Then said the woman, "God 
has forbidden us the fruit of this tree and said that we should die if we 
tasted of it." Then spake the devil, " It is not so, but God knows well 
enough that if ye eat of the tree then shall your eyes be opened, and ye 
shall know good and evil, and be like angels. They were not created 
blind, but God created them so innocent that they knew nothing of evil, 
neither in sight nor in speech nor in works." Then became the woman 
beguiled through the devil's lore, and took of the fruit of the tree and 
ate, and gave her husband and he ate. Then both became mortal and 
knew both good and evil, and they were then naked and ashamed thereat. 
Then came God and asked who broke his behest, and drove them out of 
Paradise and said: "Because thou, man, wast obedient to thy wife's words 
more than to mine, thou shalt with toil earn thy meat ; and the earth 
is accursed through thy works and shall yield thee thorns and brambles. 
Thou art taken from earth and thou shalt turn to earth. Thou art dust 


adam. and ba&e he slep. ba 3enanie lie ribb of his sidan. and so he created 

Eve out of 

3eworhte of bane ribbe ana wifman. and ada?« hi nemnede. eua. Adam's ribs. 

\at his lif. for ban. be hi is selra libbinde moder. ./Ella 3escefte 

god 3esceop and hiworhte on syx dagum. *and on bail seofe^an *[Foi. 55a.] 

de3 he 3eendode his wurc. and 3esweac ba. and bane de3 halgode. 

Ealle bing 3eworhcte god burch his worda. ac ba^a 3eworhte 

man. he ne cwe^ naht 3ewur%e man. alse of o^ere sceafte. ac he 

cwe^. Uton gewurcan man to ure anlicnesse. and he worhte God mado 

ba bane man mid his handen. and him anbleow sawle. forSi is own likeness. 

se man beter 3^f he god 3e : Sih$ bamie oSre 3esceafte bnton englen. 

for ban be hi alle 3e\vr5e ; 6 to nachte. and se man is ece on ane 

dele. \at his an ber sawle. Se lichame is deadlic burh adames The body is 


gylt ac beahwe^e[r] god arerb" eft bane licame to e'cene bingum through 

Adam's sin. 

adomes de$. pa on3eat se deofel ]>at adam and eua weron tofii 
3esceapene. \at hi sceoldan mid edmodnisse and mid hersamnisse 
3earnie ba wuniimge on hefe rice be he" of afeol. for his upahefed- 
nesse. pa nam h6 mulcene gramen awl andan toSan mannum. Satan plots 

how he may 

and smeade hu he hi fordon mihte. he co??i ba anedren hiwe ruin A(1 a»» 

and Eve. 

to^az?*. twam mannuw. erest to^a/i wife, and hir to cwe^. Hwi 

for-bead 3eu god bes trowes westm. be stent on midden paradis 1 

pa cwe^ \>at wif. God hus for-bead bes trowes westm. and 

cwe^. \at we" sceoldorc dea% swelten. 3if. we his abiri^don. pa He persuades 

cwe^ se deotel. Nis hit naht swa. ac god wot 3enoh 3eare ^if 36 tiie forbidden 


of l ba?i treowe sete^. banwe beoS 3iure eagen 3eopened. and imugon > ms. os. 
3ecn6wen ei^Sev god and euyl. and beoft englew 3elice. Nare 
bio blinde 3escapene. ac god hi 3esceop swa bilewitte pat hi ne 
cu^an nan ping- eueles. na^or ne an iselrSe. ne on sprece. ne on 
weorce. Warb ba \at wif for-spannen burh be deofles lare. and 
3enam of bes trowes westm. and seat, and 3iaf hire were and he 
set. pa weran bo^e deadlice. and cuSon 36'ider god and yfel. 
and hi ber 2 ba nacode. and ham bas scamede. pa com god and 2 orwer. 
acsode. be his bebod to brece. and adrefde hi ut of paradis. and God ''rives 

them out of 

cwe^. for ban be were hihersa?». bines [? wifes] wordum mor ¥»m Paradise. 
mine, bu scealt mid arfe^nesse be metes tylian. and se eorSe his 
awirigd on bine weorcum. syl'Se bornes and, brembles. pu eart 
of eor^e 3enume. and bu awenst to eorSe. pu seart dust, and bu 


and thou shalt turn to dust." God made them garments of skins and 
they were clothed with the skins. Adam was then dwelling in this life 
in toil ; and he and his wife then begat children, both sons and daugh- 
ters ; and he lived nine hundred and thirty years, and afterwards died, 
as was foretold, on account of his guilt ; and his soul went to hell. 
Then soon there sprang up a great people, and very many led evil lives 
and displeased God with various crimes, and chiefly with fornication. Then 
waxed God so wroth through man's crime that he said that it repented 
him that he had ever created mankind. At that time, however, there was 
a righteous man before God whose name was Noah. Then said God to 
him, " I will destroy all mankind with water for their sins, but I will hold 
(preserve) thee in safety, both thy wife and thy three sons, Shem, Ham, and 
Japhet, and their three wives, because thou art righteous and acceptable to 
me (unto me). Make thee now an ark, three hundred fathoms long and 
fifty fathoms wide and thirty fathoms high. Roof it all, and daub all the 
seams with tar, and go afterwards therein with thy family. I shall gather 
unto thee of deer-kind (animals) and of fowl-kind by pairs (mates together), 
that they may afterwards multiply. I will send a flood over all the earth." 
He did as God commanded him, and God locked them within the ark 
and sent down a rain from heaven forty days together, and opened there- 
with also all well-springs and water-springs of the great deep. The 
flood then increased and bore up the ark, and it passed above all the 
hills. Then was every living thing drowned, except those within the ark, 
by whom was again established all the earth. Then God promised that he 
would never again destroy all mankind with water, and said to Noah and 
to his sons, " I will set my covenant betwixt me and you (as a token) of 
this promise, that when I arch over heaven with clouds, then shall my 
rainbow appear in the firmament, and I shall be mindful of my covenant 
that I will not henceforth drown men with water." Noah lived, in all 
his life, nine hundred and fifty years, and he then died. For some time 
after the flood God's awe (fear of God) was upon mankind and there was 
one language amongst them all. Then said they betwixt themselves that 
they would make a city and a tower (steeple) within the city so high that its 


awe*nst to duste. God ham ^eworhta pa reaf of fellaw and hi 
were mid pan fellen 3escridde. Adam pa wes wniende on peses 
life mid jeswmce. and heo and his wif pa beam 3estriende. 
3edeir sunen and dochtreu. and he lefede nigon hundred 3iere. 
and xxxti. and si^an swealt. swa swa him ?er be-haton wes After Adam 

died his soul 

forSam gilte. and his sawle 3iwende to helle. pa wearS5 pa redlice went int0 hel1 - 
micel mennisc sewexon. and were swrSe manege on yfele awende. The world 

waxed wicked, 

and 3egremeden god mid tnistlicuwi leahtrum. and swrSost mid 

for-lisere. Po warS god to^aw swrSe 3egremed burh manna and it re- 
3 r & 3 » r pented God 

mandede bat he cweS bat him of-buhte bat he efre mawcinn that he had 

made man. 

3esceop. pa wes hwe^ere an man richwis et-foran gode. be wes 

Noe 3ehaten. ba cwe^ god to him. ic wille fordon al mancinn God tells 

Noah that he 
mid watere for hare sinnum. ac ic wille halden be ennen and ti will destroy 

the whole 

wif. and bine preo sunes. sem. ch&m. iafet. and hare preo wif. for world. 

ban be bu art richwis and me 3ecweme. Wrec be nu an arc. 

preo hund fedme l&ng. and fifti fedme wid. and pritti fedme 

heah. Geref hit all. and idem hall p[e] seames mid tirwan. and 

ga inn se¥>en mid pine lmviin. *Ic ^egaderi in-to^e of diercynne. * [ F «i. 556.] 

and of fugel cynne simle gemacan. bat hi eft to fostre bien. Ic 

wille senden flod ofer alne middennard. He dede ba swa him Noah makes 

an ark. 

god bebead. and god be-leac hi binnaw pan arce. and asende ren 
of heofene. xl. dagas to-gedere. and 3eopenede per to 3eanes alle 
well -springes, and weter peotan of per mycele nlwelnisse. \)at 
flod wex ba. and aber up ban arc. and hit ofer-stah selle duna. 
WearS ba elc bins cuces adrenct. buton ba be binnon bane arce The flood 

1 ' } . comes and 

were. Of pan wearS eft 3estapeled eall middenard. pa be-heot god drowns aii 

bat he nolde nefre eft. al mancyn mid water acwellan. and cwe^ 

to noe. and to his sunum. Ic wille settan mi wed betwuxe me. The covenant 

•v. • -if • i ° f tne raul " 

and eow. to pisan behate. bat is. p&nne ic ofe[r]-teo hefenes mid bow. 

wlcne. b&nne brS atawed min ren boge. betwuxe ban folce [vel 

wlcne]. ba.nne beo ic 3emene3ed mines weddes. bat ic nelle henon 

forS mancyn. mid watere adrenche. Noe lefede on all his life 

nigon hund 3eare. and fifti. and he ba for^ferde. pa wes ba After Noah's 

death, for 

sume hwille godes 3eie. on 3emancynne. efter pa flode. and wes awhile men 
on 3ereard an ham alien. pa cwe^en hi betwxe ham bat hi 
wolda» wercen ane burch. and enne stcpel binnaw para bine. 



roof (top) should reach to heaven, and they began to work. Then came 
God thereto when they were most busily at work and gave each man that 
was there a separate language, and none of them knew what the other said ; 
and they then ceased their building and were scattered over all the earth. 
Afterwards mankind became deceived through the devil and turned aside 
from belief in God, so that they wrought for themselves likenesses, one of 
gold, another of silver, a third of stone, a fourth of wood, and gave them 
names and offered them gifts (sacrifice) ; and the devil came into these 
forms and dwelt therein and spake to men, as though they were gods, and 
deceived men. Then this error spread abroad over all the earth, and the 
true Creator, who alone is God, was despised and dishonoured. There 
was (at this time), nevertheless, a tribe which never bowed down to 
a devil-idol, but ever honoured the true God. It sprang from Noah's 
eldest son, who was called Shem, and his son was called Arphaxad, and 
his son was Sala ; and Sala begat a son called Heber (of whom spi-ang 
the Hebrew folk whom God loved), and from this tribe (kin) came all the 
patriarchs (high fathers) and prophets who spake of Christ's coming to 
this life, that towards the end of this world he would become man for 
our redemption — he who was ever God with the heavenly Father. And 
to this folk God gave and established laws, and led them dry-footed over 
the sea, and fed them forty winters with heavenly loaf (bread), and 
wrought many wonders among the folk, because from this race he would 
choose him a mother. Then at last, when the time came which God 
foreshowed, he sent his angel to a maid named Mary. Then came the 
angel unto her and greeted her with God's words, and showed her that 
God's Son shotild be born of her without intercourse of man, and she 
believed then his words and became with child. When her time came, 
she brought forth [a child] and yet remained a maiden. The Child is 
twice begotten : he is begotten of the Father in heaven without any 
mother; and again, when he became man, when he was born of a pure 
maiden, without any earthly father. God the Father wrought all 
mankind and all creatures through the Son, and afterwards when we 
were lost, he sent that same Son for our redemption. He was born 
without sin, and his life was wholly without sin. He performed, how- 
ever, no wonder (miracle) openly until he was thirty winters in his 


swa hahcne bat his rof asti^e up to hefenne. and begunnon ba to 

worcen. pa com god ber to. ba ba hi swr5est worhtan. and aiaf The building 

r ° r ' y J of Habel and 

selce man be ber was suuderlice sprece. and har non neste wat the confusion 

' ' l of tongues. 

o^er cwe^. and hi ba iswicon hare timbringe. mid to-ferden ofer 
alne middenarde. pa si&San wearS mancynn. burh deofol 
beswice. and awendan fram godes 3elafen. swa bat hi worhtan 
ham anlicnessen sum of golde sum of selfre. of stane. of 1 trewe. The origin of 

° idolatry. 

and sceope ham naman. and lac offreden. and com se deofel to i ms. os. 
har anlicnesse and ber an wnede and to mannen sprece swice hi 
godes were, and beswicene mennisc. pa asprang bis jedweld 
ofer all middenard. and was se so^e sceppende se be ane is god 
forsewen and seunwui^ed. pa wes hwe^ere an me3ie cjnn be The race of 

Seth wor- 

nefer ne abeah to nane deofel ryld. ac efer wurSade bane soSiie shipped the 

-" r true God. 

god. Se asprang of noes ylste sune be wes 3ehotan sem. and 
his sune bete arfaxat. and his sune sale, and bes sale jestrienede 
enne sune be wes sehaten heber. of ban asprang bat eberisce folc. The Hebrews 

sprang from 

be god lufede. and of ba cynn come alle be heahfederes. and Seth. 

witi3en. ba^e cyddon C/mstes to-cyme to bis life, bat heo wolde 

man beon for nean en ende bissere wurold. for ure alysendnisse. 

se be efre wes god mid ban hefonlice feder. and bes cenne god God gave 
I ° > jo theni )aws 

sselde and 3esette se [ve\ laga]. and he hi ledde ofer se mid dreie ^J,^'^" 1 
fote. and he hi afedde feorti3 wintre mid hefenlice hlafe. and fele g^ the Red 
wundre onSam folce 3eworhte. fer ban be he wolde of bise cynne 
him moder 3eceosen. pa et nextan ba .se time com be god fore- 
scewede. ba sende he his aengel to ane mede be was Maria of this people 

came the 

aehaten. pa com se amgel to hire and segrette hi mid godes saviour. 

* * God's Son. 

wordon. and cydde h)Te. bat godes sune sceolde beon acenned of 
hire, buton weres 3emanan. and hi ba 3elifd his wordum and 
warS mid cylde. pa^a hire time com hi acennede and burh- 
wunedo meden. bat cild his twies acenned. he is acenned of be 
feder on hefene buton elcer moder. and eft ba^e he man 3ewarS. He was bom 

of a pure 

ba was he acenned of be clene meidene buton elce eorSlice federe. maiden and 

> > his whole life 

God fader 3eworhte mancin. and selle 3esceafte burh bane sune. was sinless. 
and efft ba$e we forwyrhte were ba sende ban ilce sune to ure 
alisendnesse. heo was buton senne acenned. and his lif was all He worked 


buton synne. Nse worhte he * bah nane wndre openlice. er ban * [Foi. 56a.] 


humanity. Then afterwards he chose him disciples, first twelve (whom 
we call apostles, that is, messengers), and subsequently two-and-seventy 
that are called disciples (learning-knights). Then performed he many 
miracles, that men might believe he was the Son of God. He turned 
water into wine, and passed dry -footed over the sea ; he calmed the winds 
by his behests, and he gave sight to blind men, right gait to the halt 
and lame, and smoothness to lepers and health to their bodies. To the 
dumb he gave speech and to the deaf hearing ; to the devil-sick (those 
possessed with devils) and mad he gave sense and drove out the devils, 
he healed all sickness, and dead men he raised from their tombs to life. 
He taught the folk to whom he came with great wisdom, and said that 
no man could be saved unless he rightly believed in God, were baptized, 
and adorned his belief with good works. He shunned every sin and all 
leasing, and taught righteousness and truth. Then the Jewish folk took 
offence at his doctrine (lore) and plotted how they might put him to death. 
Then became one of Christ's twelve attendants, who was called Judas, a 
traitor through the devil's instigation ; he went to the Jews and plotted 
with them how he might betray Christ to them. Though all men were 
gathered together, they might not destroy him, if he himself did not will 
it. Wherefore he came to us because he desired to suffer death for us and 
with his own death to deliver all mankind that believed on him from hell- 
torment. Christ then permitted that the blood-thirsty men should take 
him and bind, and, hung on a cross, put him to death. Lo (then) two 
believing (faithful) men honourably entombed him, and Christ in the 
meanwhile descended into hell and subdued the devil and took from him 
Adam and Eve and that portion of their offspring that erewhile pleased 
him, and he arose from the dead with this great host on the third day of 
his passion. He came then to his apostles and comforted them, and for 
the space of forty days dwelt with them, and the same lore that he ere- 
while had taught them he afterwards repeated, and commanded them to 
go over all the earth preaching baptism and true belief. The Lord then, 
on the fortieth day of his resurrection, ascended to heaven before the 
sight of them all with the same body in which he had suffered, and 


be he was J>ritti wintre an bara mennisnisse. ba se^en aceas he 
him leornmchnihtes. erest twelf. ba we hata^ apostles. bat brS 
erndracene. And si£San twa and sefenti3e. ba beo^ 3enamned. 
discipwli. leoruincuihtes. pa wercte he fele wundra. bat men so that men 

' might believe 

mihten selefeu. bat he was godes beam. He awende water to that he was 

J ' b Gods Son. 

uine. and eode ofer se" mid dreie fotu»t. and he 3estilde windes 
mid Lis hesne. and he foi^iaf blinde manne 3eseclrSe. and halten 
and lamen richte gang, and hreoflin smiSnesse. and hele hare He healed 

s ° the sick, 

lichame. dumben he forgeaf. getocnisse. and deafum hercnunge. 
Deofel seocun and wodan h[e] 3eaf 3ewitt. and ba deoflew to 
drefde. and selc untrumnisse heo 3ehelde. Deade men he arerde raised tne 

3 dead, 

of hare berieles to life, and lerde bat folc be he to com mid 

mucelene wisdome. and cwe^ bat naman ne ma! bien 3ehalden. and taught 

^ the folk how 

buton he nch[t]hee selife on god. and bat lie beo 3efulled. and they might be 


his 3eleafen mid goden wrcon 3e3lenge. heo onscunede elc unricht 
and alle leasunge. and tochte richwisnesse. and soSfestnesse. 
pa nam be iudeisee folc micel anda on3ean his lare. and smeadan The Jews 

-,,..,,. . sought to put 

hu In michte June to dea^e sedon. pa warS an bera twelf Christ to 

3 ' death. 

Christes beigne se be was iudas 3ehaten. burh diofies tihtinge 

beswicen. and heo 3ede to ban iudeiscaw folce. and smeade wrS 

him hu he Christ heom belewen michte. bah al mennisc were Christ per- 
mitted them 
3egadered. ne michti hi alle bin acwelle. 3ef he sylf nold. for bi to do so. 

he com tu us. bat he wolde for bus dea^ browian. and swa al 

mancyn. ba^e 3elyfad. mid his a3en dea^e alyse fram belle wite. 

Crist ba 3e : 5afode. bat ba wel reowen hine 3enuman [ve\ a 1 ] and 

3ebunden. and an rode hencgene acwealdon. Hwet ba twe3en 

3elefde men him arwrSlice bebyriddon. and crist on bare wile. 

to belle 3ewende. and bane deofel 3ewilde. and him of ana?M,. He died, was 

i j 7 p • iii- buried, and 

adam and eu&m. and hare oisprmg bane del. be him ser 3ecwemde. on the third 

day rose from 

and aras of dea^e mid ba7» mucellum werode. an ban bridde dei3e. tue dead - 

1 >.c. or 

his browunge. Com ba to his apostlen ami hi 3efrefrode. and 
furtfe da3en firste ham mid wnede. and ba ilce lare. be he ham 

er tochte eft 3eedlehte 2 . and bet hi faren ofer all middennard 2 ms. 

, t Jeedsehte. 

bodiende fulluht. and soS 3eleafen. Drihte?i ba an ba furteohte on the 

de3e his seristes astah to heofene. et-for har alra 3esyclrSe. mid after his re- 

• , , • . . . . . surrection he 

pan ilce licama be he onbrowode and sit an bar swr&eran hallo ascended int.. 

heaven, where 


sittetli on the right hand of his Father, and ruleth over all crea- 
tures. He hath opened to all righteous men entrance to his kingdom, 
and those that altogether despise his behests shall be sunk into hell. 
Verily he shall come at the end of this world, and all that have 
ever received a soul shall arise from death to meet him, and each be 
rewarded according to his deserts. 


It happened that there was a rich king who was strong and mighty; 
his land stretched far and wide ; his people were innumerable ; his 
subjects on all sides remained under his sway. Then it so chanced that 
a thought occurred to him that he would know in all his dominions 
who were friends or foes, well-disposed or hostile ; and he resolved to 
prepare a great feast and thither to call all his subjects so that they 
at one (set) time should come to his court (city) ; and he appointed a day 
that they all at the latest should be there on that day. But this differ- 
ence he had set (made) between friends and foes, that when they came 
promiscuously to the court, if he were a friend, he was to be respect- 
fully called aside and made to wash and take his first-meat, so that 
he would not think it very long to await, until noon, the lord's arrival 
(entrance) • if he were a foe, he was to be met forthwith at the gate 
with good cudgels and strong whips and straitly be surrounded and 
bound hand and foot and cast into darkness, and there abide until all 
his fellows were assembled, that they might be all together clean im- 
prisoned for ever. Then the king sent his messengers from five quarters 
to all his subjects to invite this folk. Wherefore, without exception, 
they came, some earlier, others later, some as friends, others as foes, 
and it was done unto them as I before said was bidden. When 
the time came that the lord should come into the hall with his 
honoured guests, with earls and princes, with knights and thanes, 
then he said, " Ere we with our friends go to meat, let us see these 
uncouth men, our foes." When they came before him, then turned he to 



his fa^er. and aire sceafte :ewalt. He haueS serimed rihtwisaw lie sits at his 

J J Fatlier's right 

mannan infer to his rice, and J>a be his bebode allunge for-seo^ 

He liath 

beS an helle besencte. Witodlice he cumS an ende bisser wrld. toWskhi ' 

doiu for all 

and alle ba^e sawle efre underfengon. ariseS of da^e him to- those who 

> ° keep his 

3eanes. and elc 3eelt efter his 3earnunge. 


[AN BISPEL.*] *[Foi.«66.] 


it selamp bat an rice king wes. Strang and mihti. his laud a parable of 

3 l ' & ° , a rich king, 

gelest wide and side, his folc was swrSe serfeS-telle. his 
under-beoden 3ewer on his cyne rice wuneden. pa be-fel hit swa 
bat him a bance befell to under3eite wa an alle his cyne rice him who invited 

friends and 

were frend oSer fend, hold o^er fa. and he nam him to rede bat foes to his 

' court. 

heom wolde 3earceon ana? grate la^ienge. and, bider 3eclepien all 
his underbeod. bat hi bi ene fece to his curt [berie] come sceolde 
and sette aenne de^ie. bat hi alle be be latst to ba de^ie. ber were. 
Ac bis 3esceod he hadde isett bi-tweone frend and feud, bat ban ins friends 

were courte- 

hi come mistlice to berie. 3ef he frend were, me bine sceolde onaly received 

and feasted. 

derewrlice forS clepien. and do hine wasse. and 3iefe him his 

formemete. bat him to \ang ne buhte to abiden of fe 1 laford to be ' read o'S se. 

none inn come. Gief he fend were, me sceolden anon eter 2 gat 2 = e t ber. 

3emete mid gode repples and stiarne swepen. and stiarne hine nis foes were 

beaten and 

besie. and binde him hand and fett. and do hine into biester- imprisoned, 
nesse. and ber abide of 3 all his 3eferen were 3egadered. bat hi 3 ?of=off. 
alle clone, simle belocen were, pa sende se king his aerndraches 
of fif ce^en to alle his underbeodeu. to 36^16 bis folc. hwet bute 
icome sum cofer sum later sum frend sum fend, and was idon bi 

ham al swa aer cwe^e bat isett was. pa hit ber to com. bat se when the 

• i • i ' or( * came 

hlaford into bar halle come, mid his dierewurd 3eferede. mid into the hail 

he sent for 

serlen and aldren. mid cnihten mid beinen. ba cwe^ se hlafor[d] to ins foes, 
his. JEer b&nne we mid ure frienden to^e mete go. scepie 4 we bes 4 1 scewie. 
unco£e rnaen ur 3efo. ba hi to-fur hiiw come, ba wente he bin to 


them, and thus said, " Wretched men, what caused you to raise up in 
all my dominions hatred and strife and war against me, and to bow (do 
homage) to my foes 1 As (truly as) I enjoy my kingdom ye shall not 
eat (bite) of my meat ; but they shall that have merited it with my 
love." When this was said, quickly were they then thrust into dark- 
ness, that they died of hunger; and the lord betook himself to his 
friends, and ate and drank and made himself very joyful with them ; 
and there they had bread and wine and seven dishes. Now, good 
men, understand this parable. This king is our Lord God Almighty, 
who is King over all kings and Lord over all lords. Strong he is 
and mighty, for he created all things of nought, and no thing may 
(be) against his will or withstand him. Wherefore to him saith the 
prophets, Qui ccelortim contines tronos, <kc. — that is, Lord of Might, 
thou holdest the thrones of heavens, and thou beholdest the deep which 
is under the earth ; and thou weighest the hills with thy hand. He 
is truly mighty, because there is no might but from him. His land 
is all this earth, for he created and established it all without labour. 
He is our King and Creator and Father and Lord — King, for he in 
righteousness created all things, man and angel, good and evil ; Creator, 
for he made us bodies and breathed souls into them ; Father, for 
he feedeth and clotheth us and reared us up as children ; Lord he 
is, because his awe (fear) and dread is over us, and ought to be. He 
is our Father; he giveth us his earth to till and corn to sow. His 
earth produces for us corn, fruits, neat (cattle), and deer-kind (beasts). 
His light produces for us light and life. His water produces for us 
drink and fishes. His fire is for manifold services. The sun, moon, 
stars, rain, dew, wind, wood, produce for us innumerable favours. 
All that we have, we have from this Father, from whom we all have 
our bliss. May we, ween we, call him at all our Mother 1 Yea, we 
may. What doth the mother to her child 1 First she showeth and 
blesseth it by the light, and afterwards she putteth her arm under 
it, or covers his head, that he may sleep and rest. This does the 
Lord of you all. He rejoices us with the daylight ; he sends us to 
sleep with the dark night. Yet for another reason God made the 
night. He knoweth well that many men are so full of covetousness, 
that might they always see, they would never control themselves (in 
eudeavouring) to beget worldly goods, wherefore God hath created 


ham and bus cweS. Unwraste man wat lacede 3eu an alle mire and enquired 

_ , , . the cause of 

rice J>at 31c hatrede and widerwardnesse ajeues me ye win sceolde. their enmity. 
and to mine fa 3ebugon. Swa ibruce ic mine rice ne scule 31c Not a bite, he 

... , , . . . -. said, should 

mine mete lbite. ac scule ba be hit mid mire lute 3earnede. p& they liave of 

. _, his meat, but 

bis was isegd. ba were cote abruden into besternesse. be hi sturfe should be 

° r r r thrust into 

hunOTe. and se hlaford nam hit him to is frenden and et and darkness j but 

° with his 

dranc and macede hine wel blrSe mid his and ber hi hadden frie ' K]s >>e 

i made merry. 

brad and win. and vii. sandon. IT [N]u gode menn understande^ 

bis bispel. pes king is ure hlaford almihti god be is king ofer This king is 


alle kingen. and hlaford ofer alle hlafordew. S[t]rang he his and God, 
michti. for he 3esceop alle bing of nahte. and na bing ne ma^i 
a3enes his wille. ne him wrSstande. for ban hiwi seigd se witi3e. 
Qui celarum routines tvonos et cetera, pat is. hlaford of mihte be the lord of 

heaven and 

alste hefenen brimsettles. and to neowelnesse be under eorSe earth, 
is be-locest. in. pon 1 . be dunan bu awi^hst eorSe belucst 2 mid >?uppon. 
bina hand ; he is iwiss mihti for ban be non mihte nis butow 2 In- pon c e 

' ' ' dunan eoroe 

fr&?n him. His land is all bes middenard. for he alle 3esceop. belucst teems 

to bean inter- 
and all dihte wrS-ute swince. He us is. king, and sceppend. potojfonofike 

and fader, and hlaford. King for he mid rihtwisnesse diht man 

and engel god and euel. sceppende. for he us machede lichame 

and sawle ableow. feder for he us fett and scred. and forSteh al He is our 

father, for he 

se is cyldren. hlaford for ban be is 3eie and drednesse is ofer feeds and 

' clothes us. 

hus. and [ve\ as] ah to bieiine. He is hure fader, he lenS us his 

eor^e to tolie. he corn to sawe. his eorSe us werp^ corn and His earth 

gives us corn. 

westm. niatt. and dierchin. his loht leoem and lif. his water. His water 

, , i a • l • sr Till- \ • * S ives us drink 

drench and nscynn. his ier maniteald bemnge. his sonne. mone. and fishes. 
sterren. rieu. daw. wind. wude. unitald fultume al bat we habbeS 

of bese feder we habbe^. of 3 warn we alle and us sielbe habbe^. 3 ms. os. 

Mu3e we abet clepeien hine moder wene we. 31c mu3e we. hwat May we also 

de$ si moder hire beain. formes hi hit chete^ and blissrS be be mother? We 

. . . . may. 

hchte. and sebe hi die^ under hire arme *o : Ser his hafed hele^ *[Foi.5~a.] 
to don him slepe. and reste. pis de£ all 3~ure drihte. he blisse^ God sends us 

.,*... r . . to sleep with 

hus mid d3eies 4 licht. h[ej sweueS hus mid biestre nicht. Giet ti;e dark 

for an o^re bing god 3escop ba niht. He wat wel bat man^e <>sic. 

men bie^ sa ful of 3escung. mihti efre isi. Na 3ewold ham selfe. also created^ 

t<) bigeten wrldlic echte. ber for god hafd 3escepe ham reste. man's covet- 



rest for them, though sometimes (it be) against their wish. Moreover, 
he spake a wonderful word to the soul by the prophet Isaiah, Numquid 
potest mulier oblivisci infantem suum ut non misereatur filii uteri sui, 
that is, Is there, beloved ! any mother that can so forget her own child as 
not to have compassion upon the child of her own womb 1 and if she for- 
getteth, yet will I not forget thee, saith the Lord. And since he is Father 
and Lord, he himself hath said by the prophet, Si ego pater ubi est 
honor meus, si dominus ubi est timor meus ; that is, If I am Father, 
where is my honour 1 if I be Lord, where is my awe (fear) 1 There- 
fore, good men, to our King we owe honour, to our Creator all that 
we are, to our Father true love, to our Lord fear. And this is the 
King who will know among all his subjects, who love him and who 
hate him, who is friend and who is foe, and therefore he hath summoned 
all his folk on a certain day, that is, doomsday, that they all finally 
should be there. We said first that these messengers were sent from 
five regions — so they are. These five regions are five laws, because 
God is known through these. The first law is the natural law that 
God first set in the heart of mau, that is, that no man should do unto 
another but what he would that a man should do to him. No man 
possessed of reason is without this law. Messengers of this law were 
Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, and such like good men. Since this earth 
was established (from the first man unto the last that shall be at 
this world's end) there has been no time, nor shall there be, that 
God hath not sent good men to invite his folk to his kingdom. But 
this law was soon corrupted through abominable crimes and manifold 
sins. Thereafter God raised up the law through Moses, the leader of his 
people whom he had then chosen, and he wrote it himself upon tables 
of stone; and it lasted for some time (and thereof were Moses, Aaron, 
Samuel, and many others, teachers and inviters), so long that this 
law also was soon perverted and corrupted, through disobedience, 
until the time came that God sent the holy phophets, and they 
revived by their writings, through the gift of the Holy Ghost, the 
good law, and corrected the folk, as far as they were able, and fore- 
told the coining of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who should 
write his own will in our hearts, through the gift of his Holy Ghost, and 
make us with his might what book-learning could not. And in this 
law of the prophets were many preachers ; but afterwards within a while 

AN B1SPEL. 235 

siime wile hares unbances. 3eiet he cwe^ a minder worder to bar 

sawle bi ba witie ysaiam. potest mulier obliuisci in- The words of 

fanteva suum ut nou misereatur^ii «teri sui. bat is la lief ma3ie 

wimaw foryeten his oge cild. bat hi ne milsi. hire barn of hire 

ogen inno^. and 3ief hi ftn^iet bah hweSer nell ic for^ete J?e cwe^ 

drihtew. be bam be he fader is and laford he him selb cwed be be God is Father 

. .... and Lord > 

witie. Si ego pater ubi est honor mens, si rfominus ubi est timor 

meus. bat is. gif ic fader ham. wer his mi mawscipe. sif ic. hlaford wherefore we 

owe him our 

wer his 1 mine aseie? ber fore. G. m. ure king. Ave ose^ wrhmint. Jove, fear, 

J ' and honour. 

hur sceappend al bat we bie^. ure fader so^e lufe. ur hlaford ' ms. hss. 

drednesse. And bis is seo king be wile wite an alle his under- 

beode wa hine lufeft and hwa hine hate^. hwa him is frend 

o^er fend. And ber for he ha^ 3ela¥ed alle fol[c]. to ane d3eie. bat OnDoomsday 

God will take 

is domes dseie. bat hi alle ber beon be be latst. hwe seden serst bat note of friends 

J ' r ' ' and foes. 

bes aerndraces wer isent of fif che^en. swa ibeo^. bas fif che^en The five 
beo^ fif lagan, for ban be god is burh besen 3ecnowe. Si forme denote five 


lage bat is si 3ecende lage. be god sett formest an bes mawnes The natural 
heorte. bat is bat non man ne don o^ere. buton bat be he wolde hearts. 
bat me ded him Wi^-ute beser lage nis man be 3escod habbe. 
/Erndraces of bisser lage wer 2 abel. Seth. enoc. N6e. and swice 2 ms. ber. 
gode man. Se¥e bes midcZenard was 3estabeled fram ba forme 
man to ba latst be wrS et bes wrldes ende. nas tid ne tyme ne ne 
wrS. bat god ne send gode msenn his folc forte 3ela%ie to his rice. 
Ac si lage sone adiligde. burh unwreaste leahtrum and manifald This law 

became cor- 

senne. per efter arerde god bas lage burh moysen be heretoche ril Pte<i, then 
of his folce be he ba secas. and wrate his him self in stanene Mosaic law, 

> > J which in its 

wax bredene. and si 3eleste sume wile, and ber of were larbawes |,o™ u b tg^ me 
and 3ela : 5ieres Moises and aaron. and samuel. and fele o^re. 
Swa lage 3 bat si alswa swrS abrea^. and adi^ede. burh unhersam- 3 or lange. 
nesse. wat hit com to ba time be god sende be halie witi3e. and ^iseiHhe* 8 
hi ba arerdon mid hare write burh bes halie gastes gife ba god osaic aw ' 
lage. and rihtleceden bat folc swase hi mihtew. and bodeden ures 
hlafordes to-cyme ses helendes ihesu cristes. be sceolde his a3en and foretold 

the coming of 

wille. burh his gastes 3ife in ure heorte write, and don us mid Christ, 
his mihte bat stef creft ne mihte. and an besser la^e of be within, 
wer la^ieres mcche. Eft bine fecc and bes lare and lage swrSc 


this lure and law greatly cooled through manifold sins, and frequently 
through false gods that each nation made for itself, some of gold, 
some of silver, of wood, and of stone, and turned God's praise and 
honour from the Creator to the creature, so that when our Saviour 
was born of the unspotted maiden Saint Mary, all the earth Avas 
possessed with sin, and all folk went into the devil's mouth, except 
a very few from whom his dear mother was descended. He then restored 
all goodness and set (established) his holy laws, and gave them moreover 
might and strength, through the gift of his Holy Ghost, to fulfil his 
behests and to follow no other laws. And understand how. Three cor- 
ruptions were in mankind ere the advent of Christ. Our birth was 
foul, our life was wretched, and our death horrible. He came and 
brought instead (in opposition) three things. He was born of the pure 
maid, who ever remained a virgin ; his life was holy, and his death full 
of mercy. His pure birth cleansed our foul birth, his holy life set 
right our unholy life, his meek death overcame and destroyed alike 
our sorrow and death. This is the fourth law, and in this were 
messengers and preachers, the apostles and the disciples ; aud after our 
Saviour's ascension into heaven, the apostles and their younglings (dis- 
ciples) ; and after them came holy men and the head men (prelates) that 
are now in holy church, and shall be until doomsday. Through the 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, and as our Saviour instructed them, they (the 
apostles) taught the people many things for their advantage. And 
this is the fifth law. In this are messengers and inviters, that is, 
archbishops, bishops, priests, and their company. But though we 
name five it is all (one) in God's will, and each of them raiseth up and 
perfects the others. Of these five kinds, and of their apostles, we have 
(already) spoken to you ; of the folk, we say that they come constantly 
from the beginning of the world (for as many as are dead so many are 
come to the city), whether friend or foe, and each day thickly press 
on. But if ye have understood what we before said to you, at the 
gate they are discerned and there they are separated. The gate is each 
man's dying day, when he steps out of this life into the other. But 
we also told you that if he were a friend he should receive his morn- 
ing-meat, so that the better he might await the greater meat. So 
is it here. When the good man, that hath followed God's love, 
cometh to his end, assuredly, without delay, there come the holy 


acolede burh manifead fenne 1 . and hur and hur burh false godes > wad senne. 

be selc biode ham selfe macede. sume of golde. sum of silure. of 

treowe. of stane. and awente godes lof and wrhminte fram be 

sceappende to bare 3esceafte. swa bat ba ure halende wes accenned At the time 

of bam unwe?»mede niede sante Marie, al se middewnard was birth a " tlie 
' world was 

mid serine begripe. and al folc 3ede \n to bes diefles mu^e. butow smitten with 
wel feawe of warn his lefe moder wes istriened. he ba arerd alle Christ 

restored all 

godnisse. and sette his halie lage. and bat be more his. 3iaf miht goodness. 
and strewcbe burl 2 be gief of his gaste his hesne to fulfor^ie. ]>at 2 ? burh. 
non o^re lase ne mihte. and understande^ hwu. pri ampres There cor- 

ruptions of 

were an rnancyn ser his to-cyme. Ure acenneng wes ful. un 3 mankind. 

lif unwreast. ur deaft grislic. he com and brochte bri bin[g] ber 

a;en. he wes acende of be clene mede. be efer burh lefede mede. 

his lif was halne. his dea^ ful of milce. his clene acennende How healed 

.... °y ( ' lir >st. 

clewsede ure rale acenne?tde. his hali lif rihtlecede ure unwreaste 

lif. his admoded dea^ ofer com. and fordede ure soi^e ami 3elice 

dea^. bis is * si fierSe lage. An bisser were a?rndraces and 3ela : Sieres The messen- 
gers of the 
ba aposdes and be leornmchihtes. ber efter ures helendes upst^e fourth law. 

to heuene. ba aposdes and hare iunglenges be[r] efter coirie halie 

men and be hafedmen be nu beoft in halie cyrce. and wrSe^ of 4 < ? S. 

domes de^e. burh bes hali gastes 3ife. and al swa ure helende ham 

leorde. marii3e bing ehten ba folce to freme. and bis is si fifte The messen- 

lage. An bisser beo^ bedeles and la^ieres to berie archebisco/>es. fifth law. 

and biscopes. prestes. and hare 3egeng. Ac bah we fif nsemmie. Tiiese five are 

alle hit on godes wille. and elc of ham 3estren : S and fulfellb o^re. God's pur. 


Of beses fif ceben and of hare bedeles we habbe^ 3eu 3esed. Of 

be folce we sigge^ bat hit cu?/ib fastlice. fram middenardes anginn 

alse fele alse deade beo^ alse fele beo^ to berie ic5me. wat frend. 

wat fa. and elce de3ie bicce bringe^. Ac 3ief 3(3 habbe£ under- At the gate 
.. . . *' ie f° es are 

stande bat we 3m er sede. eter gate me his scyft. and ber me hi distinguished 

to 3esceode : 6. Si gate bat is elces mannes endede'e. bat he step^ friends. 

The gate is 

ut of bese life into ban o&re 5 . Ac we sede 3ehw. bat 3ief he frend tlie d »y of 

' ' each man's 

were me sceolde sief h\m his mcr:e mete bat he be bet mihte death - 

3 5 MS.dd*bre. 

abide bane more mete. Swa hit is here, bat se gode man be godes Angels come 

. ... . for the soul 

lufe haft 3efolged to is ende cu?nb. witethce wro-ut m'antruce ber of the 


eumcft be hali engles hvm to. and jef lia^S ante uniwasse nVr hit 


angels unto him, and if he hath aught unwashen, either it shall be 
washed in the death-pain in which he here suffers, or after (death) 
with a slight delay, and then the soul is led to the festive hall ; that 
is, the morning-meat, the bliss that he hath in the soul ; for ye know well 
that no holy man hath his perfect bliss ere he receive again his body at 
doomsday, that shall be the perfect meat when the man with soul and 
body shall receive the assurance of eternal bliss. And what happeneth if 
it is an enemy that cometh to the gate 1 May God, through his great 
mercy, let us never experience what it is. But, nevertheless, if he 
is an enemy, wretched man ! there shall be at hand only the accursed 
ghosts who shall roughly receive him with stern blows. As many 
vices and sins as he had upon him, so many fiends shall he there 
meet to receive him and to put him into darkness ; again on doomsday 
shall all God's enemies be cut off together from his sight, and they 
shall receive then* reward that long shall last. Thus hath it been, 
and is, and shall be until doomsday. But when it cometh to pass 
that the Lord on the great day shall come to see both friends and 
foes, then shall come all his subjects before him, where he sitteth 
with his beloved company, with nine orders of angels, with the unspotted 
maiden his mother, with his apostles, with the high fathers (patriarchs), 
and the holy prophets, with martyrs, with holy confessors, with holy 
maidens, with all those that, for his love, cast aside the goods of this 
world and lawfully serve him here. What awe and what dread shall there 
be when the fire comes before him that shall burn the earth; when all 
the earth shall quake; when the stars shall fall; when the sun and moon 
shall darken before God's brightness; when the welkin shall vanish, and 
when the sign of the holy rood (cross), with the spear and with the nails, 
shall be brought forth by the angels ! When the angels shall quake, 
and the righteous shall sore dread, what shall the sinful do who 
shall see there his righteous judge, whom none may contradict nor 
deceive ? He himself is witness and judge. What shall the wretch 
do who seeth above him his Lord whom he hath displeased, and under 
him hell's mouth open, about him all folk, and himself openly con- 
victed of various sins. No friend may there help another ; each shall 
have enough to do for himself. Then shall God Almighty say unto 
them, the guilty men, "Ye sinned in your eternity, and ye shall 
burn in my eternity. Ye sinned as long as ye lived, and ye shall 


wrS 3ewasse i]>er pine of be deaSe be he her bahrS. oSer efter 

mid e^elice lette. and ban lat me ba sawle to merchestowe. bat and take it 

' ' to the mirth- 

his se mor3emete si blisse be he haS an bar sawle. bat wite 3e stead. 

wel. nan halege na^ his fulle blisse er he underfo adomes deie his 

licame. bat wr? se fulle mete, ban se mann mid sawle and mid The full meat 

' ' is the assur- 

licame underfangS sicernesse of ecer blisse. And wat beliwnrS a " ceo f u ,. 

° * eternal bliss. 

hit jief he fend his be to bare gate cumb 1 God burh his mucele 
milce ne letes us nefer fandie. Ac nabeles 3ief he fend his an 
unwreast mann ber beoS ami jeredie. be weregede gastes be hine 
uniredlice underfange^ min stiarne swupen. Alse fele unbeawes Devils shall 

° l ' meet the 

alse hade upe him and sennenn. al swa fendes he ber 3emet. hine simier aiid 

to underfo. and to don hine into biesternesse. oft a domes d3ei iut0 darkness - 

alle godes fend simle fram his 3esec : Se abroden bienn. and hi to 

hare lean ha?/i be lange seel 3eleste. pus hit lia^ ibi and is. and 

wrS oft domesdei. Ac banwe hit ber to cumb bat se hlaford a be On Doomsday 

' ' ' ' all shall come 

mucele deie. cumb forte isi and frend and fend, bann cumb all before God - 

his underbiede him to-fore, ber he sit mid his derewrbe 3efered 

mid ni3en anglene had. mid ber unwemmed meide his moder. 

mid his aposden. mid ba hagefaderen. and bo hali3e witien. mid 

martiren. mi[d] hali confessorcn mid halie meiden. mid al ban be 

ber midenaixle for his lufe werpe^ abec. and lagelice her him 

benift. wic 3eie. wic drednesse wurS ber. ban bat fer to for him 

abenrS bat middernad 1 . ban si eor^e alle cwaced ban be sterren 'sic. 

failed, si sunne and se mone abestre^ for godes brictnesse. be shaVfaii^the 

wlcne to ga^. and si hali rode tacne mid be spere and mid be m00 n shall 

neiles burh angles beo^ forS ibrocht. baime be angles cwacia¥. and God's bright- 
to richtwise ham adrede^. wat sceol se senfulle don. be lsecg^ 

ber his richtwise deme. be non ne maie bechece. non beswice. he 

his him selb witnisse and deme. Wat sceol se wrecce don. be 

bufon isef& his hlaford be he 3egremed afe^. under him helle 

mu$ open, abuuten him all folc. hiwa selfe bi sawdlice senne 

beswapen. ber ne mai nwi frend o^re helpe. selc had innoh to 

donne an him selfe. pan seied ham god be gelty mannen ze Gods word 

y & _ r ° J _ ^ . J to the wicked. 

sene3eden. an 3eur ecenesse. and 3e scule *birne an mire ecenisse. *[Foi. 58a.] 
3e sene3den alse lange alse 36 lefede and }e scule birne alse lowge 
as ic lefie. Wite^ into ece fer. be is 3searced mine fo and his 


burn as long as I live. Depart into eternal fire, which is prepared 
for my foes and their fellows." Immediately they shall depart from 
his sight, and then at once shall the Lord go with his friends to 
his meat, that is, to his pleasures, as is said in holy writ, Delicie mece 
sunt esse cum filiis hominum, that is, " My delights are to dwell 
with the sons of men." But we said to you a little before that 
they should have good bread and wine, and seven dishes ; they shall 
have the bread spoken of in the Gospel. Ego sum pcmis vivus qui 
de coelo descmdit, that is, " I am the living bread that descended from 
heaven," saith our Lord ; " he who eateth of this bread shall never 
die." This bread was made of a grain of wheat, as he also said 
in the Gospel, Nisi granum Jrumenti, et cetera. This corn was sown 
through the angel's mouth into the ear of the Virgin Mary, in the 
city of Nazareth. This corn came first in Bethlehem, that speaks 
to us of bread ; it waxed and flowered in Judsea, and it ripened 
in Jerusalem, and the wicked folk, the Jews, reaped it, and placed 
it on the cross also, as between two millstones. It was after- 
wards put into the tomb as into an oven. Thence it was brought 
up into heaven to the high Lord's table, where it feedeth angels 
and mankind for ever, and this is their bread. Where shall we find 
the wine 1 Even as he said, Ego sum vitis vera, et cetera. 



f\ar lord (master) Saint Paul, who is teacher of the Gentiles, reminds 
" and informs us of certain weapons to be wielded, thus saying, 
Induite vos armatura dei. No man taketh up a weapon except 
to fight therewith, and no one fighteth except with his enemies. Let 
us now see what are the foes, and what weapQns we shall use against 
them. Each Christian man, so soon as he steppeth out of the font, 
where he is baptized of his sins, maketh to himself three foes ; for 
it is written, Nemo potest duobus dominis servire — No man can serve 
two masters who are at enmity together. These three foes are — the 


3egen[g] Son hi wrSe^ abroden of his 3esecbe. And ban sone 1 ' ms. fone. 

ge^ se hlaford mid his frenden to his mete. bat his to is esten. 

be sei^ an ban hali write Delicie niee sunt esse cum filiis ho\\\\- 

num. bat is. Mine esten beoS wunian mid mannen bearnen. Ac God * s P ,ea - 

' sure is to 

we [habbe^ 3e-] sed 31U litl her bat hi sceoldew abbew god brad and dwe11 with 
uin. and vii. souden. hi sculen habe bat brad be sei^ ibe godspel. men - 
Eqo suva. panis uiuus mii de celo (/escendit. pet is. Ic am cwuce Cm ' ist is the 

<J 1 *■ ' living bread. 

bread be astah fram hefene. se3 : 5 ure helende. Se be of bese 
brad ett. ne sterfeft he nefer. pis bread was imaced of ane 
hwete corne. al swa se he cwe^ yvSe godspelle. Nisi gi'&num 
frumenti. et cetera, bis corn was 3esawen burh bes aengles mu? 
into ^es meidenes sere Marie, in bare burh of nazareth. bis corn 
com 2 ferst irme bethleem. bat cwe$ us of breade. hit wex and 2 Ms - con - 


bleowu. in iudea. hit ripede in ierasalem. Iudas and bat leo^re reminds us of 

1 _ ' bread. 

folc hit repen. and deden hit an bar rode alswa also betwenen 
mclstanent. Sede hit was idon into ber berien. alswa into hofne. 
banen hit was ibroht up into heofene to bes hahes hlafordes This living 

' l ' bread is on 

horde, ber hit fet. and envies, and mancinn in ecenisse. and bis tlie Ug h 

' ° ' Lord's table. 

is hare bread, hwcr sculc we win finden 1 Al swa se he cwe^. Christ is the 

true vine. 

Ego sum ultis uera. et cetera. 




r hlaford sanctes paulus be is beoden lareaw. us maneS [Foi. 586.] 

and mene3e$ of sume wepne to uemene bus cwe^ende. of the 

• . , weapons of 

Induite uos armatuxa dei. rl an man ne nenro wepne buto to the christian 

fihten mide. ne nawman ne fiht buton wrS his ifomenn. Ute we 

nu isi wice bio^ ure ifo. and wice wepne we scule nemen a3enes 

ham. JE\c cristen man anon se steps up of 3 be funte wer he 3 ms. os. 

ifulled his. ipicches he mace^ him bri ifon. for ban be hit is Each Chris- 

tian man hath 

iwrite. Nemo potest duobus dorainis seruire. Nan ne mai twan three foes- 
hlaford c be wransehte bien samod bowie. bas pri ifon be^. Se 



devil and his host, the second is this earth, the third is very near 
the Christian man, that is, his own flesh. These three, like three 
robbers, fight against each believing man as long as we wander in 
the wilderness of this world. Therefore said the holy Job, Militia 
est vita hominis super terrain — Knightship is man's life upon earth. 
In the Devil's school, his host of accursed spirits and sins and 
abominable crimes fight against us. In this earth's school (army) are 
both prosperity and misfortune. In the flesh's school are evil thoughts 
and foul lusts. Of the first speaketh St. Paul, Non est nobis coluctatio 
adversus carnem et sanguinem, et cetera. Of the second speaks St. John 
the Evangelist, saying, Nolite diligere mundum nee ea que in mundo 
sunt. Of the third speaks St. Paul, Caro concupiscit adversus spiritum. 
Strong are these foes and treacherous, so that with them we may 
not make peace nor fellowship ; either they overcome us, or we them. 
If they overcome us, they take from us neither gold nor silver, but 
our bane (death). If we overcome them, we shall all be praised as 
good soldiers, and be rewarded with a high reward. But he who 
goeth to fight without a leader may soon come to mishap. ; Let us now r 
see who shall be our leader, and afterwards what shall be our weapons. 
Our leader is the Holy Ghost, and our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath 
said, Sine me nihil potestis facere. Thou oughtest to have eight kinds 
of weapons, which are, shield, helmet, habevgeon, sword, spear, steed, 
two spurs, and a smart staff. What shall be our shield, St. Paul 
thus tells us, In omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, in quo 2)0ssitis om- 
nia tela nequissimi ir/nea extinguere. 



Tyrant appropinqxantes, et cetera. The holy Gospel saith to us 

that lepers and sinful men approached the Saviour and desired 

to hear his doctrine. Then the Pharisees and the Scribes of the .Jewish 


forme is se deofel. and his i&'eng. Se crSer bes middennard. Se the world, the 

6 6 > tiesli, and tlie 

bridde is wel nieh be c/'isten men. \>at is his a3on flesc. pas bri deviL 

fihte^ agen elcen ileafml man alse longe se we rSese westen of 

besser woruld wandrrS. alse bri reaferes. per for sede se hali ^^y are Iilie 

' ' * robbers. 

iob. Milicia est ztita /iominis super terrain. Cnihtscipe is mannes (i) the devil's 

i.« T . ^ school, 

hi upen eorSe. In bes deofles heriscole fihte^ agen us his iferred (2j the world's 


3ewerged gastes. and unbeawes. and unwraste lahtres. In bes (3) the flesh's 

middencardes iscole. sePSen and uniseFSen. In bes flesces iscole. 

euel 3ebanc and fule lustes. Of be formen seie^ sanctus paulws. 

A r on est nobis coluctatio aduersus carneni et sanguinem. et cetei'a. 

Of ban o^ren cweft sanctus Johannes se godspellere. kuii 1 . Nolite 'fkuef&nde. 

dUigere raundum nee ea qne in mundo sunt. Of be bridde que& 

sanctus pau^ws. Caro concupiscit aduersus spiritum. S[t]range Our foes are 

strong and 

bie^ bes ifo. and swice wK warn we ne mu3e gri^ ne sihhe macie. treacherous. 

o^er hi ofer cume^ us o^er we him. Gif hi us ofercume^ ne if we over- 
come them 

ceped hi of hus gold ne selfer bute ure bane. Gif we ofercumed w « sllil " 1,e 

regarded as 

heom. we scule hien imersed alle gode cerapen ami imeaded s° od soldiers, 
mid heahere mede. Ac se be ge^ into fihte wi^-ute heretoche. 
him mai sone mislimpe. Vte we nu isi wa seel beon ur here- 
toche. and se^e wice ure wepne bie?i scullle. Ur heretoche is se Our leaders 

1 J are the 1 hily 

haligost. and ure laford ihesu crist be ser8. Sine me nichil Ghost and 

' Jesus Christ. 

/>otestis facere. pu ahst to habben elite wepnecin. ba beo% Hght 

sceold. helm and brenie. swrd and spere. Stede and twei sporen. necessary to 

carry on this 

and ane smearte 3erd. Hwic scule beon ure sceld. sanctus warfare. 
paulus hus ser5. In omnibus sumentes smtum Juki, in quo 
possvtfe omnia tela neqvissxmi [tgnea] actinguere. 



T^lrant apprnpinquantes. et cetera, bet hali godspell us ser6. [F" '- 5 '*.] 
L J bat hi-refen oww^synbulle 2 men 3eneahlehton ban helende. *j™f™ ^ 
and woldan his lare jehiran. pa cearodon ba sunder hal^an and 

sired to hear 

Christ's hire ; 

2 So in MS. 

244 soui/s WARD. 

people were grieved, because the Saviour received the sinful and had 
fellowship with them. Then spake the Saviour to the Pharisees and 
Scribes this parable, Which of you having a hundred sheep, if he lose 
one of the sheep, does not leave the nine and ninety in the wilder- 
ness, and goes seeking the one that is lost 1 If he findeth it he 
beareth it on his shoulders to the flock, or the fold, rejoicing. When 
he cometh home, he inviteth his friends and neighbours unto him, 
and saith, Kejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which I lost. 
I say unto you greater joy is in heaven for one sinner if he be sorry 
for his sins with amendment, than fur the ninety and nine righteous 
that need no repentance. 



Qfi sciret paterfamilias qua hora fur venturus esset ; vigilaret utique 
et non sineret perfodi domum mam. Our Lord, in the Gospel, 
teaches us through a parable how we ought warily (cautiously) to 
guard ourselves against the devil of hell, and from his devices. " If 
the lord (master) knew," he saith, " when and what time the thief 
would come to his house, he would watch, nor would he suffer the 
thief to break into it." This house which our Lord speaketh of is 
man's self within ; the man's wit within this house is the house-lord 
(master of the house), and the untoward wife may be called Will. 
Should the house go after her (obey her) she bringeth it all to ruin, 
except Wit, as lord, chastise her for the better, and deprive her of 
much of what she would. And yet would all her household follow 
her everywhere if Wit forbad them not ; for all these are untoward 
and reckless servants, unless he directs them. And what are those 
servants 1 Some are without, and some within. Those within are 
the man's five wits — sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, and the feeling 
of each limb. These arc the servants under Wit, as under the house- 


ba boceras ber he^en beode. for San be se lielende under-feng ba " nd the 

sinfullan. and ham mid imone hafede. Da sede se helende ba Pharisees 

* > were angry 

sunder hahe and ba bocere bis bispell. Hwilc eower hefS an Wlthjesus - 

J > r i The parable 

bu[n]dred seeap. Gif be fo[r]list an bara sceape. la hune forlet of the Lost 
he ne3on and bun neo5ontie a westene and geS secende bat an be 
him losede 1 Gif be hit ban jemet. he bit bei-$ an his eaxlun to 
bara eowde. oder falde blissiende. pan he ham cynrS he ijela^eS 
his frend and nichi-bures \\bn to and cweS. BlissiaS mid me 

fo[r]ban be ic imete mi sceap be me losede. Ic sege eow bat Greater joy 

mare blisse biS an hefene be anun synfulle man. sif be his over one 

J J repentant 

svunen mid dedbote bereuseS. ban him si be nitron and bund S!n,| er_than 

J > ~ over ninety 

negontie rihtwisen be ne beofiaS nanre ded bote. ^d^r^*** 





i sciret paterfamilias gua horafu/r uentwrus essetf vigilarct 

i'/i'/uo el non sineret perfodi domum suam. Uyq lauerd Our Lord 

teaches us 

i be erodspel teachefc us burh abisne. hu we alien wearlicbe to how to guard 

r o i ' ourselves 

biwiten us seolueu wrS be unwiht of helle. ant wi? his wrenches 1 . a ^j? 8t the 
3ef bes lauerd 2 wiste he serS. hwenne ant hwuch 3 time, be beof > sis. wern- 
walde cume to his bus i he walde wakien. ne nalde he nawt if the master 

• v,. -v i v of tne house 

Hien be beof forte breoken hire, pis bus be ure lauerd spekeft knew when 
' > ... the thief were 

of '. is seolf be mon inwrS be monnes wit. I bis hus. is be huse coming, he 

' would ever he 

lauerd. ant te fulitohe wiff mei beon wil ibaten. bat ga be bus on the watch. 

. The house is 

efter hire f ha diht bit al to wundre. bute wit ase lauerd chasti man's wit 

(conscience) ; 
hire be betere. ant hi neome hire much el of 4 bat ha walde. ant the wife is 

' ' will. 

tab walde al hire bird folhin hire ouer al f gef wit ne forbude 2 J-ehuse- 

. , „ honde. 

ham. for alle hit? hecrS untobene. ant rechelese hinen \ bute 2ef „ 3 ihwuch. 

4 ofte of. 

he ham rihte. Ant hwuccbe beoS beos hinen '. Suvnme beoS \rv6 The servants 

under her are 

vten. ant su?/ime wrS in nen. beo° wrS vten beoS. be monnes fif reckless. 

These hinds 

wittes. SihSe. ant henmjre. smechunge. ant smeallunp-e. ant areounive 

° wits. 

euch limes felunge. beos beoS hinen vnder wit. as under huse 5 ha. 

° Y « peos. 

* Bodleian MS. 34, collated with Royal MP. 17 A. 27. 

246 soui/s WARD. 

lord ; and wheresoever he is negligent, there is none of them 
but what often conduct themselves untowardly, and trespass often, 
either in foolish cheer or in evil deeds. Within are his servants in 
so many divers thoughts to please well the house-wife against God's 
will ; and they swear together readily that they will do after her 
will. Though we hear it not, we may feel their murmuring and their 
untoward noise until Wit comes forth and, both with awe (fear) and 
love, has disciplined them for the better. Never is his house well guarded 
on account of these hinds, when that he is asleep or goeth anywhere 
from home (that is, when man forgetteth his wit) and letteth them be 
together. But it behoveth not that this house be robbed, for there 
is therein the treasure that God gave himself for, that is, man's soul. 
For to break this house after (for the sake of) this treasure, that God 
bought with his death, and for which he gave up his life on the cross, there 
is many a thief about, both by day and by night, invisible ghosts with 
all wicked devices ; and against each good virtue that guardeth God's 
dear chattel in this house under Wit's direction, who is the houselord, 
there is ever its (opposite) vice that seeketh entrance about the walls to 
murder it (the soul) therein. The head thereof is the fiend (devil) that 
heads (is master of) them all against him and his keys. The husband, 
that is, Wit, guardeth his house thus : — Our Lord hath given him 
four of his daughters, which are, to wit, the four cardinal virtues. 
The first is called Prudence, and the second is called Spiritual Strength, 
and the third is Moderation. Eighteousness is the fourth. Wit, the 
husband, God's constable, calleth Prudence forth, and maketh her door- 
keeper, so that she should warily take heed whom she lets in and out, 
and that she may behold afar off all that are coming, those that are 
worthy to have entrance, or to be excluded. Strength stands next her ; 
so that if any will come in without the consent of Prudence (Prudence 
being unwilling), Strength, that is her sister, may be warned thereof 
and turn them out. The third sister is Moderation ; he (Wit) maketh 
her mistress over his wilful household, of which we have pi'eviously 
spoken, so that she may teach them moderation, which is also called 
measure, the meau between two evils (or things) ; for in every place it is 
a virtue to observe moderation ; and she cautioneth them all that none 
disobey her anywhere through excess or intemperance, nor go beyond 
moderation. The fourth sister, Righteousness (equity), sitteth highest 
as judge, and beateth those that offend, and crowneth those that do 
well, mid doometh each one his doom according to his deserts. For 


lauerd. ant hwer. se he is 3emeles \ nis hare nan be ne feared 
ofte untoheliche. ant gulte^ ilome. o^er ifol semblant '. oder in 

vuel dede. In wrS beo^ his hinen. in se moni mislich bone to These hinds 

. . S8eli to please 

cwemen wel be husewiff a3ein godes wide, ant swerie% soniet thehouse- 

rea¥liche. bat efter hire hit schal * gan. bah Ave hit ne here nawt '. * [ Fo1 - 76v°.] 

we 1 mahen ifelen 2 hare nurlr^ 3 . ant hare untohe here, a bet hit 4 ' omitted - 

r 2MS.ibplen. 

cume for& ant ba wrS eie. ant \vr6 luue tuhte ham be betere. 3 mur^. 


Ne bi$5 neau^/ 1 his 1ms for beos hinen wel iwist. for hwon bat he They are not 

' ' to be tri^ted 

slepe. o&er ohwider 5 fi-om hame. bat is hwen mon foi^et his wit. bytheniaster. 

5 ohwider 

ant let ham iwurSen. ah ne bihoue^ hit nawt. bat tis hus beo fare - 

irobbet. for ber is inue be tre[sur] bat godd 3ef him seolf fore, bat in this house 

is monnes sawle. forte breoke bis hus efter bis tresor. bat godd God ' s trea - 
bohte mid his dea¥. ant lette lif o rode : is moni beof a buten 
ba bi dei ant bi nibt. vnseheliche gasttes wi^ alle unwreaste 

beawes. ami aaein euch god beaw. be biwite^S ibis hus godes deore vice seeks 

r _ r entrance to 

castel 6 . vnder wittes wissunge bat is huse lauerd. is eauer hire murder the 

° ' soul. 

unbeaw forte sechen in 3ong abute be wahes to a murSrin hire 6 chatei. 

brinne. bat beaued brof is be feont. be meistre^S ham alle aseines Tiieheadof 

tliese enemies 

him ant his keis. be husebonde bat is wit. warned his hus bus. ^ the devil - 
\re lau'-z-d haue^ ileanett him froure 7 of his dehtren. bat beo^ to r fowre. 

vnderstonden be fowr beaued beawes. be earste is warscbipe Four cardinal 

virtues guard 

icleopet. ant te ober is ihaten gastelich streng^e. ant te bridde is this treasure, 

mea^. rihtwisnesse be feor$5e. Wit be husbonde godes cunestable P rud f nceis 

' > ° door-keeper. 

I'liupe^ war*schipe for¥>. ant makrS hire durewart. be war- * [Foi. 77r°.] 
licbe loki hwam ha leote in ant ut. ant of feor bihalde alle be 
cuminde. hwuch beo wurSe in3ong to habben I cfSer beon bistek- 

en brute. StrengSe stont nest hire, bat 3ef ei wide in '. war- strength 

stands next. 

8chipes 8 vn bonkes. warni streng^e fore, bat is hire suster f ant 8 0mitt ed. 

beo hit ut warpe. be bridde suster bat is mea& hire he make^ The thir(I is 

1 ' ' ' Moderation. 

meistre oner his willesfule hirS 9 bat we ear of speken. bat ha 9 hinen. 

leare ham mete 10 , bat me 11 meosure hat. be middel of twa uueles 12 . n omitted. 

for bat is beaw in euch stude ant tuht forte halden. ant hate35 

ham alle bat nan of ham a3ein hire f nohwer wid vnmeo^ f ne ga 

oner mete, be feorSe suster rihtwisnesse. sit on 13 best as deme 14 . The fourth is 

' Equity. 

ami beatc^S beo be a3iilte¥. ant crunch beo be wel do¥. ami 
demeft euchan his dom efter his rihte. for dirt 1 '' of hire nim< ^ his 16 "^ 8d ' 

16 PIS. 

13 horn. 

14 demere, 

248 soui/s WARD. 

dread of her, this household, each according to what he is, keepeth 
watch and ward — the eyes theirs, the mouth its, the ears theirs, the 
hands theirs, and each of the other wits, so that anent them no 
vice shall come in. When this is thus done and all is still therein, 
Prudence, that is ever vigilant, is afraid lest some prove unfaithful 
and fall asleep and neglect to keep watch, and she sendeth them in 
a messenger, whom she knows well, come from afar, for to frighten 
those that are over hardy (confident) and those that are negligent 
(reckless), and to keep them more vigilant. He is received in and 
quickly beheld by them all ; for he is lank and lean, and his coun- 
tenance is deathly and black and livid, and each hair appeal's to 
stand erect upon his head. Prudence bids him tell before (them) 
who he is, and whence he has come, and what he seeks there. " I may 
not speak anywhere," he says, " unless I have good audience ; therefore 
listen to me. I am called Fear, and am the messenger of death, and 
reminder of death, and I am come before her to warn you of her 
coming." Prudence, that knows best how to beset her words and also 
her works, speaketh for them all and asketh whence she shall come 
and what company she brings with her. Fear answers her, " I know 
not the time, for she told it me not ; but ever be watching when (she 
shall come), for her custom is to come by stealth, suddenly and un- 
expectedly, when one least expects. Of her household, concerning 
which thou makest enquiry, I will answer : she alighteth wheresoever 
she comes with a thousand devils, and each one bears a great book 
all written over with sins, with small black letters, and an immense fiery 
gleed-red chain for to bind and to draw into the midst of hell whom- 
soever he may prove guilty through his book, in which is described 
each sin that he hath wrought with will, or with word, or with 
work, in all his lifetime, except he have previously repented of it with 
true shrift and amendment." And Prudence asketh him, "Whence 
comest thou, Fear, admonition (reminder) of death 1 ?" "I come," he 
saith, "from hell." " From hell," saith Prudence; "and hast thou seen 
hell ?" "Yea, truly," saith Fear, "often and frequently." "Now then," 
saith Prudence, "upon thy troth tell us truly what hell is like, and 
what thou hast seen therein." "And I will, blithely," saith Fear, "upon 
my troth ; nevertheless, not according as it really is, for no tongue 
may tell that, but as far as I may and can I will discourse thereof. 


hir^S euch 1 efter bat he is warde to 2 witene 3 . be elmen bare, be muS Each watch 

' ' baa Ins proper 

his. be earen hare, be hondon hare, ant euch 4 alswa 5 of be obre duties. 

r r A . . ' omitted. 

\vit c bat onont him ne schal nan un-beaw cuinen iN. As bis is * 3 omitted. 

' ' i ■> euclian. 

ido bus. ant is al stille brinne i warschipe bat aa is waker is 6 5 al »"? as - 
offearet lest sum for truste him. ant feole o slepe. ant forseme his Prudence 

sends a mes. 

warde. ant send ham. in a sonde, bat ha wel cnaweS. of feorren sengertothe 

' house to 

icumen. forte offeareu beo be beoS * ouer hardi. ant beo be 3eme- " i ° Q us t e lts 

lese beo^t balden ham wakere. he is underuoii in. ant swi^e *|Foi.77v°.] 

bihaldeu of ham alle. for lone he is. ant leane 7 . ant his leor from afar, 

dea^lich. ant blac ant elheowet. amit euch her bunched bat to behold, 

stout in his heaued up 8 f warschipe hat him tellen 9 biuoren. 10 hwet been erased 

bcfoiv leane. 

he beo ant hweonene be comme ant hwet be ber seche. JS e * euh er in 

his heauet 

mei icb he ser8. nohwer speoken. bute icb habbe god lust f punched bat 
lustnrS me benne. fearlac icb batte. ant am dea^es sonde, ant B to telle. 

..... 10 hiuoren 

deaSes munegunge ant am icumen bmore hire to warnm ow of ham. 
hire cume. warschipe bat best con bisetten hire wordes. ant ec Fear, the 6 
hire werkes i spekeS for bam alle. ant freineS hweonene he Death." 
cume. out bwuch bird ha leade. fearlac hire ontswereS. Icb nat 
nawt be time i for ha ne seide hit me nawt ah eauer loki¥ Death, he 

' Bays, is com- 

hwenne. for hire wune is to cumen hi stale ferliche ant un- ing suddenly, 

mundlunge hwen me least weneS. of hire bird bat tu easkest 

Ich be ondswerie. ha lihtefcS hwer Be ha eauer kimeS wis a busent withathou- 

sa;/d devils, 

deoflen. ant euch an bereS a gret hoc al of sunnen iwriten wrS 

swarte smeale leattres. ant an unrude raketehe gled read of fure. ^^^^^ 

forte binden ant to drahen in to in warde belle, bwuch se he 

mei preoouin burh his hoc bat is on euch sunne enbre*uedt n . bat * [F n >-78r°.] 

he wiS wil. o^er wrS word, o^er wrS were, wrahtte in al his lif 

srSe. bute bat he haueS i-bet earbon wi$ soS schrift. ant wrS 12 12 cger. 

deadbote. ant warschipe hire easkeS. Hweonene 13 cumest tu 14 13 hweonne. 

1 . u MS. to. 

fearlac dea^es 15 munegunge. Ich cume he sev6 of belle. Of belle Fear says he 

ha seiS warschipe. ant hauest tu isehen belle I %e serS fearlac beiL 
witerliche. ofte. ant ilome. Nu ser5 benne warschipe for bi ** es ' 

troupe treoweliche tele us bwuch is belle, ant hwet tu hauest Prudence 

bids him 

isehen to'in. ant ich he serS fearlac omi trew^e bluSeliche. nawt describe the 

' place of tor- 

tah efter bat hit is. for bat ne mei na tumre tellen 10 . ah efter bat inent 

. . TJ . " ; omitted. 

ich mei ant con I ber towart ich chulle readien 17 . Helle is [ wid] \\r6 l7 rodien. 


Hell is- wide without measure, aud deep and bottomless ; full of incom- 
parable fire, for no earthly fire may be compared therewith ; full of 
stench intolerable, for no living thing on earth might endure it ; full 
of unutterable sorrow, for no mouth may, on account of the wretched- 
ness and of the woe thereof, give an accouut of nor tell about it. Yea, 
the darkness therein is so thick that one may grasp it, for the fire 
there gives out no light, but bliudeth the eyes of them that are there 
with a smothering smoke, the worst of smokes. And nevertheless in 
that same black darkness they see black things as devils, that ever 
maul them and afflict and harass them with all kiuds of tortures ; 
and tailed drakes, horrible as devils, that devour them whole and 
spew them out afterwards before and behind ; at other times they 
rend them in pieces and chew each gobbet of them, and they after- 
wards become whole again, such as they previously were, to undergo 
again such bale without recovery, and full well they see themselves very 
horrible and dreadful ; and to increase their pains the loathsome hell- 
worms, toads, and frogs that eat out their eyes and nostrils, and adders and 
water-frogs, not like those (that we see) here, but a hundred times more 
horrible, sneak (creep) in and out at the mouth, ears, eyes, navel, and 
at the hollow of the breast, as maggots in putrid flesh, ever-yet (always) 
thickest. There is shrieking in the flame, and chattering of teeth in the 
snowy waters. Suddenly they flit from the heat into the cold, nor ever do 
they know of these two which is worse for them, for each is intolerable. 
And in this marvellous mingling the latter through the former tor- 
menteth the more. The fire consumes them all to dead coals : the pitch 
boileth them until they are altogether melted, and revives them anon to 
undergo again all that same and much worse, ever without end. And 
this same wanhope (despair) is their greatest torment, that none have 
never any more hope of any recovery, but are sure of every ill. to 
continue in woe, world without end, ever in eternity. Each chokes the 
other, and each is another's torment, and each hateth another and himself 
as the black devil ; and evep- as they loved them the more in this world, 
so the more shall they hate them there. And each curseth another, 
and gnaws off the other's (arms), cars, and nose also. I have begun to 
tell of things that I am not able to bring to any end, though I had 
a thousand tongues of steel, and told until they were all worn out. But 


ute met. ant deop wrS ute grunde. ful of brune uneuenlieh 1 . for IIe11 is >'"- 

1 ° measurably 

ne mei nan eorSlich fur euenin ber towart. ful of stench unbole- b "ttomiess 

lich. for ne mahte in eorSe na cwic binge hit bolien. ful of sorhe anduimtter- 

uutalelich. for ne mei na mivS for wrecchedom ne for wa i rikenin & * le sorrow ; 

1 unwerilich. 

hit 2 ne tellen. Se 3 bicke is brinne be bosternesse i ]>at me 4 hire mei 3 omitt e d - 

grapin. for bat fur. ne seue^ na liht. ah blent ham be ehnen. be 4 omitted - 

o l r r I The darkness 

ber beoS wrS a smorSrinde smoke smeche forcuSest. ant tah ibat *j*ere ma >' be 

ilke swarte beosternesse swarte binges ha iseo^ as deoflen bat a smothering 

r * ° ' smoke blinds 

ham meallrS ant denied aa ant drecche^ wrS alles cunnes pinen. the e . ves of 

* the damned. 

ant iteilede draken grisliehe ase 5 deoflen be forswolheS ham ihal. Devils beat 

the wretched 

ant speowe^ ham *eft ut biuoren ant bihinden. o^er hwile souls. 

5 as be. 

torende^ ham ant to cheoweS ham euch greot. ant heo eft *[Foi.78v°.] 

iwurSe^ hal. to a swuch bale bute bote, as ha ear weren. ant ful afterwards 
wel ha i seo$ ham to grisle ant to grure. ant to echen hare pine, 

be la^e helle wunnes. tadden ant froggen. be freote^ ham ut te } n h ?}] are , 

' ft* 1 horrible toads 

ehnen. ant te nease. gristles, ant snike^ in. ant ut neddren. il, ! f - { rogs ' 

o which gnaw 

ant eauraskes 6 . nawt ilich beose her '. ah 7 hundret srSe grisluker J 01 ^ ieked 

et 11m?. ant et earen. ed ehnen. ant ed neauele. ant ed te breoste feaureskes. 

' an. 

holke as mea^en 8 iforrotet flesch eaue/'gete bickest. ber is remuwge 9 I ™ e del S- 

& ' > » 9 ms. ren- 

ibe brune. ant to^es hechelunge ibe snawi weattres. ferliche ha ninge - 

flutter from be heate '. in 10 to be chele. Ne n neauer nutcn ha of 10 "omitted. 

beos twa i hwe^er ham bunched wurse. for erSer is unbolelich. alternately 

..„,., tv- torment them. 

ant ibis terhche mong be Leatere burh be earre derue* be mare. 
bat fur ham forbearne^ al to colen calde. bat pich ha»i forwalle^ 

a^et ha beon for mealte. ant eft acwikie^ 12 anan to drehen al bat 12 acwick- 

_ eneS. 

ilke f ant muchedeale wurse a \\v6 uten ende. Ant tis ilke And worst of 

unhope is ham meast pine, bat nan naue^ neauer mare hope 13 of 14 despair. 

nan a couerunge. Ah 15 aren sikere of euch uuel to burh leasten iwa 15 ^ aa< e ' 

from world in to worlde aa on echnesse. Euch abrusmeS o%er. ^! e C tJ. hed soul 

ant euch is o^res pine. Ant euchan heated o^er. cent him * her Jj d 

seoluen as *be blake deouel. ant eauer se ha i bis world luueden the devil. 

ham mare i se ha ber heatie^ ham swrSere. ant erSer cursed o^oer. _,'- Fo '' ' 9l ' •-' 

' Ihey curse 

ant fret of be o^res earen 16 . ant te 1 " nease alswa. Ich habbe ^^he,. 

bigunne to 18 tellen of bing bat ich ne mahte nawt bringe to eni 16 ° d e r es 

o 1 o r o earm. earen. 

ende. bah ich hefde a busent tungcn of stele ant table a^et ha ,'« f"^" 6 ' 1 ' 

werew alio forwerede. Ah benched nu her 19 burh hwuch be measte 19 hwer. 

252 soui/s ward. 

think now by this what the greatest pain is ; for the least pain is so hard, 
that had a man slain both m}' father and mother, and all the remnant (end) 
of my kin, and done to me all the shame and the harm that a living man 
might endure, yet if I saw this man in the least pain that I see in hell I 
would, if it might be, endure a thousand deaths to rid (release) him out 
thereof, so horrible and piteous is that sight to behold ; for though there 
were never any other pain, except to see the wretched spirits and their 
horrible forms • to look on their grim and dreadful faces, and to hear their 
roaring, and how they in scorn reproach and upbraid each other with their 
sins ; this infamy, and the horror of them, would be immeasurable pain ; 
and moreover to endure and to bear their immense blows with steel mallets, 
and with their awls (hooks) gleed-red, and their buffetings, as though 
it might be a pilch-clout, each one toward the other in divers pains. 
O hell, death's house, abode of woe, of dread, and of groaning ; horrid 
home, and hard dwelling of all miseries ; city of bale, and the abode of 
every bitterness, thou most loathsome land of all, thou dark place, filled 
\\ ith all dreariness ! I quake with dread and fear, and each bone quivereth 
within me, and each hair bristles up at the thought of thee ; for there is 
no voice between the damned but woe me ! woe is me ! and woe is thee ! 
and woe is thee ! And woe they cry, and woe they have ; nor shall they 
ever have any lack of whatever is woeful. It were well for those that 
earn (merit) this abode through any temporary bliss here in this world 
that they were never born. By this ye may somewhat understand what 
hell is like, for, of a truth, I have seen therein a thousand times worse 
(than I have told you). And from thence cometh death with a thou- 
sand devils hitherward, as I have said ; and I came thus," quoth Fear, 
" for to warn you thereof, and to tell you these tidings." " Now, Lord 
God !" quoth Prudence, "guard and preserve us, and direct and advise us 
what we ought to do, and that we may be the more cautious and vigilant 
to keep ourselves safe on each side under God's wings. If we well 
guard and keep our house and God's dear treasure that he has entrusted 
to us, let death come whenever he will, we need not be in dread of her nor 
of hell ; for our death will be precious to God, and entrance into heaven. 
Of this treacherous world, or of her false bliss, let us never take any heed, 
for all that is on the earth is but a shadow ; for all turneth to nought 


pine beo I for be leaste pine is se heard bat hefde a mon i slein l w °uid suffer 

' r ' a thousand 

ba mi feader. ant mi moder ant al be 1 ende of 2 mi cun. ant i do deaths to 

' deliver the 

me seoluen al be scbeome ant te bearm bat cwic mon mabte latched soul 

' > from the least 

bolien. ant ich isehe bes mon i be ilke 3 leaste pine, bat icb 4 iseh \h<me\\ he'' 

in belle i Icb walde 3ef bit mabte beon. bolien a busent cleaves m y ^"" "" 

to a rudden bim ut brof. swa is be silvSe grislicb ant reow&ful S 4°!^Sf^' 

to bibalden. for 5 bah neauer nere nan o£er pine bute to i seon " omitted - 

' l It wouldlienii 

eauer be unseli gastes. ami, bare g/isliche schape. biseon on bare topeasur.ibie 

' ~ o I pain only to 

grimfule. ant grurefide nebbes. ant beren hare rarunge. ant hn tortures''!? ti 

ha wrS hokeres edwiteS ant up breideS eucb an his sunnen. bis 6 d ™ ned - 

1 re wi $ 

seheriSlac ant te grure of ham were unimete pine c . ant hure 

bolien ant a beoren hare unirude 7 duntes wi^ mealies istelet. ant 7 unrude. 

wrS hare eawles gled reade hare dustlunges. as bah hit were 

a pilche clut eucban towart (vSer imislicbc pinen. belle Ohellaboae 

of woes, 

dea^es has. wununge of wauunge. of gi'ure ant of granunge. 

heatel "ham. ant heard wan. of alle wontrea^es. buri of bale. *[Foi.79v°. 

ant bold of eauer eucb bitternesse 8 . bu latest lont of alle. bu dorc B bold eauer 

' ' euch bitter- 

stude ifullet of alle dreorinesses. Icb cwakie of grisle 9 . ant of nesse to of - 

I quake and 

irrure. ant eucb ban seboke^ 1 " me. cmteach her me rue£ n up of bi quiver when 

° 1 r 1 think of • 

munegun^e. for nis ber na steuene bitubhe be fordemde bute thee! 

* 19 grissen. 

wumme. ant wa is me. and wa beo be. ant wa beo be. wa ha 10 sorheft. 

11 rune 'S (<"" 
seie^. ant wa ha habbe$ ne of al bat eauer wa is f ne schal ham ruue"S). 

12 for. 

neauer wontin. be swucb wununge of earned, for ei bwilinde Tiiere is never 

blisse her o worlde : wel were him 3ef 13 bat he neauer ibore there of ail 

that is 8or- 

nei-e. bi bis yz. maben sumdel witen hwuch is belle, for i wis ich rowfui. 
habbe brin isehen a busent srSe wurse. ant from beonne kime^ 

dea^ wi^ a busent deoflen biderwart as ich seide. ant ich 14 com '"omitted. 

bus t[u<y6 fearlac forte warnin ow fore '. ant tellen ow beos 15 wanTyou of 
tidinges. JNv lauerd godd q««#S warschipe wardi us ant werie. i^ls I'lou^i 

ant ribte us. ant reade hwet us beo to donne. ant we beon be 16 J? rer * s ! ' . 

i Tlie advice of 

warre ant wakere to witen us on euch half under godes wengen. r 

3ef we wel werie^ ant witeS ure bus ant godes cleore tresor bat 

he haue^ bitaht us f cume dea^ hwen be wule 17 . Ne burue we 17 na eauer 


now^er beon of dred for hire, ne for belle, for ure dea^ brS deore 

godd ant m-2ong in to heoueue. of beos fikelinde world '. ne of Trust not tIli3 

° ° * ' false world. 

bire false 18 blisse : ne neome we neauer 3eme. for al bat is on eor^e. 18 fahe. 

16 omitted. 

254 soui/s WARD. 

except that dear treasure, God's precious fee, that is entrusted to us to 
be kept safely. I have therefore sore care, for I see," saith Prudence, 
" how the devil, with his host, as a raging lion, goeth about seeking 
eagerly how he may devour it (God's treasure) ; and thus I may," 
saith Prudence, " guard you against his enmity (malice) and his devices, 
but I may not guard you against his strength (violence)." " Do now tell 
us, sister Prudence," quoth Strength, " what befalleth to thee, and warn 
us of his wiles ; for of all his strength we have not any dread ; for his 
strength prevails not, except wheresoever he finds them poor and weak, 
unwarned (unguarded) by true belief. The apostle saith, ' Resist the devil 
and he will flee forthwith.' Should we then flee from him 1 Nay ! 
Is not God our shield, and all our weapons are of his dear grace 1 and 
God is on our side, and standeth by us in battle. If he shooteth towards 
me with the wealth and bliss of the world, with the delights of the 
fleshly lusts, I might care somewhat for these soft (nesh) weapons ; 
but no hard things may terrify me, nor may any harm nor any loss 
make my heart false, nor impair my belief toward him that gives me all 
my strength (powers)." " For it behoves me," quoth Moderation, " both 
for the severity of harm and for lack of bliss, to have dread and care 
(sorrow) ; for many, on account of the too great hardship of woe that they 
suffer, forget our Lord, and nevertheless more, through softness (pros- 
perity) and the lusts of the flesh, become ofttimes reckless. Between hard 
and soft — between woe of this world and too much joy — between much 
and little, in every earthly thing, the middle way is the golden (one). If 
we hold to it, then go we safely, nor need we fear death or the devil. 
Whatever may be of hardships I dread, but not of softness (prosperity) ; 
for no weal nor fleshly lusts nor bodily pleasure may cause me to overstep 
the middle (mean) of measure and of moderation." Righteousness (Equity) 
speaks now and says, " My sister Prudence, that hath wit and discerneth 
between good and evil, and knoweth in everything what is to be chosen 
and to be shunned, adviseth us and teacheth us for to take little heed to 
perishable things, and to keep prudently those that shall last for ever, and 
saith, as she truly saith, that through ignorance she may not sin, and yet 
she is not so confident about the strength of the devil, but esteems her- 
self weak though she have much power ; and the eyes of us all deem 
her to be powerless, as to herself, to withstand his devices, and she acts 


nis bute as a schadewe '. for al wurSeS 1 *to noht bute bat deore *[Foi.80r°.] 

. . T , ' wurchc'S. 

tresur godes deorewurSe feb bat is us. bitaht to witeue. ten i can guard 

. . i-i t-1.1. y ou against 

habbe beruore sar care tor ich lseo seiS warschipe nu be unwniht wiles of the 

i'ii devil. 

wiS bis ferd ase linn iburst. yetiS 2 abuten lire hus sechmde J 3eorn- 2 ge $. 

. . >s . /« 3 sechinde in 

belie bu be bit forswolhe. ant tis ich mei sera warschipe warnm 3ong. 

ow of bis laS ant for bis wrenches, ah ich ne mei nawt a3eines 

his strengSe. JJo nu qwoS strengSe. warschipe suster bat te 

limpet to be ant warne us of his wiheles. for 4 of al his strengSe *from for to 

1 i nawiht 

ne drede we nawiht. for nis his strengSe noht wurS bute hwer omitted. 
se he ifindeS eSeliche. ant wake unwarnede of treowe bileaue. 
be apostle seiS. Etstont. }>en feont. ant he fliS anan riht. schulde 
we Jienne fleon him '. 3enis godd ure scheld. ant alle beoS ure 

wepnen of bis deore grace, ant godd is on 5 ure half, ant stont bi 5 on ont - 

us ifehte. sef he schute towart me wiS weole ant wunne of be strength says 

3 _ that she fears 

world. wiS este of flesches lustes. of bulliche nesche wepnen ich only worldly 


mahte carien summes weis. ah ne mei me na j>ing heardes 

offearen. ne nowcin. ne na wone° falsi min heorte ne wursi mi 6 ms. wodo. 

bileaue towart him bat seueS me alle mine strenr>-Sen. L or ba Moderation 

' J fears worldly 

me ah. quote meaS. ant for heart" of nowcin. ant for wone of poverty and 

* hardships. 

wunne dreden. ant carien for moni for to muchel heard of wa r iiard. 
bat he dreheS. foi^et ure lauenl. ant ma bah for nesche ant for 

flesches licunge for * 3erneS ham ofte. bituhhen heard ant nesche. * [Foi. 80v».] 

bituhhe wa of J)is world ant to muche wunne. bituhhe muchel between two 

. . .tii -it e extremes is 

ant lutel is in euch worldlich bing be middel wei 3iildene. 3et we the golden 


hire haldeS Jjenne gawe sikerliche ne berf us nowSer for deaS ne 
for deouel dreden. hwet se beo of heardes ne drede ich nawiht 

nesches for ne mei na wunne. ne na flesches licunge ne 8 licomlicb 8 n e of. 

este bringe me ouer be midel of mesure. ant of mete. Xliht- Equity praises 

o I the words of 

wissnesse spekeS nu. Mi suster ha seiS warschipe be haueS wit. Prudeuce - 

ant schad bituhhe god. ant uuel. ant wat hwet is in euch ]nng 

to cheosen ami to schunien '. readeS us ant leareS forte 3eme 

lutel alle fallinde }>ing. ant witen warliche beo be schulen a lesten. 

nut seiS as ha soS seiS b«< burh unweotenesse 9 ne mei ha nawt 9llllwit - 

i r nesse. 

sunegin. ant tah nis nawt siker of be unwihtes strengde as j>eo 

pe halt hire wac J?ah ha beo muche wurS. ant 10 ure aire ehnen 10 to. 

demeS hire unmihti onont hire seoluen to etstonden wiS his. 

256 soul's ward. 

as the wise (do). My sister Strength is very bold, and saith that no hard- 
ships may frighten her ; but yet she would not trust on her own weapons, 
but on God's grace, and that I deem to be right and wisdom so to do. 
My third sister, Moderation, speaketh of the middle path, between right 
and left, that few can observe ; and saith, that in prosperity (softness) 
she is bold, and hardships may terrify her, and therefore boasteth she 
of no confidence, and doth as the wise (do). My business is to act and 
to decide equitably ; and I deem myself so that I, through myself, 
may do it (sin) not ; for all the good that we have here is of God. Now 
it is right, then, that we deem ourselves ever weak to guard and to keep 
ourselves in safety, or to hold fast any good without God's help. The 
righteous God will that we deem ourselves poor and low, though we be 
never such, for then he deemeth us of much worth and good, and esteems 
us as his daughters. For though my first sister is aware of each evil, and 
my second sister is strong against everything injurious, and my third 
(sister is") temperate in all kinds of pleasures, and I act and decide rightly ; 
except we be mild (meek) with all this, and esteem ourselves weak, God 
may rightly condemn us for all this, through our pride, and therefore is it 
a right doom (decision) that we for all our good thank Him alone." 
Wit, the husband, God's constable, hears all their words, and thanks God 
earnestly with very glad heart for so rich a loan as are these sisters his 
four daughters, that he hath lent him as a help to guard well and protect 
his castle and God's precious fee, which is enclosed therein. The wilful 
housewife keeps herself quiet ; and all that household, that she was accus- 
tomed to draw after her, turn then faithfully to Wit, their lord (master), 
and to these four sisters. For a while Prudence again speaketh, and saith, 
" I see a messenger coming, very glad in cheer, fair and joyful, and lovely 
attired." ''Let him in," saith Wit ; "if God will, he bringeth us glad 
tidings, and that we have much Deed of, for Fear, death's messenger, 
hath with his (tidings) terrified us very much withal." Prudence lets 
him in, and he greeteth Wit the lord and afterwards all the household 
with a laughing cheer ; and they return him his greeting, and all are, 
it seems to them, relieved and gladdened by his appearance ; for all the 
house shineth and shimmereth (glistens) with his light. He asketh 
them if they would like to hear him a while. "Yea," quoth Righteous- 


twnies ant de^ ase be wise. Mi suster strengfce is swrSe bald, strength is 

praised for 

ant sei^ bat nawiht heardes ne mei hire offearen. ah bah ha ne trusting in 
trust nawt on hire ahne wepnen f ah de^ o godes grace ant bat i pa « ha. 
ich demi riht ant wisdom to donne. Mi bridde suste?" mea^ and 


spekeS of be middel sti. bituhhe riht ant luft bat hit cunnen for not being 

' too confident. 

halden. *ant sei¥> i nesche ha is bald, ant heard mei hire offearen. * [ Fol 81rt) -. 
ant for bi ne 3elpe : 5 ha of na sikernesse ant de^ as be wise. Mi Equity's 

advice to the 

meoster is to do riht forte demen ant 2 ich deme me seolf bat ich three sisters. 

burl) me ne do lilt nawt i for al bat god is of godd bat we her ant riht fon 

habbefc. Nu is riht benne bat we demen us seolf eauer unmihtie 

to werien ant to witen us ofter ei god to halden wi^ ute godes 

helpe. pe rihtwise godd wule bat we demen us seolf e^eliche 

ant lahe. Ne beo we neauer swucche f for benne denied he us 

muche wurS. ant gode ant halt for his dehtren. for bah mi forme 

suster war beo of euch uuel. ant min o^er strong beo to jeines 

euch nowcin f ant mi bridde mea^ful in alles cunnes estes '. ant 

ich do riht ant deme. bute we wftS al bis milde beon ant meoke f 

ant halden us wake, godd mei mid rihte fordemen us of al bis 

burh ure prude, ant for bi is riht dom bet we al ure god bonkin 

him ane. W iit be husebonde godes cunestable here 1 ?) alle hare Wit thanks 

' ° God for the 

sahen ant bonked god seorne wvS swi^e glead heorte of se riche Joan of the 

' ° <* ° three sisters. 

lane as beo£ beos sustren his fowr dehtren bat he haue^ ileanet 
him on helpe forte wite wel ant werien his castel. ant godes 
dcorewurSe feh. bat is biloke brinne. J?e willesfule husewif halt 
hire al stille. ant 3 al bat bird bat ha wes i wunet to dreaien 4 efter *\> a 

, . , A dreien. 

hire f turned * ham treowliliche to wit hare lauenl. ant to beos * j- Fol 81v0 .] 
fowr sustren. Vmben ane stunde speke^ eft warschipe. ant sei^ Prudence 

announces the 

ich iseo a sonde cumen swide gledd icheret. feier ant freolich coming of 

° another 

ant leofliche aturnet. let him in sei^ wit 3ef godd wule he messen e er . 
bringe^ us gleade tidinges. ant bat us were muche neod. for 
fearlac dea^es sonde haueS wrS his '. offearet us swrSe mid alle. 
warschipe let him in. ant he gret wit ben lauerd. ant al bat s bird 5 his. 

. , . iivi' i • w ' 10 gladdens 

seo^en. wre lahhmde chere. ant ha 3elde ; 5 lnm his gretunge. ant them ail by his 
beo^ alle ilihtet ant igleadet ham bunched of his on-silvSe. for al 
bat hus schine^. ant schimme^i of his leome. he easke^ ham G ^ef 6 omitted, 
ham biluuefc to heren him ane hwile. 3e q«o^ ha rihtwisnesse. 


258 soul's ward. 

ness, " it pleaseth us well, and it is well and right that we listen to thee 
attentively." "Hearken now then," he saith, "and truly understand that 
I am the messenger of mirth, and the admonition of eternal life, and 
am called the ' Love of Life,' and I come straight from heaven where I 
have seen now and oft before the bliss that no man's tongue may tell of. 
The blessed God saw you terrified and somewhat cast down through what 
Fear told you of death and of hell, and hath sent me to gladden you, not 
because that it is not all truth that he hath said, and that shall all evil 
men experience and find (true). But ye, with the help of God, need not 
fear anything, for he that sitteth on high is your help, and he is the 
all-ruling one who hath you in his keeping." "Ah !" saith Prudence, 
"welcome Love of Life ; and for the love of God himself, if thou ever 
saw him, tell us somewhat of him and of his eternal bliss." "Yea, truly," 
quoth Love of Life, the messenger of mirth, " I have seen him oft, yet 
not as he is, for against (compared with) the brightness and the light of 
his countenance the sun-gleam is dark and seemeth a shadow ; and there- 
fore I was not able to look toward nor behold the gleam of his counte- 
nance, except through a bright mirror between me and him, that shielded 
my eyes. So have I often seen the holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, three and indivisible. But only for a little while was I able to 
endure the gleam, but somewhat (longer) I was able to behold our Lord 
Jesu Christ, God's Son, that redeemed us on the cross — how he sits 
blissful on the right hand of his Father, who is almighty, and ruleth in 
that eternal life without cessation. So marvellous is his beauty that the 
angels are never satiated in beholding him. And moreover I saw plainly 
the places of his wounds, and how he showeth them to his Father, to make 
known how he loved us, and how he was obedient to him who sent him 
thus to redeem us, and he (Christ) beseecheth him ever for mankind's 
heal (salvation). After him I saw on high, above all heavenly (hosts), 
the blessed Virgin his mother, called Mary, sitting on a throne so very 
bright, adorned with gems, and her face so joyful that every earthly 
light is darkness in comparison with it. There I saw how she entreats 
her precious Son so earnestly and so inwardly (truly) for those that serve 
her, and he grants her blithely all that she beseecheth. When I could 
no longer endure that light, I looked towards the angels and archangels 


wel us biluueft hit. ant wel is riht bat we be IrSeliche lustnin. 

MercnrS nu benne he serS. ant seornliche understonde^. [I]ch am He nays that 

lie is called 

murSes sonde, ant munegunge * of eche lif. ant Hues luue i haten L ° v e of Life, 

° and comes 

ant cume riht from heouene bat ich habbe isehen nu ant ofte straight from 

i lieaven. 

ear be blisse bat na monnes tunge ne mei of tellen. be iblescede l munege. 

godd iseh ow offruhte. ant sumdel drupnin' 2 of bat fearlac talde ^durcnin. 

of dea& ant of helle. ant sende me to gleadien ow. nawt for bi 

bat hit ne beo al so^ bat he seide. ant bat schulen alle uuele 

fondin. ant ifinden. Ah $e wiS be fulst of godd ne bunie na 

bi?ig dreden for he sit on *heh bat ia ow on helpe. ant is al * [Foi. 82r».] 

wealdent bat haueS ow to witene. A serS warschipe welcume Prudence 

' x beseeches hira 

liues. luue. ant for be luue of godd seolf sef bu eauer sehe him f t0 tel1 f heD1 

i o ■> s somewhat of 

tele us sumhwet of him. ant of his eche blisse. $e iseo$ qitod h««ren d0f 

liues luue f Murhdes sonde. Ich habbe isehen him ofte nawt 

tah alswa as he is '. for ajein be brihtnesse ant te liht of his 

leor. be sunne gleam is dose, ant bunched aschadewe 3 . ant for bi 3 bunched 

dose, ant aa 

ne mahte ich nawt a3ein be leome of his wlite lokin ne bihalden i aschadewe. 
bute burh a schene schawere 4 bituhhe me ant him bat schilde 4 schadewe. 

mine ehnen. Swa ich habbe ofte isehen be 5 hali bruwnesse 6 . ™ e Lo , ve , of 

' ' Life tells how 

feader ant sune. ant hali gast. breo an unto-dealet. ah lutle H ^x r *^ ty 
hwile ich mahte bulie be leome. ah suwmes weis ich mahte bi- 5 him. j> . 

balden ure lauerd ihesu cWst godes sune bat bohte us o rode. neg °* ; run " 

Hu he sit blisful 7 on his feader riht half bat is al wealdent rixleS and the son of 

' God sitting at 

i bat eche 8 lif bute linnunge. se unimete feier f bat te engles ne M ie , J *£** s 
beo$ neauer ful on him to bihalden. ant set ich iseh etscene 9 be 'wundeifui. 

J >8 riche. 

studen of his wunden. ant hu he schaweS ham his feader to '**« 


cufcen hu he luuede us ant hu he wes buhsum to him be sende 
him swa to alesen us ant biseche^ him a for mowsuranes heale. 

Lifaer him ich iseh on heh ouer alle heouenliche be eadi meiden i saw, he says, 

. . .the holy 

his 10 moder marie i-nempnet sitten in * a trone se swi^e briht wid Maiden, his 

1 mother, 

3immes i-stirret. ant hire wlite se weoleful 11 . bat euch eorSlich t'"'! 1 ?^" a „ 
liht f is beoster be IV] o 2eines. bear ich iseh as ha bit hire deore l ° a »<- 

. . . . * [Fol. 82v°.] 

wurSe sune se jeornliche. ant se inwardliche for beo bat hire "meinfui. 

serurS. ant he hire jetted blideliche al bat ha bi seche^. Pet angels' and 
liht ba ich ne mahte lengre bolien 12 f Ich biseh to be engles ant i2 nama reof 

to be archangles ant to be oSre J be beoS buuen ham. iblescede 13 ""££"' 

260 soul's ward. 

and to the others that are above them, blessed spirits who are ever before 
God and ever serve him, and sing ever unweariedly. Nine hosts there 
are, but how they are ordered and severally placed, one above the other, 
and each one's duties, would be long to tell. So much mirth I had of the 
sight that I was unable for a long while to look elsewhere. After them I 
looked towards the patriarchs and the prophets, who make such mirth 
because they are now in that same land of bliss, which they had afar wept 
for previously on earth, and they see now all that become verified which 
they had long before prophesied of our Lord, as he had showed them in 
spiritual vision. I saw the Apostles (that were) poor and low on earth, 
filled and possessed all with extraordinary blisses, sitting on thrones, and 
all that is high in this world under their feet, ready to judge, in the day 
of doom, kings and kaisers, and all kindreds of all kinds of nations. I 
beheld the martyrs and their marvellous mirth, who suffered here tortures 
and death for our Lord, and esteemed lightly all kinds of harms and 
earthly torments as compared with the bliss to come that God manifested 
to them in their hearts. After them I beheld the assembly of confessors, 
who lived in good life and died holy, that shine, as do the stars, in the 
eternal bliss and see God in his glory, who hath wiped all tears from their 
eyes. I saw the shining and bright company of the blessed maidens most 
like to angels, and most participating with them in their blisses and joys ; 
who living in the flesh surpass the laws of the flesh and overcome nature, 
who lead a heavenly life on earth, and so they win their mirth and their 
bliss. The beauty of their features, the sweetness of their song, no tongue 
may tell. All sing who are there, but their song none may sing but they. 
So sweet a smell followeth them whithersoever they go, that one might 
live ever by the sweetness. Whomsoever they intercede for is certainly 
saved ; for at their prayers God himself ariseth, who sitting heareth 
all the other saints." " Very much," quoth Prudence, " pleaseth us what 
thou sayest ; but now thou hast so well spoken of every order of the 
blessed severally, say to us somewhat now what bliss is common to all 
alike." And the Love of Life answereth her, " The common bliss is 
sevenfold — length of life, wisdom and love, and because of the love a 
gladness without measure (bounds), pleasant songs of praise, lightness (or 
swiftness), and security is the seventh." " Though I," saith Prudence, 


gastes be be<y?> a biuore godd ant serurS him eauer. ant singed 

a unwerjeS. Nihe wordes ber becrS. ah l hu ha becrS i-ordret nil, e hosts of 

' angels, 

ant sunderliche isette. be an buue be o^re. emit euchanes meoster i an t. 

were long to tellen. Se muche murhSe ich hefde on hare on 

sifrSe f bat ne mahte ich longe hwile elles hvvider lokin. Lifter 

liam ich iseh towart te pofriarches. ant te \rrophetes be makied and the holy 

patriarchs and 

swuch murh^e bat ha aren nu^e i \>at ilke lont of blisse \>at ha prophets. 

hefden of feor igret ear 2 on eorSe ant seo^ nu al bat iso^et. bat 2 igrerSet. 
ha hefden longe ear icwiddet of ure lauerd as he hefde ischawed 

ham igastehch silrSe. Ich iseh be apostles poure 3 . ant lah on I saw also the 

. e • ... Apostles 

eorSe. millet ant bnoten al of unimete blisse sitten i trones. ant sitting on 


al under hare uet bat heh is i be worlde. $arowe forte demen i be 3 \> a t poura 
dei of dome kinges ant keiseres. ant alle cunreadnes 4 of alle ^"'redes. 

cunnes ledenes. * biheolt te Martyrs, ant hare unimete 1 beheld the 


murl&e be boleden her pinen. ant deaft for ure lauerd. ant liht- *[Foi. 83r°.] 
liche talden to alles cunnes neowcins. ant eorSliche tintreohen 
a3eines be blisse bat godd in hare heorte schawede ham to cumene. 

.Lifter ham ich biheolt be cunfessurs hird be liueden igod lif. ant the holv 

' ' confessors, 

haliche deiden. be schine^ as do^ steorren ibe eche blissen. ant 

seo^ 5 godd in his wlite bat hailed alle teares iwipet of hare elmen. « iseo'S. iseh hut schene. ant bat brihte fen*eden of be eadi meidnes and the holy 

company of 

ilikest towart engles. ant feolohlukest wi£ ham blissin ant virgins. 

gleadien. be libbinde iflesche ouerga^ flesches lahe ant ouercumefc 

cunde be leaded heouenlich lif in eorSe as ha wunie^ hare mui'lrSe. 

ant hare blisse. be feierlec of hare wlite. be swetnesse of hare 

song f ne mei na tunge tellen. Alle ha singed be 6 ber beo^. Ah 6 from be to 

. ' singen omit- 

hare song ne mahe nane buten heo singen. Se swote smal ham ted. 

folhe^ hwider se ha wended, bat me mahte libben aa bi be swot- 

nesse. hwam se heo biseche^ fore f is sikerliche iborhen. for Whomsoever 

. . they intercede 

a3em hare bisocnen '. godd him seolf arise^ bat alle be o^re f or is saved. 

halhen 7 sittende ihere^. owiSe wel qticr6 warschipe like^ us bat 7 be waiden. 

tu seist. Ah nu bu hauest se wel isei^ of euch a 8 setnesse f of be 8 euchan to. 
seli sunder-lepes sumhwet sei us nu hwuch blisse is to alle iliche 

meane f ant Hues luue hire ondswere^. *pe imeane blisse is *[ F °'-83v°.] 

seouenfakj. leng^e of lif. wit. ant luue. ant of be luue a gleadunge. the bliss " 

wrS-ute met murie. loft song, ant lihtschipe. ant sikernesse. is in heaven. 

262 soul's ward. 

" understand somewhat of this, thou must reveal this more plainly, and 
explain to these others." "And it shall be so, Prudence," saith Love of 
Life, " as thou desirest. They live ever in a splendour that is sevenfold 
brighter and clearer than the sun, and ever in a strength to perform, 
without any toil, all that they wish, and evermore in a state, in all that 
ever is good, without diminution, without anything that may harm or 
ail, in all that is ever soft or sweet. And their life is the sight of 
God and the knowledge of God, as our Lord hath said. ' That is eternal 
life,' he said, ' to see and know the true God and him that he hath sent, 
Jesus Christ our Lord, for our redemption.' And they are therefore, like 
him, in the same form that he is, for they see him as he is, face to face. 
They are so wise that they know all God's counsels, his mysteries, and 
his dooms (judgments), which are secret and deeper than any sea dingle. 
They see in God all things, and learn concerning all that is and was and 
ever shall be, what it is, why and whereto, and whereof it began. They 
love God without measure, because they understand how he hath done 
by them, through his great goodness, and how they ought to requite his 
precious mercy, and each one loveth another as much as himself. So 
glad they are of God that all their bliss is so great that no mouth 
may make mention of it, nor any speech discourse of it. Because that 
each one loveth another as himself, each one hath of another's good 
(bliss) as much joy as of his own. By this ye may see and know that 
each one severally hath as many joys as they are many in number ; 
and each of these same joys is to every one as great a joy as his 
own in particular. Yet above all this, since each one loveth God 
and then all the others more than himself, the more glad are they of 
God['s bliss], without any ailing (grief), and that of all the others than 
of his own joy. Take heed now then, if the heart of no one is ever 
able to contain in herself her own special joy, so marvellously great is 
the one bliss, how shall she accept so many and so great blisses? 
Therefore our Lord said to those that had pleased him, Intra in gaudium 
Domini sui — 'Go,' quoth he, 'into thy Lord's bliss.' Thou must go 
therein altogether and be altogether possessed therein, for in thee may it 
in nowise enter. Thereof they pi-aise God, and ever unwearied, ever 



1 godes runes. 

be seoue^e. bah ich J>is aev6 warschipe sumdel understonde '. bu 
most unwreo j>is witerluker ant openin to jjeos o^re. ant hit 
schal beon serS Hues luue warschipe as bu wilnest. ila liuieS a They live in a 

1 > glory seven 

in awlite. bat is brihtre seoueualS. ant schenre ben be sunne. ant Jj™ 8 ^^ 

eauer in a streng^e to don buten euch swine al bat ha wulleS. 

ant eauer mare in a steal in al bat eauer god is wrS ute wonunge. 

wi¥ uten euch bing bat mahe hearmin 1 o^er eilin. in al bat eauer ' hearm. 

is. softe o^er swote. ant hare lif is godes sihSe. ant godes . . . . 2 2 a wo f d 

° erased liere 

cnawlechunge as ure lauerd seide. bat is quod he 3 eche lif to seon '" MS - .„ 

° ' x 3 he seixS. 

ant cnawen sod godd. ant him bat he sende ihesu cHst ure Eternal life 
lauerd to ure alesnesse ant beo^ for )>i ilich him ibe ilke wlite sight of God. 

Khe is. for ha seo^ him as he is. nebbe to nebbe. Ila beo^ se They know an 
Gods secret 

wise beet ha witen alle godes reades. his runes ant his domes 4 be counsels. 

r ... < godes ri 

derne beo^. ant deopre ben eni sea dingle, ha seo^ igodd alle bing. ant ins 

1 ' . reades. 

ant witen of al bat is ant wes ant eauer schal iwurden. hwet 

hit beo. hwi. ant hwerto ant hwer of hit bigunne 5 . Ha luiiie^ They love 

God without 

god wrS ute met. for bat ha understonde^ hu he haue'S bi ham measure. 

. 5 biginne. 

idon jmrh his muchele godlec ant hwet ha ahen his deorewurde 

milce to 3elden. ant euch an luue^ o^er ase much el as him 

seoluen. be gleade ha beo^ of godd '. bat al is hare blisse. se 

muchel * bat ne mei hit munne na rau?, ne spealie na speche for * [ Fo1 - 84r °-J 

b\ bat euchan luueft o^er as him seoluen. Euchan haue^ of 

odres god ase muche murlvSe as of his ahne 6 . bi bis 3e mahen 6 , as him 

° ' J seoluen. 

seon ant witen. bat euchan haue^ sunderlepes ase feole glead- 

schipes f as ha beod monie alle. ant euch of be ilke gleadschipes 

is r to eauer euch an ase muche gleadunge '. as his ahne sunderliche. ' beo'S. 

3et ouer al J>is. hwen euchan luue^ godd mare j>en him seoluen. 

ant ben alle be odre i mare he gleade^ of godd \vv6 uten ei et- Each ,oves 

' r o o other better 

lunge 8 }>en of his ahne gleadunge. ant of alle be o^res. Neome^ tt,an bimseif. 

.... B e ' eilung. 

nu jjenne 3eme 3ef neauer anes heorte ne mei in hire [und] 9 9 ms. torn, 
eruon hire ahne gleadunge sunderliche [iseide. so unim]ete 

muchel is J>e 10 anlepi blisse. bat ha nime^ i[n] hi [re] jms monie. 10 ben. 

ant bus muchele. for bi seide ure lauerd to beo be him hefden ic- The bliss is so 

* m ' ' great that 

wemet. Intra in gaudiuwi. et cetera. Ga qua6 he in to bi lauerdes tbey go into 

x ' it — it cannot 

blisse 11 . bu most al gan }>rin. ant al beon bigotten J>rin for in be ne enter them - 
mei hit nanesweis u neomen in. her of ha herieS godd ant singed a n i ue 

264 soul's WARD. 

alike joyful, they sing tins song of praise, Bead qui habitant, &c. — 
Blessed are those, Lord, who dwell in thine house ; they shall praise 
thee, world without end. They are all as light and as swift as the sun- 
gleam that shooteth from east unto west as thine eyelid openeth and 
shutteth ; for wheresoever the spirit will be there is the body at once 
without delay, for nothing may withstand them, for one is mighty 
enough to do all that he desires, yea, to make heaven and earth quake 
with one of his fingers. Sure they are of all this life, of this wit, of 
this love, and the joy thereof, and of this bliss, which shall never more 
become less or be impaired, nor come to an end. This little I have 
said of what I saw in heaven, but neither saw I all, nor of what I 
saw can I tell the half." "Truly," quoth Prudence, "well we understand 
that thou hast been there and truly hast spoken thereof, according to 
thy sight ; and well is him that is prudent and takes forethought how 
he may best keep his house, in which is God's treasure, against God's 
enemy who warreth ever against it with immorality, for that shall 
bring him thither where he shall participate and enjoy all that thou hast 
spoken of, and a hundredfold more of bliss without any sorrow." Quoth 
Strength, " Since it is so, what may separate us from the God and hold 
us back then ] I am confident in God that neither life nor death, nor 
woe nor weal, shall separate us and his love. But all this he hath 
prepared for us, if we as true treasurers guard well his treasure which 
is entrusted to us to be kept, as we shall full well under his wings." 
Quoth Prudence, " Cast out Fear, our foe ; it is not right that one house 
hold these two : for where Mirth's messenger is and true love of eternal 
life, Fear is a fugitive." " Now, Fear, go out," quoth Strength, " thou 
shalt no longer remain in our quarters." Quoth (Fear), " Now what I 
have said I have said all for your good, and though it was not pleasant, 
yet my tale was not less true nor less needful to you than that of Mirth's 
messenger, though it may not be so delightful nor so pleasant." (Quoth 
Moderation), "Each of you hath his time to speak, nor is the talc of either 
of you to be shunned (disregarded) at its proper time. Thou warnest of 
woe, he telleth of weal. Much need is there that we should attentively 
listen to both of you. Flit (depart) now, Fear, while the Love of Life is 
herein. Bear with even heart the doom of Righteousness, for thou shalt 
full blithely be received herein, as often as Love of Life ceaseth to speak. 



a un werget eauer iliche lusti in bis loft songes. as hit iwriten is. The ? Iiave 

o r o great 

Beati qui habitant, et cetera. Eadi beoS beo lauerd. be ibin 1 1ms anTifve'in 
wunieS ha schulen herien be from [worlcle into worlcle]. Ila purity. 
beoS alle ase li[hte ant as swifte as be sunne] gleam be sc[heot ' in *" 3 - 
from est into west, ase bin] *ehe-lid tuneS ant opened for hwer * [Foi. 84v°.] 
se eauer be gast wule be bodi is anan riht wrS ute lettunge. for 
ne mei ham na bing a3eines etstonden. for euch an is al 2 mihti 2 as. 
to don al pat he wule. 3c makie to cwakien heouene ba ant eorSe 
wi? his an finger, ibikere ha beoS of al bis of bulli lif. of bulli 
wit. of bulli luue ant 3 gleadunge brof. ant of bulli blisse. bat hit 3a - 

. Happy is he 

ne me neauer mare lutlin ne wursin. ne neome nan ende. bis lutle who keeps 

safe God's 

ich habbe iseid of bat ich iseh in heouene ah nower neh n e neh treasure. 

' TTTT ^' ,8 W01US °f 

ich al. ne bat 3et bat ich [iseh. ne] ne con ich half 4 tellen. yij iter- Prudence. 

[liche quoS] warschipe. wel we understondeS bat tu hauest ibeo 

bear ant soS hauest iseid trof. efter bi sihSe. ant wel is him 

bat is war. ant bisiS him hu he mahe beast balden his hus bat 

godes tresor is in a3eines godes unwine be weorreS ber to wart 

a wiS unbeawes. for bet. schal bringen him bider as he schal. al 

bis bat tu hauest ispeken of an 5 lmndret siSe mare of blisse buten 5 ant. 

euch bale 6 folhin ant ifinden. QnaS strengSe hwen hit swa is f Strength 

S3.ys Hint 

hwet mei tweamen us from godd ant hald[en us beonne. ih] am " c parat^thtm 
siker ine godd. \bat ne schal lif ne deS f ne wa] ne wunne nowSer fr " m i' * 1, 

L ' J 6 wio uten 

[to dealen us ant his luue. ah al bis] us haueS igarc 7 [ket 3ef we as baiesrS. 
treowe tresures witeS wel his tresor bat is bitaht us to halden. 34 ends here, 
as we schulen ful wel under his wengen. WarpeS ut quoS Prudence 

1 proposes that 

warschipe f farlac ure fa. nis nawt riht bat an hus halde beos Fear sl > 011,d 

1 ' ' be aist out. 

tweien. for ber as murSes sonde is 1 ant soS luue of eche lif. 
farlac is fleme. nu ut quoS strenSe farlac ne schaltu na lenge?-e 
leuen in ure ende. nu qvtoS ich seide for god al bat ich seide. ant 
bah hit muri nere nes na lessere mi tale ben wes murlrSes sondes 
ne unbihefre to ow. bah hit ne beo so licwurSe ne icweme. 
EiSer of ow haueS his stunde to speokene. ne nis mcker noSres Moderation 

addresses the 

tale to schunien in his time, bu warnest of wa. he telleS of two mes - 

' sengers. 

wunne. muche neod is bat me ow ba 3eornliche hercni. Flute 
nu farlac bah. hwil Hues luue is herinne. ant bole wiS efne 
heorte be dom of rihtwisnesse. for bu schal [t]. ful bliSeliche beon 

266 soul's ward. 

Now is Will the housewife quite still ; and she who erewhile was so 
wilful, is now wholly subject to the direction of Wit, who is the husband. 
And all the household keep themselves still, who were wont to be un- 
toward, and to do after the will of their mistress, and not after Wit ; 
they listen now to his lore, and each one endeavours to do what befalleth 
him to do, through these two messengers whom they have heard, and as 
the four sisters have taught in addition thereto, for against each vice's 
entrance is ward to be kept and guarded faithfully. Thus ought each man 
to think often and frequently, and with such thoughts to arouse his heart, 
which in negligent sleep forgetteth its soul's heal, after (the words of) 
these two messengers, and from the sight of hell to look to the bliss of 
heaven — to have fear of the one and love to the other, and to lead himself 
and his hinds, that is, all his limbs, not after (that which) Will, the un- 
toward mistress, and his (own) lust teacheth, but after what Wit desireth, 
who is the husband that disciplines and instructs, so that Wit should 
ever go before and teach Will after him to perform all that he ordains 
and commands to be done ; and with the four sisters, which are the four 
cardinal virtues, Prudence, Strength in God, Moderation, and Kighteous- 
ness, to guard God's treasure, that is, his own soul in the house of the 
body, from the thief of hell. Such thoughts make a man to flee all vices 
and inflame his heart towards the bliss of heaven, which may our Lord 
give us through his holy mercy, that with the Father and the Son and 
the Holy Ghost reigneth in trinity ever without end. Amen ! 

Par seinte charite pray a pater noster for John who wrote this book ! 

Whoso hath read this writing 

And Christ hath so (thereby) prospered him, 

I pray, par seinte charite. 

That ye pray often for me 

A Pater noster and Ave Maria ; 

That I may so lead my life 

And well please our Lord, 

In my youth and in my old age, 

That I may yield my soul to Jesus Christ. Amen. 


under-fon in as ofte as Hues luue stinted 1 forto spekene. JNv is 'Ms.stutteS. 

wil bat husewif al stille. bat er wes so willesful. Al ituht efter 

wittes wissunge bat is husebonde. ant Al bat hird halt him stille. The whole 


bat wes i-wunet to beon fulitohen ant don efter wil hare lefdi. now become 

subject to Wit. 

Ant nawt efter wit f lustne^ nu his lare. ant fonde^ euer euchan 
efter bat him limped to. burh jjeos twa sonden. bat ha i-herd 
habbe^. ant bat fowr sustren lerden bruppe for euch unbeawes 
insong his warde te witene. ant te warden treowliche. I?vs ah Each man 

J ° should attend 

mon te benchen ofte Ant ilome. Ant wrS bulliche bohtes awec- t0 tne words 

' ' > of the two 

chen his heorte. be islep of jemeles forget hire sawle heale. efter messengers, 

beos twa sonden. From helle sihSe biseon '. to be blisse of 

heouene. To habben farlac of bat an f luue toward bat o^er. 

ant leaden him ant hinen. bat beo^ his limen alle. nawt efter 

wil be untohe lefdi ant his lust leare^. ah efter bat wit wule bat 

is husebonde tuhten ant teachen bat wit ga euer biuore ant 

teache wil efter him. to al bat he dihte^ ant dermrS to donne. 

ant wr5 be fowr sustren f J»er fore be fowr heued J>eawes. War- 

schipe. StrencSe in godd. Ant Me£. Ant Rihtwisnesse. witen godes 

treosor bat is his ahne sawle. ibe hus of be bodi f from be beof of and euard his 

> ' ' ' ' soul from the 

helle. bulli boht make^ mon te fleon alle unbeawes ant ontent his thief of hel1 - 
heorte toward be blisse of heouene. bat ure lauerd 3eue us burh 
his hali milce bat wrS be feder. ant e sune a?it e hali gast rixUVS 
in jjreo had a buten ende. AMEN. 

Par seinte charite bidden a pater noster for iohan bat }>eos boc Pray a 

W?"<lt. for John who 

H wrote this 

wa se bis writ haue^ ired. book, 

Ant crist him haue^ swa isped. 

Ich bidde par seinte charite. 

pet 3e bidden ofte for me. 

Aa pater noster. ant aue marie. 

pet ich mote bat lif her drehen. so * hat '»e 

' may lead a 

Ant ure lauerd wel icwemen. s ood Hfe here 

and yield his 

I Mi juhe'Se ant in min elde. 
pet ich mote ihesu crist mi sawle 3elden.] 

soul to Christ 
at death. 




Tesu, sweet Jesu, my love, my darling, my Lord, my Saviour, my honey- 
'-* drop (nectar), my balm ! sweeter is the remembrance of thee than 
honey in the mouth. "Who is there that may not love thy lovely face 1 
what heart is there so hard that may not melt at the remembrance 
of thee 1 Ah ! who may not love thee, lovely Jesu 1 For within 
thee alone are all the things united that ever may make any man 
worthy of love to another. Beauty, and lovesome face, flesh white 
under clothing make many a man the leather and the more to be 
beloved. Gold and treasures and wealth of this world cause some 
to be beloved and praised. Others (are loved) for their generosity and 
liberality, that prefer graciously to give than niggardly to withhold. 
Some (are loved) for their wit and wisdom and worldly prudence, and 
others for might and strength, (so as) to be distinguished and brave 
in fight for to maintain their rights. Some are loved for their nobility 
and highness of birth, others for virtue, and politeness, and faultless 
maimers. Some for kindness, and meekness, and goodness of heart 
and deed ; and yet, above all this, nature causes friends of kin to love 
one another. Jesu, my precious darling, my love, my life, my beloved, 
my most worthy of love, my heart's balm, my soul's sweetness, thou 
art lovesome in countenance, thou art altogether bright. All angel's life 
is to look upon thy face, for thy cheer is so marvellously lovesome and 
pleasant to look upon, that if the damned that well (boil) in hell 
might eternally see it, all that torturing pitch would appear but a 
soft warm bath ; for, if it might be so, they had rather well (boil) 
evermore in woe and evermore look upon that blissful beauty, than 
be in all bliss and forego the sight of thee. Thou art so sheen (bright) 
and so white, that the sun would be pale if it were compared to thy 
blissful countenance. If I then will love any man for fairness (beauty) 
I will love thee, my dear life, mother's fairest son. Ah, Jesu, my 

Jje wohunge of use lauerd. 269 



r Titus 1). 18. 

Thesu swete ihesu. mi dru£. mi derling. mi drihtin. mi healend. 
-*- mi huniter. mi haliwei. Swetter is munegunge of be ben 
mildeu o mu?e. Hwa ne mei lime bi luueli leor 1 Hwat herte 
is .swa hard bat ne mei to-melte i be munegunge of be 1 Ah hwa 
ne mei luue be luueliche ihesu 1 for inwrS be ane arn alle be Jesus p° s - 

' ' sesses all the 

binges igedered bat eauer muhen maken ani mow luuewurSi v**Mte* 

' ° ° ' whicb make 

to o^er. feiruesse and lufsum neb. fiesch hwit under schrud makes h ™ ?' ortn y 

of being 

moui mon beo luued te ra^er. and te mare. Summe gold and loved " 

° The qualities 

Gersum and ahte of bis worlde makes luued and heried. Sume f for ***** °" e 

* may be loved. 

fredoni and largesce bat leuer is menskli to 3iuen ben cwedli to 

wi$ halde. Summe f wit and wisdom arid 3apschipe of werlde. 

Summe f maht and strewgSe to beo kid and kene ifiht his 

riht for to halde. Summe f noblesce. and hehnesse of burSe. 

Summe i beaw. and hendeleic and lastelese* lates. Summe f *[FoU2n>.] 

menske and mildeschipe and debonairte of herte and dede. 

And 3ette ouer al bis f kinde makes sibbe frend euchan to luuew 

o^er. Nu mi derewur^e druS. mi luue. mi, lif. mi leof. Christ is 

. . ... beautiful and 

mi luueleuest, mi heorte haliwei. mi sawle swetnesse. pu art bright. 

lufsum on leor. bu art al schene. al engles lif is ti neb to bihalden. 

for bi leor is swa uuimete lufsum and lusti on to loken i bat %if 

be forwariede bat wallen in helle mihtew hit echeliche seon f 

al bat pinende pik. ne walde ham bunche bote a softe bekinde 

ba^. for }if hit swa mihte beon'. leuere ham were eauer mare 

in wa for to welle and o bat welefule wlite eauer mar to loken f 

yen in alle blisse beora, and forgan bi silrSe. pu art swa schene The sun pales 

, ,.,, ii'ct- ., before him. 

and swa hwit : bat te suDne were dosk 311 hit to bi blisfule bleo 
mihte beo euenet. pa 3if bat iwile animon for feirnesse luue f 
luue iwile be mi leue lif, moder sune feirest. A ihesu mi swete 


sweet Jesu, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. But now 
I will choose rny lemman (beloved) for wealth, for everywhere with 
chattels one may buy love. But is there any one richer than thou, 
my beloved, that reignest in heaven, thou that art the renowned kaiser 
that hast created all this world 1 for as the holy prophet David says, 
" The earth is the Lord's and all that fills it, the world and all that 
lives therein ;" heaven with the mirths and the immeasurable blisses, 
all is thine, my sweet one, and all (this) thou wilt give me, if I 
love thee aright. I cannot give my love to any man for (the sake 
of) a sweeter possession. I will hold then to thee, my beloved, and 
love thee for thyself, and for thy love forsake all other things that 
might draw and turn my heart from thy love. Ah ! Jesus, sweet Jesu, 
grant that the love of thee be all my delight. But what is wealth 
and world's weal worth without freedom (liberality) 1 And who is more 
free than thou, for first thou didst make all this world and didst 
put it under my feet, and didst make me lady over all thy creatures 
that thou didst create on earth, but I miserably lost it through my 
sins. Ah ! lest I should lose all thou gavest thyself for me, to deliver 
me from (hell-)pain. If I will love then any one for liberality, I 
will love thee, Jesu Christ, most free beyond all others ; for other 
liberal men give these external things, but thou didst give thyself 
for me, (so) that thou couldst not withhold thy own heart's blood. 
A dearer love-token gave never any lemman (beloved) to another. 
And thou that gavest me first all thyself, thou hast promised me, 
my beloved, the gift, all to myself, to reign on thy right hand, crowned 
with thyself. Who is then more generous than thou 1 who, for largess, 
is better worthy of being beloved than thou, my dear life 1 Ah ! Jesu, 
sweet Jesu, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. But largess 
is worth little when wisdom is lacking. And if that I will love any 
man for wisdom, there is none wiser than thou, that art called the 
wisdom of thy father in heaven ; for he through thee, that art wisdom, 
created all this world and ordereth it and divideth it, as it seem- 
eth best. Within thee, my dear love, is hidden the hoard of all 
wisdom, as the book bears witness. Ah ! Jesus, sweet Jesu, grant that 
the love of thee may be all my delight. But many a man through 
his strength and bravery also makes himself beloved and esteemed. 
And is any so hardy as thou art? Nay; for thou alone dreadedst 
not with thy own dear body to fight against all the awful (terrible) 
devils of hell ) that whichever of them is least loathsome and horrible, 


ihesu leue bat te luue of be beo al mi likinge. Bote nu iwile for a man is 

' ' ° loved for his 

ahte lefmow chese for aihwer wr5 chatel raon mai luue cheape. riches. 

Ah is ani ricchere ben bu mi leof bat rixles m heuene. bu art Christ is 

. . . richer than 

kid keiser bat al bis werkl wrahtes. for as te hali prophete dauid any man. 

cwiddes. drihtines is te eorSe. and al bat hit fulles werld and 

al bat trin wune^. Heuene wK be murines and ta unimete 

blisses. Al is tin mi sweting. and al bu wilt 3iue me 3b i be riht 

luuie. Ne mai i na man 3iue mi luue to swettere bi3ete. Halde 

iwile ba to be mi leof for be self luue be seluen. and for bi luue 

\eten alle o^re bi»ges bat min herte fram bi luue mihte drahe 

and tumen. A Ihesu swete ihesu leoue bat te luue of be beo al 

mi likinge. Bote *hwat is ahte and weorldes wele wurS wrS- *[FoU28a.] 

ute» fredom ] And hwa is fren*e ben bu 1 For first bu mades al bis Christ is to 

' ' be loved for 

werld and dides hit under mine fet. and makedes me lauedi his liberality. 

ouer alle bine schaftes bat tu schop on eorSe. Bote Ich hit 

rewli fordide burh-hut mine sunnes. Ah lest ine al forlesede bu 

3ef be seluen for me to lese me fra pine pewne 3if i ani wile for He gave him- 

largesce luue '. luue iwile be ihesu crist largest ouer o^re. For sinners, 

oftre largemen 3iuen bise uttre binges, bute bu swete ihesu for me 

3ef be seluen. bat tin ahne heorte blod ne cu^es tu wrS-halde. and withheld 

not his heart's 

Derre druri ne 3ef neauer na lefmon to o^er. And tu bat erst w°«i. 

me 3ef al be seluen f bu hafdes me heht mi lefmon to be 3iue 

al me seluen. to rixlen o bi rihthond crunet wio" be seluen. Hwa 

is ta largere ben bu. Hwa for lai'gesce is betere wur^ to beo 

luued ben bu mi luue lif. A ihesu swete ihesu leue bat te luue 

of be beo al mi likinge. Bote largesce is lutel wurg ber wisdom Christ is to 

be loved for 

wontes. And 3if bat iwile amnion luue for wisdom i nis nan his wisdom. 

wisere ben bu bat art wisedom cald of bi fader in heuene. For 

he burh be bat wisdom art al bis world wrahte and dihte^ hit 

and deale^ as hit best semeS. Inwi^ be mi leue lif is hord He is the 

hoard of all 

of alle wisedom hid as te bok witnesses. A ihesu swete ihesu wisdom. 

leue bat te luue of be beo al mi likinge. Bote moni man burh 

his stre?^g : 6e and hardischipe ek makes him luued cmd 3erned. 

And is ani swa hardi swa artu ? Nai. for bu be ane dreddes nawt Christ is to 

be loved for 

wr5 bin anre deore bodi to fihte a3aines alle be ahefulle deueles his bravery. 
of helle. bat hwuch of ham swa is lest la^eliche. and grureful. 


if he might, such as he is, show himself to man, all the world would 
be afraid to behold him alone, for no man may see him and remain 
in his wits, unless the grace and the strength of Christ embolden his 
heart. Thou art moreover herewith so immensely mighty that, with 
thy precious hand nailed on the rood, thou boundest the heli-dogs, 
and bereftest them of their prey which they had greedily grasped, and 
held it fast on account of Adam's sin. Thou keen (brave) renowned 
warrior (champion) robbedst hell- house, and deliveredst thy prisoners, 
and broughtest them out of the house of death, and leddest them with 
thyself to thy jewelled (gemmed) bower (hall), the abode of eternal 
bliss ; wherefore of thee, my beloved, was it truly said, " The Lord 
is mighty, strong and keen (brave) in battle." And therefore if a stal- 
worth lemman please me, I will love thee, Jesu, strongest over all, so 
that thou mayest fell the strong foes of my soul ; and that the strength 
of thee may help my great weakness, and thy boldness embolden my 
heart. Ah ! Jesus, sweet Jesu, grant that the love of thee may be all 
my delight. But noble men and gentle and of high birth often obtain 
the love of women at a very small cost, for oftentimes many a woman 
loses her honour through the love of a man that is of high birth ; 
then, sweet Jesu, upon what higher man may I set my love 1 where 
may I a more gentle (noble) man choose than thee, that art the king's 
son, that wieldest this world, and art king equal with thy father, king- 
over kings and lord over lords ] and yet with respect to thy manhood 
born thou wast of Mary, a maiden meekest of mood (mind) ; child of 
royal birth, of king David's kin, of Abraham's race. No higher birth 
than this is there under the sun. I will love thee, then, sweet Jesu, as 
the most gentle (noble) life that ever lived on earth, and also because 
in all thy life never was any vice found, my dear faultless beloved one ; 
and that came to thee of (thy) birth and of (thy) nurture, because 
thou didst ever dwell in the court of heaven. Ah ! my pi-ecious lord ; 
so gentle (noble), and so gracious ; suffer me never to settle my love 
on chui'lish things, nor to desire earthly things nor fleshly things in 
preference to thee, nor to love against thy will. Ah ! Jesus, sweet Jesu, 
grant that the love of thee be all my delight. Meekness and mildness (hu- 
mility) make a man everywhere to be beloved ; and thou, my dear Jesus, 
for thy great meekness was compared to a lamb, because anent all the 
wrong and the shame that thou sufferedst, and anent all the woe and the 
painful wounds, thou never openedst thy mouth to grudge (murmur) 


mihte he swuch as he is to nionkin him scheawe :' al be world 

were offeard him ane to bihalde for ne mihte na mow him seo 

and in his wit wunie. bute 3if be grace *and te strengSe of *[Foi.i28&.] 

crist baldede his heorte. bu art 3ette her wrS swa unimete mihti 

bat wrS bi deorewurSe houd nailet on rode '. bu baud ta belle Thou didst 

' ' . . bind the hell- 

dogges. and reftes ham hare praie bat tai hefden gi'edihche dogs, 

gripeq and helden hit faste for adames sunne. bu keue kidde 

kempe robbedes helle bus. lesedes tine prisuns and riddes ham and harriedst 

hell's house, 

ut of cwalm bus and leddes ham wi^ be self to bi 3immede bur. 
bold of eche blisse. forbi of be mi lefmon was so^liche quiddet. 
Drihti[n] is mahti strong and kene ifihte. And for bi jif 
me likes stalewurSe lefmon f luue iwile be ihesu strongest ouer therefore i 

' ° will love thee 

alle. bat bi maht felle mine starke sawle fan. and te strengSe of as a staiwwth 

' ' ° lemmati. 

be helpe mi muchele waenesse. and hardisohipe of be balde min 

herte. A ihesu swete ihesu leue bat te luue of be beo al mi 

likinge. Ah noble men and gentile and of heh burSe ofte Noble men 

. •, . Ina . v ' nl . v 

winnen luue lihtliche cheape. for ofte moni wnmmon letes hire women's love 

mensket burh be luue of wepmon \at is of heh burSe. benne 

swete ihesu up o hwat herre mon mai i mi luue sette. bwer mai i 

gentiller mon chese ben be bat art te kinges sune bat tis world i cannot 

' ' ' b r _ choose a 

wealdes. and kino: and euene wi^ bi fader, king ouer kinges nobler one 

6 ' ° ° thantliee, 

lauerd ouer lauerdes And 3ette onont ti rnonhad born bu wes 

of marie meiden mildest o mod. kine beam of burSe. of daurSes child of royal 

. ,,irtn . of 

kin be king, of Abrahames streone. Hehere burSe ben bis nis David's kin. 

nan under sunne. Luue iwile be ba swete ihesu as te gentileste i win love 

' ' , ° thee as the 

lif bat eauer liuede on eor^e. alswa for in al bi lif neauer na noi.iestthat 

' ' ever lived. 

leaste nes ifunden. mi deore lefmon lasteles. and tat com be 

of burSe. and of foster alswa. bu bat eauer wunedest i be hurd 

of heouene. * A mi deorewurSe dnrS swa gentile and swa * [Foi. 129.] 

hende. ne bole me neauer mi luue nohwer to sette o karlische 

binges, ne eor^li bing ne fleschli a3aines tc 3erne ne luue a3ain 

bi wille. A ihesu swete ihesu leue bat te luue of be beo al mi 

likinge. Meknesse and mildschipe makes mon eihwer luued. Meekness and 


emd tu mi leue ihesu for bi mikle meknesse to lamb was euenet. cause a man 

' to be loved. 

For a3aines al be woh and te schome bat tu boledest. and a3aines 
al be wa and te pinfule wundes i neauer ne opnedes ti mu^ 



against it ; and yet the shame and the wrong, that the sinful each 
day do unto thee, thou sufferest meekly ; nor dost thou take vengeance 
(upon us) immediately after our sins, but long awaitest (our) repentance 
through thy mercy. Since thy goodness may cause thee everywhere to 
be beloved, therefore is it right that I love thee and leave all others 
for thee, for thou hast shown great mercy towaixl me. Ah ! Jesu, sweet 
Jesu, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. But because friends 
of kin naturally love one another thou shroudedst thyself with our 
flesh ; tookest man of her flesh, born of a woman. Thy flesh took of her 
flesh without commerce of man ; took fully, with that same flesh, man's 
nature to suffer all that man may suffer, to do all that man doth, 
except sin alone ; for thou hadst neither sin nor ignorance. Then 
against nature goes each man who loveth not such a kinsman, and 
leaveth (all others). Seeing that truer love ought to be amongst 
brethren, thou becamest man's brother of one father, with all those 
that sing Pater noster in purity ; but thou [art a son] through 
nature (and we through grace), and man of that same flesh that we 
bear on earth. Ah ! whom may he love truly who loveth not his 
brother ; then whosoever loveth not thee is a most wicked man. 
Now, my sweet Jesu, I have left for thy love flesh's kinship, and 
yet born-brothers have cast me aside, but I reck of nothing whilst 1" 
hold thee, for in thee alone may I find all friends. Thou art to me 
more than father, more than mother. Brother, sister, or friends, none 
are to be esteemed as anything in comparison with thee. Ah ! Jesu, 
sweet Jesu, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. Thou 
then with thy beauty, thou with thy riches, thou with thy liberality, 
thou with wit and wisdom, thou with thy might and strength, thou 
with nobleness (of birth) and graciousness, thou with meekness and 
mildness and great gentleness, thou with kinship, thou with all the 
things that one may purchase love with, hast bought my love ; but 
above all other things thou makest thyself worthy of love to me, 
through those hard horrible injuries, and those shameful .wrongs that 
thou didst suffer for me. Thy bitter pain and thy passion, thy shai'p 
death on the rood, rightly tells upon all my love, and challenges 
(claims) all my heart. Jesus, my life's love, my heart's sweetness, 
three foes fight against me, and yet may I sore dread for their blows ; 
and it behoves me, through thy grace, prudently to guard myself against 
the world, my flesh, and the devil. The world endeavours to make 


to grucchen ajaines. and sette be schome and te woh bat te Thou en- 

° ° ' ' durest all the 

sunefule of be world euch dai don bef mildeliche bu bo] est hit. wrongdoing 

! > ' ' of man, 

ne wrekes tu be nawt sone after ure Gultes Bote longe abides 
bote bui'h ut ti milce. penne bi deboneirschipe mai make be 
eihwer luued. and for bi is riht bat i luue be. and leaue alle o^re therefore will 

' > ' 1 leave all 

for be. for muchel bu liaues ti milce toward me scheawed. A ° tliers for 

> > thee. 

ihesu swete ihesu leue bat te luue of be beo al mi likinge. Bote 

for bi bat sibbe frend kindeliche euchan luues o^er f bu schruddes Kinsmen love 

' ' ' one another ; 

te wi$ ure flesch. nam of hire flesch mon born of wu»tmon 

bi flesch nam of hire flesch wrS ute?i meane of wepmow. nam thou art of 

our kin, 

wr5 bat ilke flesch fulliche mownes cunde to bolen al bat mon 
mai bole. Don al bat mon de^ wr5 utew sunne ane. for sumie 
and unwitschipe ne hafdes tu now^er. penne asaines kinde wherefore we 

■*■ should leave 

GaS hwa bat swuche kinsemow ne luueS and leue^. And for a ," otheis for 

' thee. 

bi bat trewere luue ah beo imong bre^re bu mownes broker 
bicom of an fader wi$ alle boa bat cleneliche singen. Pater 
nosier. Bute bu burhut kinde. and we burhut grace, and mon 
of bat ilke flesch bat we beren on eorSe. A. hwam mai he luue 
treweliche hwa ne luues his broker. pemie hwa se be ne luues f 
he is mon unwreastest Nu mi swete ihesu. leaued haue i J liave left 

all for thee. 

for bi luue flesches sibnesse* and 3ette borne brefcre hauen *[FoLi89&.] 
me forwurpen. bote ne recches me na bing hwils bat i be 
halde. for i be ane mai ich alle frewd findew. bu art me mare Thou art 

more to me 

ben fader, mare ben moder. Broker suster. o^re frend nam than an my 

r . r kin. 

uawiht a3aines te to teller. A ihesu swete ihesu leue bat te. &c. 
penne bu wvS bi fairnesse. bu wrS richesce. bu wi$ largesce. bu 
wi^ wit and wisdom, bu wi$ maht and strewgSe. bu wrS no- 
blesce and hendeleic. bu wr& meknesse and mildeschipe and mikel 
debonairte. bu wrS sibnesse. bu wrS alle be binges bat man mai 
luue wrS bugge J haues mi luue chepet. Ah ouer alle o^re bi«ges Thou hast 

caused me to 

makes te luuewurSi to me ba harde atele hurtes. ba schomeliche lov e thee 

through thy 

wohes bat tu boledes for me. bi bittre pine and passiun. bi derue P ain and i >as - 
dea^ o rode telles riht in al mi luue. caleneres al mi heorte. death °" the 

° cross. 

Ihesu mi Hues luue. min herte swetnesse. bre fan fihten a3aines 
me. and $et mai ich sare for hare duntes drede. and bihoues 
burh bi grace 3apliche to wite me. be werld mi flesch. be deouel. 


me its slave ; my flesh to make me a whore ; the devil, through these 
two, to draw me to hell. Fearful I was myself, and sorrowful, and 
nigh down-fallen (dejected), and my foes hold, so blustering, and so keen 
(fierce), that when they saw me so weak and so fearful and so yielding 
towards them, the more they assaulted me and weened to have made 
me, wretch, all their own, and had indeed made (me so), had not 
(thy) help been the nearer to me. They grinned for gladness each 
one toward the other, as mad wolves that rejoice over their prey. But 
thereby I understand that thou wilt have me for thy beloved (lemman) 
and for thy spouse, so that thou didst not permit them fully to 
rejoice over me, nor altogether to have cast me into shame and sin, 
and thereafter into (everlasting) torment. But where the bale (danger) 
was greatest of all, there was succour nearest. Thou beheldest 
all this, and thou also sawest that I was unable to stand against their 
wilful wiles through wisdom or strength that was in myself, but nearly 
had I fully yielded to all my three foes. Thou earnest to help me, under- 
tookest to fight for me, and riddest (deliveredst) me from the sorrow 
of death's house, and the pain of hell. Thou baddest me behold 
how thou foughtest for me, that I may not be afraid of worldly po- 
verty, nor shame of wicked men's mouth, guiltlessly, nor sickness of 
my body, nor bodily pain, when I behold how thou wast poor for 
me, how thou wast disgracefully and shamefully treated for me, and 
at the last, with torturing death, hanged on the rood. Jesu, my 
life's love, rich art thou as Lord in heaven and earth, and yet thou 
becamest for me poor, destitute and wretched. Poor wast thou born 
of the maiden, thy mother, for in thy birth-time in all the city of 
Bethlehem thou foundest not house-shelter wherein thy tender child's 
limbs might rest, but (wast born) in a wall-less house in the middle of 
the street. Poor thou wast, wrapped in rags and clouts, and coldly 
lodged in a beast's crib. But as thou grewest older thou becamest even 
poorer ; for in thy childhood thou hadst the breast (paps) for thy 
food, and thy mother was ready when thou yearnedst for the breast ; 
but when thou becamest older, thou, that feedest the fowls in 
(their) flight, fish in the flood, and people on the earth, suffer- 
edst for lack of meat many a sharp (pang of) hunger, as clerks 
indeed read in the Gospel ; and thou that wroughtest the heaven 
and earth, and all this world, hadst not in all this world of thine 


pe world to make me bewe. Mi flesf to make me hore. pe My foes, the 

'I world, flesh, 

deuel burh ut bise twa to drahe me to helle. Arh ich was w ^ ll *!^ 1 devi1 ' 

meself and wah and neh dune fallen, and mine fan derue. j^f^nd 

swa bucchede and swa kene bat hwew bai sehen me swa wak over me ; 

and swa forkuhande and buhande toward ham. bei swrSre 

sohten uppo me. and wenden of me wrecche kaue maked al 

hare alien and hefden forso^e maked. nere kelpe nere be 

nerre. pai grennede for gladschipe euchan toward o^er as they rejoiced 

° ox over me <as 

wode wulues bat faine^ of hare praie. Bote ber burh under- wild beasts 

> * ' ' over their 

stonde i bat tu wult haue me to lefmon and to spwse. bat tu P'ey, 

ne boledes ham noht fulli fainen of me. and alle gate haue 

wurpen me in schome and in sinne. and ter after in to pine. 

Bote ber be bale was aire meast. swa was te bote nehest. 

pu biheld al bis and tu allegate seh bat ine mihte stonde but thou saw- 

* ' ° ' est my wcak- 

ajain hare *wilfulle crokes burh wit o^er streng^e bat wes \n ness > 

me seluew. Bot neh hefde i fulliche buhed til alle mine bre 

fan. bn com me to helpe. feng to fihte for me. and riddes me and didst 

> I O fight for me. 

fram dea^es hus sorhe and pine of helle. pu biddes me bihalde 
hu bu faht for me. bat i pouerte of worlde ne schome of wicke 
monnes mu? for uten mine Gulte. ne secnesse of mi bocli. ne 
flesches pine drede. hwew bat i bihalde hu bu was poure for 
me. hu bu was schent and schomet for me '. and atte laste wrS 
pineful dea^ henged orode. Ihesu mi Hues luue riche ar tu as Tll0u th t at 

1 ~ wast rich 

lauerd in heuene and in eorSe. and tah poure bu 1 bicom for me. awst become 

* J poor for me, 

westi and wrecched Poure bu born was of be meidew bi ' ms. bi. 

moder. for beraie ibi burS tid in al be burh of belleem ne fant 

tu hus lewe ber bine nesche childes limes i?zne mihte reste. 

Bot in a waheles hus imiddes be strete. Poure bu wundere, and wast born 

' ' in a wall-less 

was irattes and i clutes and caldeliche dennet in a beastes house> 
cribbe. Bote swa bu eldere wex f swa bu pourere was. For 
i bi childhad hafdes tu be pappe to bi fode. and ti moder 
readi hwew bu pappe 3erndes. Bote hwew bu eldere was. bu The older 
bat fuhel ofluht. fisch iflod folc on eorSe fedes '. b^des for grow the 

' ' poorer thou 

wone of mete moni hat hungre as clerkes witerliche in god- becamest. 
spel reden. and tu bat heuene and eorSe and al bis werld 
wrahtes. nauedes m al bis werld hwer bu o bin alien bi heaued 


own where thou mightest rest thy head ; but both young and older 
always thou hadst (not) wherewith thou mightest cover thy bones. 
But at the last (period) of thy life, when thou for me so piteously 
didst hang on the rood, thou hadst not, in all this world, wherewith 
thou mightest cover and hide thy blissful bloody body. And so my 
sweet beloved one, poor thou thyself wast ; and thou choosest the rather 
to be poor, for poverty thou didst love, and poverty didst teach 
(enjoin) ; and thou hast given perpetually thy everlasting bliss to all 
those that willingly endure, (wholly) cleanly for thy love, hardships 
and poverty. All ! why should I be rich and thou, my beloved, so 
poor 1 Therefore, sweet Jesu Christ, will I be poor for thee, as thou 
wast for the love of me, so that I may be rich with thee in thine eternal 
bliss ; for with poverty and with woe shall weal be purchased. Ah ! 
Jesu, sweet Jesu, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. But 
poverty with honour is easy to be endured ; but thou, my beloved, 
wholly for my love, with all thy poverty was shamefully ill-treated ; 
for how often they said to thee shameful words, and hateful scoffings ; 
which it would take long to tell them all ! But much shame thou didst 
suffer when thou, that never didst sin, was taken as an untrue 
(traitor), brought before sinful men, those heathen hounds, by them to be 
doomed, thou that art the judge of (all) the world. There thou, the 
saviour of mankind, wast shamefully condemned (to death), and the 
murderer was released from the doom (sentence) of death ; for, as it 
is written in the Gospel, they all cried after the manner of mad wolves, 
" Hang, hang that traitor Jesus on the rood ; hang him on the rood, 
and release to us Barabbas ;" a thief was that Barabbas that had 
seditiously killed a man in the city. But more shame thou didst 
endure when that the sinful men spat in thy face. Ah, Jesu ! who 
might endure more, Christian or heathen, than when one spitteth in 
scorn upon his beard 1 And thou, in thy pleasant face, in that love- 
some cheer (countenance) didst endure such shame ; and yet for the 
love of me it all seemed honour to thee, so that thou mightest with 
that spittle, that so besmeared thy face, wash my soul and make 
it white and shining and seemly in thy sight. And therefore thou 
biddest me think upon this. Scito, Quoniam propter te sustinui op- 
probium : operuit confusio faciem mea/m. — Understand, thou sayest, 
and heartily think that I, for the love of thee, didst endure shame 
and scorn, and shameful spitting of unworthy ribalds ; the heathen 
hounds covered my face for thee. As though he should say, " Dread 


mibtes reste. Bote ba$e 3ung and eldre alle Gate bu hafdes 

hwer bu mihtes wrilie bine banes. Ab atte laste of bi lif bwen Even when on 

' ' tlie cross thou 

bu for me swa rewliche hengedes on rode, ne hafdes in al bis nadst no 

» ° * covering for 

world hwer wrS bat blisfule blodi bodi bu mibtes bule and huide. tt ^ bod y- 

and swa mi swete lefmon poure bu be self was. and te poure 1 bu l ms. bome. 

raSeste cheas. pouerte bu luuedes. pouerte bu tabtes. and 5iuen 

bu baues ecbeliche bin endelese blisse. til alle bat cleuli for b\ 

luue mesaise and pouerte wilfulliche bolien. A bu scbulde i beo How should i 

' then be rich 

riche. and tu mi leof swa poure f for bi swete *ihesu crist wile i and thou so 

* ' poor ! 

beo poure for bef as tu was for be luue of me. for to beo riche *[Foi.i30&.] 
wiS be i pin eche blisse. for wrS pouerte and wrS wa scbal mo»i 
wele buggen. A ihesu swete ibesu leue bat te &c. Bote po- 
uerte wrS menske is eaS for to bolien. Ah bu mi lef for mi For my sake 

thou wast 

luue wi*5 al b'\ pouerte was schomeliche heaned. for hu mon be shamefully 

ofte seide schomeliche wordes and haSfule hokeres. long weren 

bit al to telle?*. Bote mucbe schome bu boledes. hwew bu bat 

neauer su?*ne didesf was taken as untreowe. Broht biforen 

sinfule men ]>a heaSene hundes of ham to beo demct. \>at demere 

art of werlde. per bu bote of mon kiu schomeliche was denied, doomed to 

' death, and 

and te monquellere fra deSes dom was lesed. For as i be '»»is on the 

A * cross as a 

godspel is writen. alle bai crieden o wode wulues wise Heng traitor. 

heng bat treitur ihesus on rode. Heng him o rode, and lese us 

Baraban. was tat barabas a beof bat wrS tresun i be burb bafde a 

mow cwelled. bote mare schome bu Jjoledes hwen bat te sunefule 

men i bi neb spitted. A ihesu hwa mibte mare bolen cristen On thy beard 

' they spat, 

oSer heaSen f ben mon him for scbendlac i be beard spitted. 
And tu i bi welefulle wlite. i bat lufsume leor swuche schome 
boledes. And al be menske buhte f or be luue of me. bat tu and with that 

' ' » ' ' spittle thou 

mihtes wrS bat spatel bat swa biclarted 2 ti leor wascbe mi sawle. 
and make bit bwit and scbene and semlike i bi sihte. and for bi 
bu biddes me her up on benche. Scito, juoniawi propter te sus- 
tinui oprobrium ojiermt confusio faciem. meam. Vnderstond bu 
seist and berteliche benke bat i for be luue of be bolede schome and 
bismere. and schomeliche spatelmg of unwurSi ribauz ba heaSene 
hundes hilede mi neb for be. As tah he seide. ne drcd tu nawt 

didst wash 
my soid white 
and clean. 
2 MS. biclar- 


thou not therefore to endure for me worldly shame, although guilt- 
less." But shame above shame thou didst endure when thou wast 
hanged between two thieves, as though one might say, " He is more 
than thief, and therefore as their (chief) master he hangs between 
them." Ah ! Jesu, my life's love, what heart is there that may not 
break when he thinketh hereof; how thou, that art the honour of 
all mankind, and the remedy for all bales (sorrows), didst endure 
such shame for to honour mankind. They speak often of wonders 
and of marvels, divers and manifold, that have befallen, but this was 
the greatest wonder that ever befell on earth. Yea! wonder above 
wonders, that that renowned kaiser, crowned in heaven, creator of 
all creatures, in order to honour his foes, would hang between two 
thieves ! Ah ! Jesu, sweet Jesu, thou that wast shamefully treated 
for love of me, grant that the love of thee be all my delight. Sufficient 
were poverty and shame, without other torments ; but it seemed 
never to thee, my life's love, that thou mightest fully purchase my 
friendship whilst life lasted thee. Ah ! a dear bargain hadst thou in 
me ; never was so unworthy a thing bought so dearly. All thy life 
on earth was in affliction for my sake, ever longer the more so. 
But before thy death so infinitely thou wast afflicted and so sorely, 
that thou didst sweat red blood ; for, as St. Luke saith in the Gospel, 
thou wast in so great an affliction that the sweat, as drops of blood, 
ran down to the earth. But what tongue may tell, what heart may 
think, for sorrow and for ruth, of all the buffets and the grievous 
blows that thou didst suffer in thy first capture, when that Judas 
Iscariot brought the hell-bairns (children of hell) to take and to bring 
thee before their princes ; how they bound thee so cruelly fast that 
the blood was wrung out at thy finger-nails (as saints believe), and 
led thee sorrowfully bound, and struck harsh blows on thy back and 
shoulders, and before the princes buffeted and beat thee ; how after- 
wards before Pilate thou wast bound naked and fast to the pillar, so 
that thou mightest nowhere turn (wrench thyself) from the blows. There 
thou wast, for love of me, with knotty whips beaten, so that thy lovely 
body might be torn and rent asunder ; and all thy blissful body streamed 
in one blood-stream. Afterwards on thine head was set the crown 
of sharp thorns, so that with every thorn the red blood poured out 
from thine holy head. Afterwards also wast thou buffeted and struck on 
the head with the sceptre of reed, that was previously in thine hand 


for be of me to boh? schome of worlde wr5 ute bine Gulte. Bote 

schome ouer schomes * boledes tu hwew bu wes henged bituhlie * [Foi. 131.] 

twa beofes. As hwa se seie. He bis is mare ben beof. And for He was hung 

between two 

bi as hare meister he henges ham bituhhen. A ihesu mi Hues thieves, as if 

he were the 

luue hwat herte ne mai to breke hwew ha herof benches hu greatest maie- 

' factor. 

bu bat menske art of al mon kin. of alle bales bote, mow for to 
menske swuch schome boledes. Mon spekes ofte of wundres 
and of selcuSes bat misliche and monifald hauew bifallera. bote 
bis was te measte wunder bat eauer bifel on eorSe. 3a wunder was not tins 

the greatest 

ouer wundres bat tat kidde keiser cruned in heuene. schu])pere ofa11 


of alle schaftes. for to mensken hise fan. walde he»ge bituhlie 

twa beoues. A ihesu swete ihesu bat tu wes schewt for mi luue 

leue bat te luue of be &c. Inoh were poutrte and schome wr5 

ute?i o'Sre pines bote ne buhte be neauer mi Hues luue. bat tu 

mihtes fulliche mi frendschipe buggen hwils 1 be lif be lasted ' ms. hwiif. 

A. deore cheap hefdes tu on me. ne was neauer unwurSi bing 

chepet swa deore. Al bi lif on eor^e wes iswink for me swa ah thy Ufa 

. , was in sorrow 

lengre swa mare Ah bifore bin ending swa unimeteliche bu for my sake, 
swanc and swa sare bat reade blod bu swattes for as. seint luk Thou didst 

. . . . sweat drops 

sero 1 be godspel. bu was 1 swa Strang a swing bat te swat as of blood in 

blodes dropes eorn dune to be eorSe. Bute hwat tunge mai hit agony 

telle, hwat heorte mai hit benche for sorhe and for reow¥e 

of alle ba buffetes and ta bali duntes bat tu boledest i bin earst 

niminge hwew bat iudas scharioth brohte ba helle bearnes be to 

taken and bringen biforew hare princes, hu ha be bundew swa The Jews so 

bound tliee 

*hetehfaste bat te blod wrang ut at tine finger neiles as halhes that the wood 

gushed out at 
bileuen and bundew leaden rewn and dintede unrideli o run- thy ringer 

to nails. 

and o schuldres. and bifore be princes buffeted and beten. * L Foi. 1316.J 

SrSen bifore pilat hu bu was naket bundew faste to be piler. 

bat tu ne mihtes nowhwider wrenche fra ba duntes. ber bu wes 

for mi luue wift cnotti swepes swungen swa bat ti luueliche lich Thou wast so 

scourged that 

mihte beo to torn and to rent, and al bi blisfule bodi streamed the wood 


on a Girre blod. SrSen o bin heaued wes set te crunc of scharpe from tliy 

' * body. 

bornes. bat wftS eauriche born wrawg ut te reade blod of bin 
heali heaued. Si¥en 3ft te buffetet and to dunet i be heaued 
wi* be red 3erde bat te was ear \n honde 3iuen be on hoker- 


given thee in scorn. Ah ! what shall I do now 1 Now my heart may 
break, my eyes flow all with water. Ah ! now is my beloved doomed 
to die. Ah ! now they lead him forth to mount Calvary to the place 
of execution. Ah, lo ! he bears his rood upon his bare shoulders ; 
and would that those blows had struck me with which they battered 
and thrust thee quickly forward toward thy doom ! Ah ! beloved, how 
they follow thee ; thy friends sorrowfully with lamentation and sorrow, 
and thy enemies mockingly in scorn and to bring trouble on thee. Ah ! 
now they have brought him thither. Ah ! now they raise up the rood, 
and set up the accursed tree. Ah ! now they strip my beloved. Ah ! 
now they drive him up with whips and with scourges. Ah ! how can 
I live for grief, seeing my beloved upon the cross, and his limbs so drawn 
asunder that I may tell each bone in his body. Ah ! how do they now 
drive the iron nails through thy fair hands into the hard rood, [and] 
through thy gracious feet. Ah ! now from those hands and feet so lovely, 
streams the blood so ruefully. Ah ! now they offer my beloved, that 
saith he thirsts, eisel, sourest of all drinks, mixed with gall, that 
is the bitterest thing (two bale-drinks in blood-letting, so sour and 
so bitter), but he drank not of it. Ah ! now sweet Jesu, yet in 
addition to all thy woe they increase it by shame and mockery, 
they laugh thee to scorn where thou hangest on the rood. When 
thou, my lovely beloved, with outstretched arms, hangedst on the 
rood, it was rueful to the righteous, but laughter to the wicked. And 
thou, before whom all the world might dread and tremble, wast a 
laughing-stock and a mockery to the wicked folk of this world. Ah ! 
that lovely body that hangest so sorrowfully, so bloody, and so cold ! 
Ah ! how shall I now live, for my beloved dies now for me upon the 
dear cross. He hangs down his head and his soul departs. But it 
seems to them that he is not yet fully tormented, nor will they let the 
sorrowful body rest in peace. They lead forth Longius with the broad 
sharp spear. He pierces his side, cleaves the heart, and there comes 
flowing out of the wide wound the blood that redeemed [us] and the 
water that washed the world from guilt and from sin. Ah ! sweet Jesu, 
thou openest for me thy heart, that I may know (thee) truly and read 
therein true love-letters, for there I may openly see how much thou 
lovedest me. With wrong should I refuse thee my heart, since thou 
hast bought heart for heart. Lady, mother, and maiden, thou didst 
stand here full nigh and sawest all this sorrow upon thy precious son. 


ringe. A hwat schal i nu don 1 Nu min herte mai to breke. 
min ehne flowen al o water. A nu is mi lefmow demd for to 
deien. A nu mo» ledes him forS to munte caluarie to be cwalm Thou wast 

a • i ■ iii led to mount 

stowe. A lo he beres his rode up on his bare schuldres. and Calvary, 
lef ba duntes drepew me bat tai be dunchen and brasten be 
forSward swrSe toward ti dom. A lefmow hu mo« follies te. amidst the 

weeping of 

bine frend sariliche wrS reining and sorhe. bine fend hokerliche thy friends 

and the scorn 

to schome and wundrew up o be. A nu haue bai broht him oft,) y 


bider. A nu raise bai up be rode. Setis up be warh treo. A 

nu nacnes mo?i mi lef A. nu driuen ha him up wK swepes and Vp the cross 

they drove 

wi^ schurges. A hu Hue i for reow^e bat seo mi 1 mi lefmow thee with 

' whips ; 

up o rode, and swa to drahen hise limes bat i mai in his bodi i?nu. 
euch ban teller. A hu bat ha nu driuen iruene neiles burh bine 
feire hondes in to hard rode burh bine freoliche fet. A nu of ba 

hondew and of ba fet swa luueli. streames te blod swa rewli. into thy 

hands and 

A nu bedew ha mi leof bat serS bat him bristes '. aisille surest f eet they 

' ' ' drove the iron 

aire drinch menged wi¥> galle bat is bing bittrest. Twa 2 Bale nai,s - 

• 1_ • 1 1 11 • 7 • • 2 ^ IS- ® WB " 

drinch l blodletmg swa sur and swa bittre. bote ne drinkes They gave 

he hit noht. A nu swete ihesu. 5et up on al bi wa ha eken todriX 85 "" 

schome and burner, lahhen be to hokere ber bu o rode hengest. gall. 
bu mi luueliche lef ber bu wi^ strahte * earmes henges o rode f *[Foi. 132.] 

was reowfte to rihtwise. lahter to be lu^ere. And tu bat al be They mocked 

. a t thy suffer- 

world fore mihte drede and diuere i was unwreste folk of world ings. 

to hoker lahter. A bat luuelike bodi bat henges swa rewli swa 

blodi and swa kalde. A hu schal i nu Hue for nu deies mi lef Thy spirit 


for me up o be deore rode ? Henges dun his heaued and sendee 

his sawle. Bote ne binche ham nawt 3et bat he is fill pinet. ne but thy body 

bat rewfule deade bodi nulen ha nawt friSie. Bringen for$ in peace, 

longis wr5 bat brade scharpe spere. He buries his side cleues Longiuswith 

a spear 

tat herte. and cumes flowinde ut of bat wide wunde. be blod bat pierced thy 

bohte. be water bat te world wesch of sake and of sunne. A 

swete ihmi bu oppnes me bin herte for to cnawe witerliche and Open thou 

... my heart to 

m to reden trewe lime lettres. for ber i mai openlich seo hu know thee 


muchel bu me luuedes. WrS wrange schuldi be min heorte 
wearnen si^en bat tu bohtes herte for herte. Lauedi moder and 
meiden bu stod here ful neh and seh al bis sorhe vpo bi deore- 


Thou wast inwardly martyred within thy motherly heart when thou 
sawest his heart cloven asunder with the spear's point. But, lady, 
for the joy that thou hadst of his resurrection the third day there- 
after, grant me to understand thy sorrow and heartily to feel some- 
what of the sorrow that thou then hadst ; and that I may help thee 
to weep because he so bitterly redeemed me with his blood, so that 
I, with him and with thee, may rejoice in my resurrection at dooms- 
day, and be with thee in bliss. Jesus, sweet Jesu, thus thou foughtest 
for me against my soul's foes ; thou didst settle the contest for me 
with thy body, and madest of me, wretch, thy beloved (lemman) and 
spouse. Thou hast brought me from the world into the bower of 
thy birth, enclosed me in thy chamber where I may so sweetly kiss 
and embrace thee, and of thy love have spiritual delight. Ah ! sweet 
Jesu, my life's love, with thy love hast thou redeemed me, and from 
the world thou hast brought (taken) me. But I now may say with 
the Psalmist, Quid retribuam domino pro omnibus quae retribuit mihi — 
Lord, what may I recpiite thee for all that thou hadst given me ! What 
may I suffer for thee for all that thou didst endure for me ! But it 
is needful for me that thou be easy to satisfy. A wretched (poor) 
body and a weak (one) I bear on earth, and that, such as it is, I have 
given thee, and will give to thy service. Let my body hang with 
thy body nailed on the rood, and enclosed transversely within four 
Avails ; and hang I will with thee, and never more from my cross 
come until I die ; for then shall I leap from the rood into rest, from 
woe to weal and into eternal bliss. Ah ! Jesus, so sweet it is with 
thee to hang ; for when I look on thee that hangest beside me, the 
great sweetness of thee bei'eaves me of many pains. But, sweet Jesus, 
what is my body worth in comparison Avith thine % for if I might a 
thousandfold give thee myself, it AA r ould be nothing compared to thee 
that gavest thyself for me ; and yet I have a heart, vile and un- 
Avorthy, and destitute and poor of all good virtues ; and that, such 
as it is, take to thyself now, dear life, with true love, and suffer me 
never to love anything against thy will, for I may not set my love 
better anywhei-e than on thee, Jesu Christ, that didst redeem it so 
dearly. There is none so worthy to be loved as thou, SAveet Jesu, that 
hast in thyself all things for which a man ought to be love-Avorthy 
to another. Thou art most Avorthy of my Ioa-c, thou that didst die 
for the love of me. Yet if I offered my love for sale and set a value 


wurSe sune. was wi^iwne martird ibi rnoderliche herte. bat 

seh to cleue his heorte wrS be speres ord. Bote lafdi for be Mother of 

Christ, aid me 

Ioie bat tu hefdes of his ariste be bridde dai ber after! leue me tobewaflwitii 

' r r r tliee the suf _ 

vnderstonde bi dol and herteli to felen su??^ hwat of be sorhe ferings of thy 

' ' son. 

bat tu ba hefdes and helpe be to wepe. bat i wrS him and vtvS 
be muhe i min ariste o domes dai gladien and wrS 3U beon 
i blisse bat he me swa bitterliche wrS his blod bohte. Ihesu 
swete ihesu bus tu faht for me asaines mine sawle fan. bu me Thou, Jesus, 

' J ' didst right for 

derennedes \\'v6 like, and makedes of me wrecche bi leofnum me against 

' my foes, 

and spvse. Broht tu haues me fra be world to bur of bi burSe. and hast 

1 ' wade nie thy 

steked me i chaumbre. I mai ber be swa sweteli kissen and spouse. 

cluppeu. and of bi luue haue gastli likinge. A swete ihesu 

mi Hues luue wrS bi blod bu haues me boht. and fram be world 

bu haues me broht. Bote nu mai i seggen wi^ be salmewrihte. 

Quid retribuam domino pro omnibus que retribuit michi. 

Lauerd hwat mai i 2clde be for al bat tu haues siuen me. Hwat What can 1 

•* * * give thee in 

mai bole for be for al bat tu boledes for me ] Ah me * bihoue^ [; eturn ful " °v 

bat tu beo ea^ to paie. a wrecche bodi awl a wac bere ich *[FoLi32&.] 
ouer eorSe. and tat swuch as hit is haue 30101 and yiue wile to 

bi seruise. Mi bodi henjre wi^ bi bodi neiled rode, sperred Mr *. v m >' bod >' 

' o / a hang on the 

querfaste wr5 inne fowr wahes and henge i wile wr5 be and ™" tlU l 

neauer mare of mi rode cume til bat i deie. For bewne schal 

i lepen fra rode in to reste. fra wa to wele and to eche blisse 

A. ihesu swa swet hit is wi^ be to henge. for hwen bat i seo o be 

bat henges me biside f be muchele swetnesse of be f reaues me 

fele of pine. Bote swete ihesu hwat mai mi bodi ajaines tin for nut what is 

my bod; 

sif ich mihte a busand fald siue be me seluen nere hit nowt v01th aiie,,t 

' > ■> > ■ thine '. 

onont te bat lef be seluen for me. And set ich haue an heorte Yet have 1 a 

' t heart void of 

unwrest and unwurSi and westi and poure of alle gode beawes aiigood— 

1 ° ' take it to 

and tat swuch as hit is f tac hit to be nu leue lif wrS treowe thee - 

luuenesse. and ne bole me neauer nan o^er bing a3ain bi wille 

luuie for ne mai ich nowhwer mi luue bettre sette ben o be 

ihesu crist bat bohtes hit swa dere. nis nan swa wurSi to beo 

luued as tu swete ihesu bat in be haues alle bing hwer fore mo?i 

ah beo luuewurSi to o^er. bu art best wur¥ mi luue bat for mi Thou art best 

worthy of my 

luue deidest. jctte 3if bat i mi luue bede for to selle. and sette i° v e- 


thereupon, as high as ever I will, yet thou wilt have it, and more- 
over to what thou hast given thou wilt add more ; and, if I love thee 
aright, wilt crown me in heaven to reign with thyself, world without 
end. Ah ! Jesu, sweet Jesu, my love, my beloved, my life, my dearest 
love, that didst love me so much that thou didst die for the love of 
me, and hast separated me from the world, and hast made me thy 
spouse, and all thy bliss hast promised me, grant that the love of 
thee be all my delight. 

Pray for me, my clear sister. This have I written thee because that 
[such] words often please the heart to think on our Lord. And there- 
fore, when thou art in ease, speak to Jesu and say these words ; and 
think as though he hung beside thee bloody on the rood ; and may 
he, through his grace, open thine heart to the love of him, and to 
ruth of his pain. 


feor ber upon swa hehe swa ich e&uer wile '. sette bu wult hit if i will price 

» ■* myself ever so 

habbe and teken al bat tu haues aiuen f wil tu eke mare, and ^sK tll0 « 

> J wilt purchase 

3if i be riht luuie. wilt me crime \n heuene wK be self to rixlen il - 

werld m to werlde A ihesu swete ihesu mi luue. mi lef. mi lif. 

mi luue leuest bat swa muchel luuedes me bat tu deides for luue 

of me and fra be world haues broht * me. and ti spuse haues * t Fo1 - 133 -] 

Sweet Jesus, 

maked me. and al bi bhsse haues heht met leue bat te luue grant that the 

love of thee 

of be beo al mi likinge. be ail my 

> ° delight. 

Prei for me mi leue suster. bis haue i write»i be for bi bat Dear sister, 

A P' aV ^ 0r me ' 

wordes ofte quemen be heorte to beuken on ure lauem And and say these 

for bi hwen bu art on eise carpe toward ihesu and seie bise May Christ 

wordes. and bene as tah he heng biside be blodi up o rode, heart to his 

r i-i 7 ' ove an< ^ 

And he burh his tn-acc opn[e bin heorte to his luue and to to sorrow of 

Y ° ^ L J Y his pain. 

reow^e of his pine. 



Ic sem elder }>a3nne ic wres. a winter and a lore 
ic wselde more J>anne ic dude, mi wit ah to ben more 
Wei lange ic habbe child iben. a worde and ec a dede 
4 ]>ech ic beo a wintre eald. to 3ung ic eom at rede 
Vnnvyt lyf ic habbe 3e-lsed. and 3uet me )>inh ic lede 
]>anne ic me bi-J>anche. wel sore ic me adrede 
Mest al ]xet ic habbe ydon ys idelnesse and chilce 
8 wel late ic habbe me hi ]>oht. bute me god do milce 
Fele ydele word ic habbe i-quej?en sySen ic speke cuj>e 
and fele 3uinge deden i-do J>at me of-]>inchet nuj>e 
Al to lome ic habbe a-gult. a werche and ec a worde 

12 al to muchel ic habbe i-spend. to litel y-leid an horde 
Mest al J>at me likede ser. nu it me mys-liked 
J>e muchel ftn^ejj his y-wil. him sulfne he bi-swikeS 
Ic myhte habbe bet i-don hadde ic J>er y-sel]>e 

16 nu ic wolde, ac ic ne mai. for elde ne for un-hel}>e 
Elde me is bi-stolen on. aer ic hit a-wuste 
ne myht ic isen be-fore me. for smeke ne for myste 
Ai'3e we beo]) to done god to vuele al to jjriste 

20 more eie stont man of manne. jjanne him det of criste 

pe wel ne de)> J>e hwile he mei wel oft hit hym scsel ruwen 
Jjenne hy mowen sculen and ripen. }>er ]>e hi asr seowen 
Don ec to gode wet 3e mu3e ]>a hwile 3e bu^ a life 

24 ne hopie no man to muchel to childe ne to wyfe 
pe him selue for-3ut for wyfe o]>er for childe 

*Egerton MS. 613, fol. 7-12. 


he sael comen on vuele stede. bute hym god be milde 
Sende ec sum god be-foren hym. pe wyle %e ben aliue 

28 for betere his on almesse before. panne ben after vyue 
Ne beo pe leure pan pi self pi mei ne pi mo3e 
for sot ys pat ys oper mannes frond, betre panne his oje 
Ne hopie wif to byre were, ne were to his wife 

32 bue for him selue a?frech man. pe wyle he bo alife 
Wis is pe him sulf be-penp pa hwile pe he mot libbe 
for sone willet him for-3yten. pe fraamden and po sibbe 
pe wel ne dep pe wile he mai. ne seal he wanne he wolde 

36 mani mannes sor 3e-swyneh. habbet ofte alle vn-holde 
Ne solde no man don a ferst. ne sclakien wel to done 
for mani man bi-hoted wel. he it foi^ytet sone 
pe man pe wule siker ben. to habbe godes blisse 

40 do wel him silf pe wile he mai. panne haued he it midywisse 
pos riche men wened ben sikere. purh walles and purh diche 
he ded his eitte on sikere stede. pe hi send to heuene-riche 
For per ne ]>arf he ben of-drad. of fure ne of peve 

44 per ne mai it hym bi-nimen. pe lope ne pe leue 
per ne perf he habbe kare. of wine ne of childe 
pider we sended suuel and bred, to lutel and to selde 
pider we solden drawen and don. wel oft and wel 3e-lome 

48 for Jjer ne seal me us nout bi-nimen. mid >vi-onge ne mid woje 
pider we scolde 3erne drawen and don. wolde 3e me ileue 
for ]jer ne mai hit ou bi-nimen. }>e king ne ]>e scirreve 
Al pat beste pat Ave habbet. pider we scolde sende 

52 for per we it muwen finden eft. and habben abuten ende 
pe pe her det ani god. for to habben godes ore 
al he it seal finden per. and hundred felde more 
pe pe ehte wile healden wel. pe wile he mai his welden 

56 3iue his for godes luue. eft beo hit scullen a-finden 
Vre iswinch and ure tilpe. is ofte iwuned to swinden 
ac pat we dot for godes luue. eft we it scullen a-finden 
Ne seal non vuel ben vn-bout. ne non god vn-for-3olde 

60 vuel we do^ al to muchel. and god lasse panne we scolde 
pe pe mest deS nu to gode. and pe pe lest to la$e 



ayper to lutel and to muchel. seal pinehen eft hyin bafte 
per me seal vre werkes we3en. bi-foren pen heuene kinge 

64 and 3iuen us vre swinches lyen. after vre erninge 

Eure ile man mid pan pe he haued. mai biggen heueriche 
pe pe more haued and pe pe lasse. bo]je mai iliche 
He alse mid his penie. se pe oper mid his punde 

68 pat is pe wunder-likeste jare. pat eni man em*e funde 
And pe pe more ne mai don. bute mid his gode panke 
al se wel se ]>e haued. goldes feale manke 
And god can more pane, ^an pe him 3raed lesse 

72 al his werkes and his weies. is milce and rit3ifnesse 
Lutel loc is gode lef. pat corned of gode wille 
ami e^-lete muchel 3)*ue. ^enne ^e keorte is ille 
Heuene and erpe he ouer-silrS. his e3en bed so britte 

76 sunne. mone. dai. and fm\ bud J;ustre to-3enes his lithte 
Nis him nout for-hole ni-hud. so muchel bet his mihte 
nis it no so derne idon. ne a swa Jnistre nihte 
He wot wat deht and jjenchet. alle quike wihte 

80 nis no louerd swile se is crist. na king swile vre drihte 
Heuene and her^e and al pat is. be-loken in his honde 
he ded al pat his willes is. a watere and a londe 
He makede fisses inne pe see. and fu3eles inne pe lofte 

84 he wit and wait alle ping, and he scop alle scefte 
He is ord abuten orde. and ende a-buten ende 
he one is eure on elche stede. wende war pu wende 
He is buuen vs and bi-nepen. bi-foren and bi-hinde 

88 pe pe godes wille ^e. ei^er he mai him finde 
Elche rune he idiurd. and he wot alle dede 
he pur5-sih£ elches mannes pane, pat seal us to rede 
po pe breked godes hese. and gultet so ilome 

92 wet sulle hi segge oper don. at pe muchele dome 
po pe luueden vnriht. and vuel lif ladde 
wat scullen hi seggen oper don. par engles bed of-dredde 
Hwat sculle we beren bi-foren us. raid wan sculle we him 

96 we pe neure god ne duden. pe heuenliche demen 


per sculle ben deofles swo fele. j?e wulled us for-wreien 
nabbet hi noting for-3yte. of al }>at hi ere se3en 
Al J>at we mis-duden her. hit wnllet cuj>e ]>ere 

100 buten we habben it ibet. J>e wile we her were 

Al hi habbet an here i-write. J>at we mis-duden here 
J»ei we it nusten ne i-seien. hi weren vre i-fere 
Hwet scullen horlinges do. ]>e swikele ]>e for-sworene 

.104 wi swo fele beod i-cleped. swa feuwe beod i-corene 
Wi hwi were he bi-^ite. to wan were hi i-borene 
J>e sculle ben to de|>e i-demd. and eure mo for-lorene 
Elch man seal him sulne j»ar. bi-clepiean and ec demen 

108 his a3e were and his ij>anc. to witnesee he seal temen 
Ne mai hym na man al swa. wel demen ne al sa rithte 
for nan ni-cnawed him swa wel. buten one dritte 
Elc man wot him sulue best, his were and his i-wille 

112 ]>e \>e lest wot. seit ofte mest. and ]>e ]>e it wot is stille 
Nis no witnesse al so muehel. so mannes ho we heorte 
hwa se segge \at he beo al. him self wat best his smerte 
Elc man seal him suelf demen. to dej>e oj>er to Hue 

116 ]>e witnesse of his owe were, to o{>er ^is him seal driue 

Eal J>at eure ile man haued i-do. sutjje 1 he com to manne 
swile hit seie on boc i-writen. he seal it Jjenche jjanne 
Ac drithte ne denied nanne man. after his bi-ginninge 

120 ac his lif seal beo swulc. se bued his endinge 

Ac 3if )>e ende is euel, al it is uuel. and al god, 3if god is ende 
god 3uue })at ure ende beo god. and wite ]>et he us lende 
pe man j>e nele do no god. ne neure god lif leden 

124 aer ded awl dom come to his dure, he mai sore a-dreden 
pat he ne muwe |>enne bidde ore. for it itit ilome 
)>i he is wis |>e bit. and be^it. and bet be-fore dome 
penne ded is ate dure, wel late he biddet ore 

1 28 wel late he leted vuel weorc. \e hit ne mai do na mare 

Sunne let ]>e and ]>u naht hire Jjanne jnis ne miht do no more 
for-jn he is sot ]>e swa abit to habbe godes hore 
peh hwe^er we it iluuet wel. for drihte sulf hit sede 
1 M.S. futbe. 


132 a wulche time so eure )>e man. ofjnnchet his misdede 
Oj>er later o)>er raj?er. milce lie seal i-meten 
ac J>e ]>e nout naued ibet. wel muchel he seal beten 
Mani man seid wo recke of pine. ]>e seal habben ende 

136 ne bidde ic no bet beo a-lused. a domesdai of bende 
Lutel wat he hwat is pine, and lutel he it icwowe^ 1 
wile hete is }>er soule wunet. hu biter wind ]?er blonwet 
Hsedde he ibeon ]>er anne dai. o)>er twa bare tide 

140 nolde he for al middoen eard. J>e Jn-idde J?er abide 

J)set habbet ised )>at comen ]>anne. J>it wuste midiwisse 
uuel is pine seone 3er. for seoue nihtes blisse 
And ure blisse J?e ende hafh. 1 for endeliese pine 

144 betre is wori water to drinke. J>enne atter i-menge mid wine 
Swunes brede is swu]>e swete. so is of wilde dere 
ac al to cluere he i-bii3ed. }>at 3iued }>ere-fore his swere 
Fill wombe mai liht-liche speken. of hunger and of fasten 

148 swa mai of pine ]>e naht not. hu hi scullen ilesten 

Heedde he ifonded sume hwile. he wolde al seggen o)>er 
e^-lete him were wif. and child, suster. and fader, and broker 
Al he wolde o]>erluker don. and o]>erluker Jjenchaa 

152 3anne he bi-];ouhte on helle fur. )>e nowiht ne mai aquenche 
Eure he wolde inne wa her. and inne pine wunien 
wid }>an ]>e mihte helle pine, bi-fluen and bi-scunien 
E^-lete him were al woruldes wele. and al eordliche 

156 for to ]>e muchele murc^ cume. }jat is heuenriche 

Iwulle nu comen eft to }>e dome. }>at ic eow er of sede 
on }>at dai, and at )>e dome, us helpe crist and rede 
Pjjer we ma3en beon e^e of-drad. and harde us adrede 

160 ]>er elc sceal i-seo bi-foren him. his word and ec his dede 
Eal seal ben Jmnne cud. \at man li^en her and stelen 
al seal ben )>er vnwrien. J>at men wri^en her and helen 
We scullen aire manne lif. icnawe J>er al so vre owe 

164 J>er sculle heueninges ben. ]>e hei3e and J>e lou3e 

Ne seal ]>e'i noman scamien ]>er. ne J>erf he him adrede 
3if him here of-J)inched his gult. and beted his misdede 
1 So in MS. 


For heoni ne scaniet ne ue gramet. ]>e sculle beon iboruwene 

168 ac ]>e o)>re habbet scame and grame. ]>at senile beon forlorene 
pe dom seal sone ben idon. ne last he nowit longe 
ne seal him noman mene ]>er. of strengj>e ne of wrange 
po scullen habbe hardne dom. }>e here weren herde 

172 \>& ]>e euele heolden wreche men. and vuele lajes rerde 
Ac after jjan J>e he haued idon. he seal Jjer beon idemed 
blij>e mai he J>anne buen. ]>e god haued iquemed 
Alle J)0 }>at isprunge beS. of adam and of eue 

176 ealle he sculle jmder come, for soj>e we it ileued 
po )>e habbed wel idon. after heore mihte 
to heuenriche he scullen. ford mid vre drihte 
po ]>e nabbeS god idon. and J?er-inne be^ ifunde 

180 he scullew falle swijje raj>e. in to helle grunde 
pter-inne he scullen wunie. buten ore and ende 
ne brec^ neuereuft crist helle dure, to lese hem of bende 
Nis no sellic J?ei heom beo wo. and hem beo vnejje 

184 nele neureit crist Jjolie de^. for lesen heom of diejje 
Enes drihte helle brae, his frend he ut broutte 
him self he jjolede die^ for horn, wel dore he us bouhte 
Nolde it mouwe don for mey. ne suster for broker 

188 nolde it sune don for fader, ne noman for oJ>er 
Ure lauerd for his J)reles. ipined was on rode 
ure bendes he unbond. and bouht us mid his blode 
We jieued vnej>e for his luue. a sticche of vre brede 

192 ne }>enche we nout ]?at he seal deme. Jjo quike and to dede 
Muchele luue he us cudde. wolde we it understondo 
j>at vre eldrene mis-duden. we habbet vuele an honde 
Die^ com in jjis middenerd. J?urh J>e ealde deofles onde 

196 and synne and, soi'3e and 3e-SMT.nch. a watere and ec alonde 
Vres formes faderes gult. we abigget alle 
al his of-sprung after hym. in herme is bi-falle 
purst. and hunger, chule. and hete. eche and al unelj>e 

200 jjurh died com in J?is middenerd. and o)>er vnisal}>e 
Niere no man elles died, ne sic. ne non vn-ysele 
ac mihten libbe eurc mo. a blisse and on hele 


Lutel tyenchS mani man. hu mucliel wes pe synne 

204 for ]?an J>olied alle died. pe comen of here cunne 

Here synne and ec vre owen. sore us mai of-)>inche 
for in synne we libbet alle. in sorewen and in swinche 
SudJ>e god nam swa muchele wreche. for ane misdede 

208 we }>at so muchel and swa oft mis-do^. nurjen vs sore adrede 
Adam and his of-spring. for one bare sunne 
was fele hundred wintre in helle. in pine and in vnwunne 
And \>o pe leded here lif mid vnriht and mid wronge 

212 bute it godes milce do sculle beo ]>er wel longe 

Godes wisdom is wel muchel. and al swa is his mihte 
and nis his milce nawiht lasse. ac bi ^es ilke wihte 
More he one mai foremen. Jjenne alfolc gulte cunne 

2 1 G Deofel suelf mihte habbe milce. 3if he it bidde gunne 
pe ^e godes milce sechS. iwis he mai is finde 
ac helle king is oreles. wrS ]>& pe he mai binde 
J)e ^e de^ his wille mest. he haue^ wurst mede 

220 his beat) seal beo wallinde pich. his bed berninde glede 
Wurs he de^ his gode wines. )>ene his fulle feonde 
god sculde alle godes (rend a wind scuche freonde 
Neure od helle ic ne com ne comen ic }>er ne reche 

224 ^eh ich elches wurldes wele. J)er-inne mihte fecche 
peh ic wulle seggen eow. pat wise men us sede 
and aboke it is i-write. J>er me mai it rede 
Ic it wulle segge heom pe hem self it nusten 

228 and warnen heom wit heore hearme. 3if hi me wulled lusten 
Vnder-stondet nu to me. seidi men and earme 
Ic wulle telle of helle pine, and warnie ow wiS herme 
On helle is vnger and jjerst. vuele tuo ifere 

232 )>os pine Jjolied ]>o pe were, mete nijnnges here 
por is woninge and wop. after eche strete 
hi fared fram hete to )>e chele. fram chele to ]>e hete 
panne hi beod in pe hete. pe chele ^inchet blisse 

236 }>enne hi coined eft to chele. of hete hi habbed misse 
Ai]?er hem de^ wa inou. nabbet hi none lisse 
nuten hi we|?er heom ded wurst. mid neure non iwisse 


Hi walked eure and sechet reste. ac hi ne rn^en imeten 

240 for- pi hi nolden po wile hi mithten here sunne beten 
Hi seched reste per non nis. ac pi ne muwen ifinde 
ac walked weri up and dun. al se water de^ mid winde 
pis beod po pe weren her. on ponke vn-stedefaste 

244 and po god bi-heten auht. and nolden it ilaste 

po ^e god weorc bi-gunne. and ful-enden hit nolden 
pe weren her and nupe per. and nusten wet he wolden 
pere is pich pat eure weal$. pat sculle bapien inne 

248 po pe ladde vuel lif. in feoh end in iginne 

per is fur pat eure banrS. ne mai hit nawiht quenche 
her-inne beod pe wes to lef. wrecche men to swenche 
per is fur pat is vndredfelde hatere panne beo vre 

252 ne mai it quenchen salt water, nauene strien ne sture 
po pe were swikele men. and fulle of vuele wrenche 
po pe ne mihte euel don. and lef was it to penche 
po pe luueden reuing and stale, hordom. and drunke 

256 and pe on pes deofles weorkes blipeliche swunke 
po pe were so lease, pat me hi ne mihte ileuen 
med 3eorne domes men. and wrancwise reuen 
pe opre mannes wif wes lef. his awene e^-lete 

260 and po pe sunegede muchel. on drunke and, on ete 

pe wrecchen bi-nemen hure ehte. and leiden huere on horde 
pe lutel leten of godes bode, and of godes worde 
And of his owen nolde 3iuen. per he sei pe nede 

264 ne nolde i-huren godes sonde, per he sette his beode 
po pe weren operes mannes pine, leure panne it scolde 
and weren al to gredi. of suelfer and of golde 
And po pe vntreunesse deden. 3am hi ahte ben holde 

268 and leten pat hi scolde don. and duden pet hi wolde 
po pe 3jsceres weren of pis woruldes ehte 
and, dude pat pe lope gost. hem tihte and ec tauhte 
And alle po $en eni wise, deoflen her iquemde 

272 po beo£ nu mid him an helle for-don and for-dempde 3 

3 For remainder see Text, pp. 175-183. 



GRA*DUS : — 

Omnia Nimia nocent. et temperantia mater uirtutum. bi- 
citur ; pset is on englipc. ealle opepbone pinjc bepia^. 
3 peo gemetegung is ealjia msegna mobop ; Se opeplypa on fete 
3 on psete be% pone man unhalne j his paple gobe lae^ecce^. ppa 
ppa upe bpih on hip gobppelle cpse'S ; Gpt psep togeanes unje- 
metgob pa?pten. 3 to mycel pophaepbnypp on sete 3 on psete be6 
pone man unhalne. •] on mycelpe ppecebnyppe gebping^ ppa ppa us 
pecga^ bee. f pume men pseptan ppa f hi geppencton by pylpe 
poppeaple. -j nane mebe naepbon ])3ep mycclan geppmcep ac ]>aep 
pe pypp paepon ppom gobep miltpunge; Ga^e mreg pe raann 
pinban hu he hine pylpne amyppe. ac pe pceolan pitan ^ nan 
sylpcpala. f is agenplaga. ne becynvS to gobep pice ; Nu pynbon 
eahte heapobleahtpap ^a 1 us onpinna^ ppi^e; !Sn is gecpeben 
gula. f is gipepnypp on enghsc '. seo be^ f man ytt a?p thnan 3 
bpmc^. o&^e he ept to mycel ninvS. on sete o&ie on psete. peo 
popbe^ reg^ep ge paple ge hchaman. pop pam pe heo maca^ pam 
menn mycele untpumnyppe. 3 to bea^e gebpmg^. mib opmsetum 
bpencii. heo popbe'S eac pa paple. poppan pe he pceal syngian 
opt pofi he sylp nat hu he paep^ pop hip peonbhcii bpencii ; 
Se o^ep leahtep is pophgep. *j ungemetgob galnypp. se is gehaten 
popnicatio. ;j he bepyK pone mannan. 3 maca^ op epiptep hmu 
mylteptpena lima. 3 op gobep temple, gpamena pununge ; Se 
ppibba is auapitia ■$ is seo ypele gitpung. -j peo is pyptpuma 
aelcepe pohnypre. heo gemaca^ peaplac j unpihte bomap. ptala ^ 
leapunga j popppopnyppe heo is helle gelic pop pam pe hi habba^ 
butu unapylleblice gpaebigneppe. f hi pulle ne beo^ naeppe; Se 
peop^a leahtep is lpa gehaten. f is on enghsc peamobnypp. se 

1 'a' and 'e' written over one another. 


beS f pe mann. nah his mobep gepealb. j maca^ manplyhtap } 
mycele ypelu ; Se piptai p tpipriria •}) is pippe populbe unpotnypp. 
ponne pe mann geunpotpa^ eallep to pprSe pop hip aehta lype pe 
he lupobe pprSe. -j cit ponne prS 50b. ~\ hip pynna geeacna^; Tpa 
unpotnyppa synb f an is peop ypele. oftep is halpenbe. p* man pop 
his pynnum geunpotpige ; 8e pyxta leahtep is accibia gehaten. 
■p" is apolcennypp o^e pleep^ on enghpc. ponne pam men ne lype 
nan goob bon on his hpe. 3 brS him bonne micel ypel f he ne 
maege nan 566b bon; Snb brS aeppe ungepu to aelcene bugo^e; 
8e peopo^a leahtep is laccantia gehaten. f is ibelgyip on 
enghpcpe pppaece. ponne pe man brS lopgeopn ~) mib hcetunge 
paepS. •] beS popgylpe gip he hpaet baelan pyle. ~\ brS pe hlisa his 
eblean paepe b<ebe. ^ hyp pire anbbiba^ on paepe topeapban 
populbe ; 8e eahtoc5a leahtep lp supbia gehaeen. f is on 
enghsc mobignypp gecpeben seo is opb ^ enbe aelcepe pynne seo 
jepopre englap to atohcum beoplum. 3 pone 1 mann maca^ eac 
gip he mobega^ to pprSe. psep beoplep gepepan. pe peoll a?p puph 
hi ; Nu pynbon eahra heapobmaegna pe magon opeppprSan pap 
popesaeban beoplu puph bpihrnep pultum ; !ffn is tempepantia p" 
is gemetegung on enghsc. f man beo gemecegab. ~] to mycel ne 
picge. on arce. 3 on paete. ne asp timan ne gepeopbige ; Nytenu 
etaS ppa 3?p ppa hi hy-c habba^. ac pe gepceabpipa mann pceal 
cepan hip mariep. ~] ponne hyp gepetnyppe mib gepceabe healban. 
)>onne maeg he opeppprSan ppa pa gipepnyppe ; Seo o^ep mihc is 
captirap. f is claennypp on enghsc. f pe lsepeba hine healbe 
bucon pophgpe on pihtum gepmpcipe mib gepceabpipnyppe. 3 pe 
gehaboba gobep peopa healbe hip claennyppe. poh brS opeppprSeb 
seo galnypp; Seo )>pibbe miht is lapgitap. f is cyptignep on 
enghsc. f man piphce appenbe. na pop populbgilpe pa pin^ pe him 
50b lsenbe. on pipum hpe to bpucenne; Eob nele f pe beon 
gpaebige gitpepap. Ne eac pop populbgilpe poppoppan upe aehta. 
ac baelan hi mib gepceabe. ppa ppa hit bpihtne hcige. 3 gip pe 
aelmyppan bo^. bon hi butan gripe, ponne mage pe popbon. ppa pa 
beopolhcan gitpunge ; Seo peoppe miht is patientia. f is gepylb 

1 ' ]>o ne,' between which an erasure. 

298 de vin vrriis et de xii abusivis. 

jecpeben. -p" )-e man beo gepylbij ~) polmob pop jobe. 3 laere aeppe 
hi]" gepirr gepylbpe ponne hip yppe. poppam pe pe haelenb cpaeft 
pup on lip gobppelle ; In panenna ura poppibebirip animap urap ; 
J)«r is on enghpcpe pppaece. On eoppii gepylbe gehabba^ 
eoppe )-apla so^hce gehealbene ; Se heoponlica pipbom cparS. ty f 
yppe hsepS pununge on p*p bypegan bopme ponne he br& co hpaeb- 
mob. ;j pe eall palbenba bema benrS aeppe mib jfmyknyjye J pe 
pceolan mib gepylbe opepppi^an -p" yppe. 8e pnxe mihr is ppipi- 
rahp laentia. •]$ is ]-eo gapthce bhpp. j> man on 50b bhppige 
betpux unpornyppum pippepe pe^San populbe ppa •$ pe on unge- 
hmpum opmobe ne beon. ne ept on gepaeRmm to pprSe ne 
bhssian. "j jip pe popleopa^ pap laenan peopulb ping, ponne jfceole 
pe piran ■)> upe punung nip na hep. ac ij" on heopenum gip pe 
hopia'S co gobe ; bybep pe pceolan eppran op pippepe eappo^nyppe 
mib gaithcpe bhppe. ponne brS seo unpotnyss mib ealle 
opeppprSeb mib ujium gepylbe ; Seo pyxre mihr is inpranria bom 
opepis. •$ ij" anpaebnypp goobep peopcep. gip pe beo^ anpsebe on 
goobum peopcii. bonne magon pe opeppprSan pa apolcennyppe. 
ppa poppam pe bye brS langpum bypmop gip upe lip by^ unnyr 
hep; Seo peopo^e mihc is j'eo so^e lupu ro gobe. f pe on 
gobum 1 peopcii gobep lupe cepan. Na lbelej- gylpep pe hym is 
anbpeere; "Re neon bon selmeppan ppa ppa he up raehte gobe to 
lope. Na us ro hlipan. f 50b py gehepob on upum goobum peopcii 
-) pe ibela gilp up beo eeppe unpup^ ; Seo ahtope miht is peo so^e 
eabmobnypp. ge ro gobe ge ro mannii mib mobes hlurropnyppe. 
poppam se ^e pip brS. ne pyp^ he nseppe mobig ; On hpam meeg 
pe mann mobigian peah ^e he pille. ne ma?g he on gepingeSum. 
poppam pe pela pynb gepungenpan. Ne mseg he on hi)" sehru. 
poppam pe he hyp enbe ba?g nar. Ne on nanum pingum he ne maeg 
mobigian gip he pis biS. Nu ge habbaft gehypeb hu pap halgan 
meegnu opepppi^a^ pa leahrpap. pe beopol bepajp^ on up. ~\ jip pe 
nella^ hi opeppprSan. hi bepenca^ up on helle ; pe majon puph 
gobep pulrum J?a peonbhean leahrpap mib gecampe opeppinnan jip 
pe cenhce peohra^. ^ habban up on enbe pone ecan pup^mynr. 

1 Erasure 'god um.' 


a ruib gobe jylpu gip pe ppincaS nu hep f Nu pynb tpelp abupiua. f 
pynb tpelp unp-eapap. )>a pe eop pecga^ on leben. -] py&ian on 
enjhpc. Duobecl abusiua punt pch. hoc ept papienp pne 
opib: bonip; Senex. pne religione ; Sbolepcenp. pine oboebientia. 
Diuep pne aelemopna; Femina. pne pubicitia Dominup pne 
uirtute; Xpianup. conteutiopup ; paup. j-upbuj-; Rex. miquup ; 
Gpipcopup. Neglegenp ; plebp pne bipciphna ; populup pne lege 
ec pc puffocatur mptitia bi ; Tpelp unpeapaj* synbon. on pyppepe 
populbe. to heapme eallum mannu. gip hi moton picsian. -j hi 
alecga^ pihtpipnyppe 3 bone geleapan amyppa^ ~j mancynn 
gebpinga^ gip hi moton to helle; f is gip )"e pita brS butan 
goobu peopcu. j gip )-e ealba butan eappeptnyppe. j pe peleja 
butan relmaepbaebu. pip butan pybepulnyppe. 3 hlapopb buran 
mihte. -] gip pe cpiptena brS sacpull ~\ gip peappa brS mobig. gip 
se cyning brS unpihtpip 3 pe bipcop gymeleap. f pole butan pteope 
o#Se butan aj ; Nu gip pe pita brS butan goobu peopcu ye ^e 
oppu mannu j-ceolbe syllan jobe bypne. hu ne bi^ . . . . ' pona hip 
lap pam l?epebum mannfi unpyp^ gip he pylp nele bon. ppa ppa he 
hym to bonne taicS ; Ne brS j'e lapeopbom p-am la?pebum ppem- 
pull. gip pe lapeop mib peopcum ropypp^ hip bobunje ; Gpt gip pe 
lapeop bpelaS hpa brS hip lapeop py#San. 3 jijr f eage abhnba^. ne 
bift peo hanb locienbe ; 8e ealba mann pe brS butan eappgeptnyppe. 
brS J>am rpeope gehc. pe leap byp^ ^ bloptman. 3 nsenne paeptm 
ne byp^. 3 brS unpup^ hi) - hlapopbe ; Hpset brS seppe ppa ptunthc. 
ppa ^ pe ealba nelle hip mob to jobe apenban. mib joobum inn- 
gehybe. bonne hip lima hym cySa^ f he ne brS cucu lanje ; Iunju 
mannu mseg tpynian hpaeoep hi motan hbban. } pe ealba msej 
pitan gepipp him pone bea^ ; Dam ealbii 2 is ro papnienne prS pa 
ypelan gep-ohtap. poppara pe peo heopte ne ealba^. Ne eac peo 
tunje. ac pap tpejen bselap bepiaS opt pam ealbum. pite popju 
pe ealba hpaet hip ylbe gebapenrge. 3 pa pmj poppeo pe hip saple 
bepiaS ; Se ppibba un}>eap is on pippepe populbe f ye lunja mann 
beo butan jehyppumnyppe ; Unpyp^e biS se on ylbe f him oSpe 
menn penion se pe on mju^e nele hip ylbpu jehyppumian ; Upe 

1 ' sona his ' written twice and the first erased. 

2 xMS. 'ealdiin.' 


hrelenb on hi) - mgo^e paep g[eh]yppii hip magon 3 hi]" heoponhcan 
paebep he gehyppumobe o^ bea^ ; Spa ppa pii ealban gebapenia^ 
bugenbe beapap 3 gepipcb pypepnyp]-. )-pa gepipt pam mngan f he 
hsebhe jehyppumnyppe 3 unbeppeobnyppe ; Gobep ee bye eac f 
man appu[p]pije syrable hyp pa?bep ~y mobop. mib mycelpe unbep- 
peobnyppe ~) gip he hi pypij^ he byS pyp^e bea^ep; 8e peoppa 
unpeap is f ye pelega mann beo butari selmepbsebum "j bebighge 
hyr peoh. 3 jeopnhce healbe hyni to helle pice ; Ungesaehg bi^ ye 
gicpepe. pe Jjuph by) - gesrelpa lopa^. -] pop pam geprtenbhcii 
pin jum poppypo" a on ecnyppe ; Snb gepsehge beo^ pymle ]>a 
milbheopcan poppam pe hi jemetaS }>a milbheoptnyppe epc se pe 
baePS selmyppan pop hi)- bpihcnep lupan pe behyc his golbhopb on 
heoponan pice. psep nan pcea^a ne msej his mabmap popptselan. ac 
hi beo^ be hunbpealbum gehealbene him pa?p; On manejum 
pijum man maeg pypcan celmyppan. on aire 3 on psete 3 on ge- 
paebum eac "j on cumlrSnyppe. •]? man cum an unbeppo. 3 gip man 
)'eocne geneopa¥>. o^e papigne ppeppaS. o^e blinbne ker. o^e 
byp£ panhalne. o&Je unhalne gelacnaft. gip he lsecebom can o^e 
gip he psb zxc6 pam pe psebep behopa^. o^Se jip he milrpaS pam 
raenn pe him abealh. dft&e gip he gehepgobne op 1 aepenybe 
jebe^. o^e gyp he pop^papene pepa^ so bypgene ; Gall pip brS 
selmyppe. ~\ eac f man beppinge pone pruntan pop preope. se pe 
prypan pceal. poppam pe he be^ milbheoprnyppe. gip he pone mann 
pihtlsec^ ; Ne hege on pinfi hopbe f pa bapenleapan msege 
ppemian to bigpipre. pop pa J>e ]?u ne bpyept ana pmpa pelena 
peah )>u police healbe; pu gabepapt ma ■} ma. 3 menn cpela^ hunjpe. 
-] pine pelan poppocia^ serpopan pinum eajum ; Do^ ppa ppa 
bpihcen cpse^. bsela^ selmyppan. 1 ealle Jung eop beo^ claene. pip" 
he cparS on hip gobppelle ; 8e puree un]>eap is f pip beo unpybe- 
pull ; Unpybepulnyp biS pceamu pop populbe. 3 •}> unpybepulle pip-, 
bi^ unpup^S on lipe. *} eyz sepr hpe nan eblean nsep^ set gobe ; 
pipbom ^epipt pepii -j pipum poppam )-eo j-ibepulnypj- gepcyle 
hi pi^ unj^eapap ; paep pa?p peo pibepulnypp bi^ Saep bi^ 2 
eac seo clsennypp. 3 f pibepulle pip onpcunaS gicpunge ~\ ceaj-te ne 

1 An erasure in MS. 

3 ' Saer biS ' omitted but supplied in a later hand. 


aptjpaS. ac septilS gpaman j poppihS galnyppe 3 gjia?bignyppe 
gemetejaS. heo hi papnaS prS bpuncennyppe. ~} popblunge ne 
lupaS. pitobhce se pkepainyjy jepylt ealle unpeapap. ] goobe 
j>eapap heo hylt pe gobe hciaS 3 mannii ; Seo pyxta unpeap is. f 
pe Se to hlapopbe brS gepec. f he pop mobleapte ne ma?ge hip 
mannu bon pteope. ac brS him ppa mihrleap on hip mobep prpece. 
f he hi]- unbeppeobban egepian ne beap. ne to nanu pipbome hi 
gepippian nele; Same hlapopbap genealcecaS puph heopa hlapopb- 
pcipe co gobe. ppa moypes pe appupSa pe to psem selmihcigan 
sppa?c. ■] pume on heopa anpalbe pone a?lmihtigan gpemiaS. 
ppa j-pa paul by be. pe popeah 1 gobep hsese ; 8e hlapopb pceal beon 
hSe pam goobfi. -$ egepull J>am bypegum. p" he heopa bypig alecge. 
-j he sceal beon popbpsepc. ~\ pican hpaec he clypige. hine man 
pceal lupian pop hip liSnyppe. j pa bypegan pceolon onbpaeban 
hyne pymle; 611ep ne brS hip gepabung ne psepc ne langpum ; 
He pceal beon jpa gepophc. f him man more prS pppecan. ~j ppa 
hpaec ppa he ppece. ppece pop pihcpipnyppe. na pop his agenii yppe. 
ac pop gobep ege; Hyc is appicen on bocu. ty pe biS eall jpa 
pcylbig. se pe ypel gepapaS. ppa ppa pe Se hyc beS. gyp he hyc 
gebecan maeg. ~j ymbe pa boce ne hogaS. He pceal hyne ge]>eoban 
mib peappaepcnyppe co gobe. poppam )>e he nane mihce habban ne 
maeg co pihce. bucan gobes pylpce '. ppa ppa 50b pylp cpaeS ; Se 
hlapopb pceal hogian f he haebbe gobep pulru. "] he opcpupiann e 
pceal ahpaep be gobep pulcume ; dp 50b brS hip gepjlj-ca. ne biS 
lii]- mihc poji^epen. poppam pe nan mihc Ms bucan op gobe seSe 
ahepS op meohpe pone mann pe he pile. ]>eah pe he paebla pi>pe. ~j 
pypcS hine co ealbpe; He apyppS pa mobigan op heopa mihce- 
pecle. j ahepS pa eabmoban. p" eall mibbaneapb beo gobe unbep- 
peob -j bepuppe hip pulbpep ; 8e peopopa unpeap is f pe cpipcena 
mann beo pacpull ; Op cpipcep naman is cpipcianup gecpeben. j> 
is se cpnpcena mann pe on cpipce is gepullob. gip he ponne brS 
sacpull. ne biS he poShce cpipcen; Nip nan man pihclice cpipcen 
bucan pe Se cpipce geepenlaecS ; Cpipc pylp nolbe plican. ppa )-pa 
hip psebep cpjeS be hym ; Gpne hep is min cilb pe me is ) piSe 
leop j ic pecce minne gape soShce opep hine. ne phc he mib 
1 Read forseah. 


ceapce. Ne pace ne apcype^ Ne on pcpsecum ne gehyp^i aenig 
mann hyp pcemne ; He cpae^ eac on hi)- gobppelle. f pa beo^ 
gobep beapn pa pe gepibpume beo^. -] pace ne apcypia^; Spa ppa 
pa gepibbpuman beo^ police gobep beapn. ppa beo^ eac pa 
pacpullan beoplep beapn ; 6alle pe clypia^ to gobe "j cpe^aS. 
pacep np. pu upe psebep pe eapc on heoponu ac pe ne magon 
habban pone heoponhcan epel bucon pe ppam eallu pacum 
oppopge beon ; Se eahco^a unpeap is. p" pe peappa beo mobig ; 
GCemj mann naep'S sehca. "] hsepS mobignyppe ppa peah. ~] is eapm 
pop populbe } ungepsehg pop gobe. ponne he apsep^ his mob mib 
mobignyppe ongean 50b. j nele on hip ypm^e eabmobnyppe 
healban ; Cpipc cparS on hip gcbppelle be pam gajchcan peapp- 
um; Beaci pauperep ppu. qm lpporum epc regnu celoru; 6abige 
pynb pa peappan pa pe on ga) ce synb peappan. poppam ¥>e hym 
bi^ popgipen heoponan picep myplrSe ; pa beo^ peappan on 
gapce. pa pe pop gobep lupan beo^ eabmobe. poppam pe psep 
mobep eabmobnypp msej begican gobep pice hpo^op ponne peo 
hapenleasc. pe op hynpum becynvS ; picobhce pa pican. pe pihchce 
libba^ magon beon gecealbe betpux gobep peappum. gip hi 
eabmobnyppe habba^ j opepplopebnyp] e poplaeca^ ppa ppa bauib 
cynmg cpse^ be him pylpum ; 650 uepo egenup ec paup pum bs 
abiuua me; Ic eom pa?bla ~\ peappa. Tiob pylpc pu me; Se 
mobiga peappa. pop hip mobep upahepebnyppe. is co pican gecealb 
pihchce on bocum. j pe eabmoba pica peah ^e he sehca hsebbe. 
ma?g beon gobep peappa gip he gobe gecpenrS; Se nigopa unpeap 
is f pe cyning beo unpihcpip; Se cyning bi^ gecopen co pam pe 
him cyS hip nama; Rex pe cpsepa^ cyning f is gecpeben pippi- 
genb. poppam pe he pceal pippigan mib pipbome hip poke. 3 unpihc 
alecgan. j pone geleapan apsepan 3 ponne byS hie eapmlic. gip he 
brS unpihcpis. poppam pe he ne gepihclsec^ nsenne. gip he 
ilnpihcpip brS pylp; paep cymngep pihcpipnypp apsep^ hip cyne- 
secl. ~\ pa?p polcep pceope jepCapehrS hip so^paescnypp ; ~p is 
cymngep pihcpipnypp f he mib piccecepe ne oppicce. ne eapmne 
ne eabigne. ac eelcum beme pihc; He pceal beon bepepjenb 
pybepena j pceopcilba. ~\ pcala alecgan. ^ pophjep jepicnian. •] pa 
apleapan abp?epan op hip eapbe. mib ealle piccecpsepc alecjan. 3 


piglunge ne jyman ; pican hym )"ceolan paeban ] he ne pceal 
beon peamob ; Eobej* mynpcpa he pceal. munbian a?ppe. 3 peban 
peappan. ] paepchce pinnan pv§ onsigenbne hepe. 3 healban his 
e^el; He pceal po^psepce menn peccan hym co gepepan. ~\ pep 
gobe lybban hyp hp pihclice 3 beon on eappo^nyppe anpaebe -} 
eabmob on pcilnyppe. "] hi)" opppjiynge ne jepapige •)> hy apleape 
beon ; He rceal hyne gebibban on apeccum cibura. ■] sep maelcibu 
mecep ne abican. poppam pe hie is appicen. •£ pa pa?pe leobe pap 
j'e eimnj biS cilb; j pap pa ealbopmenn eca^ on a'pnemepgen 
uneappaepchce; dp pe cyning pile mib cappulnyppe healban pap 
popepatban beboba. ponne byS hip pice gepunbpull on hpe. 3 apcep 
hpe he moc papan co pa ecan 1 pop hi)" appsescnyppe; Eip he 
ponne poppyhft pas gesetnyssa ] lape. ponne byS hip ea)ib 
geypmeb poji ope. a^ep ge on hepegunge ge on hungpe. ge on 
cpeahne. ge on ungepybejni. ge on pilbeopum ; pice eac pe eyning 
hii hyc is gepeben on bocum gip he pihcpisnysse ne hylc ■$ rpa 
)"pa he ahapan is on his eynepecle copopan obpfi mannu. )"pa he 
br5 epc genypepab on pam nypemepcam pica unbeji pam un- 
jnhcpipfi. pe he unparblice geheolb; 8e ceo^a unpeap is f pe 
bi)"ceop beo gymeleap; Gps is gpiecisc nama. -p" is on leben 
ppeculacop. j on englisc )"eeapepe. poppam pe he is gepec co pam 
■jj he opep)"ceapian pceole mib hyp gymene pa laepeban. )"pa ppa 50b 
pylp epae^. co ezechiele pa picegan ; Speculacopem bebi ce bomui 
ippl; Ic pe gepecce co pceapepe. police minu poke lspahelep 
hipebe f ^u gehype mine popb j op minu mirSu mine j'ppgece 
hymcybe; dp pu pam apleapan nelc hyp ajileapnysse pecgan. 
pon rpyle pe apleapa on hi)" apleapnysse. ~\ ic opgange sec pe mib 
gpaman hij* blob; Eip pu ponne papnasc pone apleapan pep. -j he 
nelle gecyppan ppam hi)" synnu puph pe. he ppyle on hyj- un- 
pihcpipnyppe ~j pin j-apul brS alypeb ; Eip )"e bipceop bvS gyme- 
leaj" ponne he gobep bybel lp. j co lapeope gepec pam la?pebfi 
poke, pon lopa$ pela papla *] he pylp pop^ mib. pop hip gimeleapce. 
ac •}> pole brS gepaehg puph pnocopne bipceop. pe him peg^ gobep 
lape. 3 healc hy unbep gobe ppa ppa goob hypbe. f hi beon 
gehealbene ~] he hsebbe pa mebe; 8e enblypca unpeap is. f pole 
1 ' rice ' probably omitted. 


beo bucan pceope; Fela beo^ ptuncnyppa paep nan pceop ne 
brS. ■] peep -p' bypig brS oppoph 3 f gebpylb picpa^ peep brS ypel co 
pumenne senigum pisan men. be pam cpae^ pe sealmpyphca pipuni 
popbum clypienbe; Hbppehenbice bipciplmam. ne quanbo lrapcacur 
blip & pereacip be uia mpca; f is. unbeppo^ pceope pe lsep pe 50b 
yppige pr5 eop 3 ge pcnne lopian op pa pibcan pege ; Gac paulup 
se apopcol cparS on hip pistole, puphpunia^ on pceope. 3 gepicob- 
hce becrS ppylce pophgepas. gip ge hbba^ butan pceope; Gp[c] pe 
picega lsaiap be pam llcan cpa^S ; Quiepcice agere puerpe bipcice 
bene facere ; Eepplca^ ppyjihcpa bseba. 3 leopnia^ goob to 
pypcanne ; Dauib epae^ eac ; Declina a malo & fac bonum ; Bub 
ppam ypele j bo goob ; dp pu unpce^ig y\ gepcylb pe pi^ ypel. 
1 PY P u fce^ig psepe gepenb pe ppam ypele py lsep pe pu pceop- 
leas lopige on enbe ; 8e cpelpca unpeap is. f pole beo bucan x. 
pe ne 1 mocon nu healban moypep. a?, on pa ealban pipan septep upep 
hselenbep cocyme. ac pe pceolan gepyllan ppa pe pyjimopc magon 
psep heelenbep beboba. ■} pa beo^ up pop a?, popbam pe pe beo^ 
bucan him gip pe hyp beboba ne healba^; GOanega pegap synb 
ppa ppa se pipbom clypa^. pe mannum pinja^ pihce. ac hi ppa 
peah gelseba^ co bea^e on enbe. pa pe hym byphce polgia^; Se pe 
gobep. a?, poplaec peo pe is upe peg. pe pceal miplice papan on 
manegfi gebpylbii; Cpipc pylp is pe peg. ppa ppa he peebe be hym; 
€go pum uia & uencap. & uica ; Ic pylp eom pe peg 3 po^- 
peescnyp. 3 lip ; Nan man ne mseg becuman co minu heoponhcan 
pa?bep. bucon puph me. ac pe beo^ puph cpipc co beopenum 
gebpohce gip pe his biggengap healba^ ; Da pe bucan gobes. se. 
■] gobep gepecnyppum hbbaS. pa beoS bucan gobe a?ppe punigenbe; 
Dpihcen pylp behec pip pam pe healba^ hys beboba; €cce ego 
uobipcum pum omnib: bieb: upq: ab conpiimacione pth ; Ic pylp 
beo mib eop po^hce eallum bagum. 0% geenbunge pippepe populbe; 
Se haelenb us gepippige Co hyp pillan pymble. •f upe papla mocon 
prSian epc co him sepcep upum lipe. co pa ecan hpe. f he upe 
papla unbeppo. pe hi apenbe Co pa. lichaman; Sy him a pulbop 3 
pujrSmync Kinen ; 

1 ' ne ' supplied in later handwriting. 



ROYAL MS. 17 A 27, Fol. 70. 
Her cumseS \e oreisun of seinte Marie. 

QWETE lefdi seinte marie meiden ouer meidnes bu bere hat 

^ blisfule bern. J>e arerde mon cun bat wes adun ifallet J>urh 

adanies sunnen. ant )>urh his bali passiun weorp ben deouel adun 

ant herehede belle. Ich a sari sunful J>ing bidde bin are. \at 

tu beo mi motild a^eines mine sawle fan. bat ba hire ne bitellen. 

ah were me ant help me milzfule meiden. in alle mine neoden. 

ha habbeS monie wunden o me nunan ifestnet. be acwelleS mi 

sawle bute bu beo mi leche. ich habbe ofte ibuhen to alle 

mine j>reo fan. to pe feont. * ant te beo world, ant to mi flesches *Foi.70b. 

sunne. ich cnawe me schuldi. ant crie lefdi merci. for ich habbe 

imaket 3eten of alle mine fif wittes to sunfule unbeawe. 

Misloket. Mishercnet. Misispeken. Misifelet. Misiliket swote 

smelles. prude ant wilnunge of pris me habbeft sare iwundet. 

alswa wre&ie. ant onde. leasunsunge. 1 Missware. uuele balden isoinMS. 

treow^e. cursunge. bacbitunge. ant fikelunge summe tide, ich 

habbe ihaued of o^er monnes mid woh. ant wi¥ unrihte. i3eue 

mis. iunne mis. ant ethalden ofte. spac to uuel. ant slaw to god. 

3emeles ant unlusti. sum time to pleiful to drupi oderhwiles. ich 

habbe isunegetin mete aut idrunch ba"6e. wrS flesches fulSe ifulet 

)>at ich am ladliche ihurt ilicome ant isawle wv6 allescunes pinen 

of sunnen^ for 2 )>ah be were nere in be bodi be wil wes in be 2>is. sor. 

heorte. al bis ich cnawlechi to be swete lefdi seinte marie, behest 

aire halehen. Nim mot for me ant were me. for ich am pine 

wurSe. bisech for me pi milde sune Milce. Merci. are. for nawt 

ne mei he wernen be '. moder bat 3 him bere. of alle bine bisocnen. 3 ° r ? ^ e - 

ich bidde ant biseche be. ant halsi 3ef me hahe^ hit. bi his flesch 

founge of bin edi bodi. bi his ibornesse. bi his edi uestunge ibe 

wildernesse. bi be harde hurtes. ant te unwurSe wohes \>at he for 

us sunfule willeliche .... 

[The rest is lacking.] 20 


P. 3, 1. 2. heste del = an ordinance day, a day to be kept holy 
by behest or command. 

1. 3. sed. The d is written for $; and the same occurs in 
god, 1. 6; Jmded, 1. 7; unbinded, leaded, 1. 8; etc. 

P. 5, 1. 11. pus makede ure helende his holie procession fro 
Betfage to Jerusalem, and elhc cristene man make^ J>is dai pro- 
cession fro chirche to chirche. and eft agen. and [hit] bi-tocned 
Jje holie procession ]>e he makede }>is dai. (MS. in Trinity Coll., 

1. 17. \at assa, probably an error for \a assa. See p. 3, 1. 1 
from bottom, p. 5, 11. 18, 21, and p. 9, 1. 1. 

1. 18. hi hered = ihered = ihere^S, hear. 

1. 22. nes = ne se, not. 

1. 23. if uled qf = 1 ifoled of, foaled of. 

1. 25. ouer stohivennesse. I have connected this in the transla- 
tion with ouer-stigen, to exceed ; but I now believe it to be an 
error for ouer-Jlowendnesse = superfluity. ' Manega Lazaras ge 
habba% nu licgende set eowrum gatum, biddende eowre ofer- 
flowendnysse ' = Many Lazaruses ye have now lying at your 
gates, begging for your superfluity. (iElfric's Homilies, vol. i. 
pt. iii. p. 334.) 

1. 26. sterc ne ivemod, literally harsh and passionate. ' ac 8a 
strSnyssa his stearcan bigleofan . . . geheold ' = But held to the 
severities of his harsh diet. (vElf. Horn. vol. ii. pt. vii. p. 148.) 
' Se feorSa [heafod-leahter is] weamet ' = The fourth cardinal sin 
is passion. (Ibid. vol. ii. pt. vii. p. 218.) 

1. 27. \>es \e . . . mare, so much the more. 

1. 36. sulen, an error for sculen. 

P. 7, 1. 13. \e \e salm scop = who composed the Psalms. \e, 
\>e may be for the A. S. se \e (see p. 109, 1. 3), who; but if we 
regard the first j>e as redundant, we must read salm-scop = 

1. 22. nnfrit - unfrvS, discord, war. 

1. 25. litmie. This is perhaps another form of litnie, to i-egard, 
look to. (See Orm. i. 211.) In the Moral Ode, p. 161, 1. 22, it 
is written lipnie; but in the Egerton copy we find hopie. 

1. 27. rencas. Bosworth quotes idele rcenca = vana superbia, 
inanis corporis cultus. But in A. S. renc is feminine ; however, 
rincas = men, would not suit the context. 


P. 9, 1. 23. auulsed = A.S. gefylsted, assisted. 

1. 24. \erf need. 

P. 1 1, 1. 19. breode does not here signify breadth, but is merely 
given as the English rendering of tables. A. S. bred, pi. bredu. 
See 1. 1 from bottom, and p. 13, 1. 2. 

1. 1 from bottom, d&re = first (of two), is quite correct. ' La- 
ntech nam twa wif. o]>er wjes 3enemned Ada and o]>er Sella.' 

P. 1 3, 1. 7. bi sunt = bismit, defile, besmut. 

1. 11. \urys = pinges, things, ays is very much like ay, in 
the MS., the e being imperfect; ay would signify may possess. 
Perhaps we ought to read, \>e cfeer mon ay xit mare penne \u = 
which another man may have more than thou ; agan tit in A.S. 
is to have or to find out. 

1. 18. rrvwrShe, probably an error for mer¥>e, prosperity. See 
p. 21, 1. 1, where mwr6he occurs for mer^Se, wonders, glories. 

1. 28. j>orS = \orh = burh, may signify through ; so that westmes 
\>or6, &c. = your fruits shall frequently come to nought through 
destructive (evil) tempests. But \>urh governs an accusative, 
and toedere would be required instead of ivederas ; but see p. 7, 

1. 30. to pristine = for (as) prisoners. See Genesis and Exodus, 
1. 2044. 

1. 36. \>eor¥> = weor^S, the pres. tense of weorpan, to be. 

P. 15, 1. 13. uuelien, to do evil to, hurt, afflict. 

1. 14. isegge \>et sceamie, &c. = should say what might put us 
to shame. 

1. 24. puttest has here the same signification as the 0. E. 
pultest, thrustest, pushest. This is the earliest appearance of 
the word put in this sense. 

1. 36. wift-steiven = restrain, put a stop to. Stewen, to stop, 
cease, occurs in St. Marharete, p. 6 : ' Stute nu ant stew J>ine 
uuwittie wordes.' 

P. 17, 1. 1 from bottom. towaar& = towarde. % is here written 
instead of the ordinary contraction for de. This is not at all 
uncommon in Old English MSS. 

P. 19, 1. 22. forlay. This perhaps should be written for lay. 
The modern word furlough is the Du. verlof leave, permission. 
Perhaps lay (law) is here used in the sense of sanction. 

P. 21, 1. 9. aire coste, always. It appears to be a compound like 
O. E. needes-coste (Chaucer) = 0. E. needes-tveyes, of necessity. 

I. 1 5. be hit = bet hit, amend it, repent of it. 

II. 24, 25. tomarym hit him is avoane = the morrow is lacking 
for him; i.e. he may not live until to-morrow. 

1. 32. nule = 1 uule = wule or wile, will. 

P. 23, 1. 1 from bottom, miht, mayest, not mightest. 

P. 25, 11. 2-8. ' Se man ]>e setter dstdbote his manfullan 


ds^da ge-edniwaS, se gegrernaS God, and h.6 brS Jiam hunde 
gelic, \>e spiw^ and eft 6tt Jj^et ]>agt h.6 ser aspaw.' (iElf. Horn, 
vol. ii. pt. x. p. 602.) 

1. 9. Ipur^eS = pin^eS, seems. See p. 13, 1. 11, where purees = 
yin^es, things. 

P. 26, 1. 10. in him, i.e. in the body. 

P. 27, 1. 2. pa halinesse, like O. E. halidom, here signifies the 
housel or host. 

1. 7. A? « e3«we on-siht = the sight of his eyes ; but his ayene 
on-siht = his own presence, — on-siht being equivalent to A. S. 
onsion, onsyn, face, countenance, sight. 

1. 33. witicrist, an expletive, 'By Christ !' Witi Christ may 
have originally signified ' So help me Christ.' 

P. 29, 1. 8. cwe6en in his ponke par hi bv6. Perhaps for in 
his ponke we ought to read his ponkes, and the meaning will be, 
' to say willingly where he is,' &c. 

in Ms ponke par hi [1 he] br& = in his mind where he is. In 
his ponke is equivalent to on his mode, in his mind, that is, to 

1. 12. Buhberes = rupperes, riflers, house-breakers. 

1. 1 4. iuguleres = jesters ; but here used for idle talkers, 
gossip-mongers. Chaucer uses jonglerie for idle talk. 

P. 31, 1. 1. ouereake = A. S. ofer-eca, overplus, remainder. 

1. 8. foxliche smepien = fox-like gloze. 

1. 15. ^e-for^&ian, offer, afford. The later forms, avorthi, 
qforthe, show that ge-forSian is the representative of the modern 
verb afford. 

P. 33, 1. 6. agidtes for agidtest. Vei'bal forms in -es are not 
used in this work. 

1. 14. graining. We ought pei'haps to read granung, groaning. 

1. 20. pa twa sunne. The two sins, i.e. of whoredom and 

1. 25. yeiienesse, not forgiveness, but indulgence = A. S. for- 

1. 32. frunv£e, beginning, commencement. For pet we ought 
perhaps to read a pet, until. 

1. 34. unpri^edest for unwriyxlest. The verb unwriyn is pro- 
perly a strong verb. Instead of uncoveredst, I think the true 
meaning here is glancedst, winkedst, or peepedst (with thine eyes 
upon thy riches). 

1. 36. he ne bv6, he is not. We ought perhaps to read heo for 
he, so that heo ne bv& would refer to peos weorld, mentioned in 
1. 35. 

P. 34, 1. 2. For why aire we evil, i.e. why do we act torong- 

P. 35, 1. 10. ]>ah hit were mitt = though it should be mine. 

1. 18. la^S, not hateful, but loathsome. 


1. 33. i-escad- learnt by inquiry. 

P. 37, 1. 20. on ward may be AS. on weard, opposed to. It 
appears however to be on wane, wanting, lacking. See p. 29, 
1. 24. 

I. 24. lipnie. This seems to be the same word as litmie, p. 7, 
1. 22. 

II. 27-36 to p. 39, 11. 1-3. 

' Thre maner peyne man fangeth 
For hys senne nede ; 
Senne (sorrow) hys that one, that other fastynge, 
The thrydde hys almesdede ; 

Ae woste, 
Senne (sorrow) hys and edbote yset 
For senne do ine goste. 

For senne in flesche 
Vestyng heth the flesche lothe ; 
Ac elmesdede senne bet 
Of gost and flesche bothe ; 
For thencheth, 
Thet almesdede senne quenketh 
Ase water t/tat/er aquencheth. 

Knewelynge, travayl, bar-uot go, 
Welle-ward ( = wolward) and wakynge, 
Discipline and lyte mete, 
Thes longeth to vestynge; 

And here, 
Pelgrymage and beddynge hard, 
Flesch fram lykynge te arere. 

3eve, and lene, and conseil, 
Clothynge, herber3, and fecle, 
Vysyty seke and prysones, 
And helpe povere at nede ; 

For to vor^evene trespas, 
Tak dedes of elmesse.' (Shoreham, pp. 37, 38.) 

P. 39, 1. 17. inwarliche = invjardliche, inwardly, truly. Chaucer 
uses inly in this sense. 

11. 32-34. JElfric has the same idea : ' pa telmessan J>e of 
reaflace beo 1 ^ gesealde sind Gode swa gecw&ne, swilce hwa 
acwelle o^res mannes cild, and bringe ^am faeder J>set heafod 
to lace.' (Horn. vol. ii. pt. vi. p. 102. 

1. 33. con , . . \>ong ( = ]>onc), acknowledge an obligation. 
(Havelok the Dane, 1. 160.) 


1. 36. for nis \er nanfeng on - for none of these things (i.e. 
stealing and rapine) are acceptable (to God). Ifeng on = A. S. 
anfeng, fit, acceptable. 

P. 41, 1. 4. eamie, strive to deserve, merit. 

1. 5. vpplican, above. ' On ^sere tide waes micel sniyltnys in 
^Scere upplican hjfte ( = in the air above). (iElf. Horn. vol. ii. pt. x. 
p. 496. 

1. 11. fredome, privilege. See Ayenbite of Inwit, p. 41. 

I. 32. earming, probably an error for earman or carmen — the 
correct form of the definite adjective. Earming is properly a noun. 

P. 43, 1. 6. un-aneomned maybe rendered 'unmentionable' as 
well as ' innumerable.' 

II. 6, 7. fe&erfotetdis evidently an error for ffcer-foted. A.S. 
fy\er-fot, four-footed, quadruped. 

1. 8. e]>em = A. S. e]>m, breath, vapour. Ger. cithern. 

1 3ang )>onne swa. 
0% jwet J)U ]>one ymbhwyrft. 
alne cunne. and aerest amet. 
ufan to grunde. and hu sid.| 
sc swarta dSm seo.' (Csedmon, p. 309, 1. 4.) 

' hre¥er ce%me weoll ' = his breast heaved with breathing. 

(Beowulf, 1. 5180.) 

1. 11. Swmme swa deor hale reined = some as (wild) animals 
roar loudly. 

1. 26. motien, treat, dispute. ' Man mote on eornest motian 
wiS his drihten.' (^Elf. Test. p. 29, 1. 22.) 

1. 27. dringan. I have translated this as if it were an error 
for dringan. Dringan would at first sight appear to be for 
dri/tcan, to drink ; but this sense does not suit the context. 

1. 32. Elmes^eorn nes heo nefre = Willing to give alms was she 
never. Bosworth makes elmes^eom = alms-giver ; but (as in such 
compounds, as lof-^eorn = greedy of praise, vainglorious) it is an 
adjective, signifying desirous, so that lof-^eom = willing to give 
alms, charitable. 

1. 36. on wunres liche = on ]>unres liche, in the similitude of 
thunder ; but it is probably an error for on \>unres siege, in a 
clap of thunder, which phrase occurs in the Gospel of Nicodemus, 
p. 13, 3. 

P. 45, 1. 25. chirche bisocnie is evidently equivalent to A.S. 
cyrice-socn = O.E. chirche $ong, chm-ch -going. Socn = a seeking, 
visiting, visitation, as in Beowulf, 1. 3558 : ' Ic )>cere socne 
singales wseg mod-ceare micle ' = I for that visitation constantly 
have borne great mental care. ' On land-sbcne^ = In search of 
land. (Caedmon, p. 100, 1. 17; p. 102, 1. 12.) In some Early 
English works we find bisocnie used in the sense of ' to beseech.' 


P. 47, 1. 1. ivurdliche = wurSliche, estimable, valuable. 

P. 49, 1. 19. tunes. For a note on this word see Notes on 
the Glossary to Ormulum, vol. ii. p. 653. 

P. 53, 1. 11. itimien sometimes signifies to manage, contrive. 
It here signifies to act with moderation. 

1. 18. peos ^eolewe clones = clothes stained with saffron. ' Hire 
wimpel [maked] wit o^er maked geleu mid saffran.' (Homilies 
in Trinity Coll. Library, Camb., quoted in Bishop Percy's Folio 
MS. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 179.) 

helfter = helster. This is used by Chaucer for covert, hiding- 

1. 20. tilden = to set a trap, to bait. 

1. 24. blancliet, a kind of wheaten flour used by ladies for 
improving their complexion. 

' With blaunchette and other flour 
To make thaim qwytter of colour.' 

(R. de Brunne, MS., Bowes, p. 20, in Halliwell.) 

1. 26. hindene = 1 hid-ern, a hiding-place. Some foolish people 
try to deter vain children from admiring themselves in the 
mirror by telling them that if they look over-long in the glass 
they will see the devil peeping over their shoulder. 

P. 55, 1. 9. ivv6 him misdon. misdo (sin) against him. 

1. 11. nr6, hatred, malice arising from envy. 

1. 13. blencheti, not to terrify, but to deceive, lead astray, turn 
aside. 0. Norse blekkja. See Ancren Riwle, pp. 276, 242. 

1. 17. Bute we bileuen, &c. Except, unless, we forsake, &c. 
We must transpose the punctuation of 11. 16 and 17. 

P. 57, 1. 36. onimis = on-mis - amiss. 

1. 42. trow&'e, gen. sing. Perhaps trow^e lef = troufee lei = law. 
of truth, or trowe be = be thou true. 

1. 44. Godere hele = advantage, welfare, happiness. Cp. O.E. 
lorothere-hele, misfortune, ruin. 

' pat quene was of Engelond, as me aj) er ytold, 
pat goderhele al Engelond was heo evere ybore.' 

(Robt. of Gloucester, Spec. E. Eng. p. 70, 1. 247.) 

1. 45. monslaht is properly homicide, manslaughter. 
1. 60. iliche swv6e = even as great (is it now). 
1. 64. blecen = blessen, preserve, deliver. 

' Therewith upon his crest 
With rigor so outrageous he smitt, 
That a large share it hewd out of the rest, 
And glauncing downe his shield from blame him fairly blest.' 

(Spenser's F. Q. I. ii. 1. 18.) 
P. 59, 1. 71. lo% = lod = leod, the common folk. 


1. 85. cet-agan. I have here translated it as if an error for 
cet-eawan; but if not for of-gan = to proceed, we ought to read 
eft agan = long ago. 

1. 88. Onlete = A.S. anchvlite, form, face. In the Orinulum we 
find onndlaztt, onndl'et, countenance. 

' Ant ure Laferrd let hemm sen 
Hiss onndlcef (Vol. ii. p. 95.) 

1. 90. lete, not = A. S. leotan, lutan, to stoop, bend; but = A. S. 
tvlite, face, form. La3amon has Icete, lete, look, glance. 
P. 61, 11. 113, 114. 

That he may be (our) father and we his sons, 
To him is the advent of us all. 

To cunies and synes should perhaps be written to-cume and 
sune; to-cume = A. S. to-cyme, advent, coming to. 

1. 115. itele = A. S. ethel, native country, pati'imony, in- 

1. 130. for-men = to commence, begin to do. 

P. 63, 1. 162. loisliche = the same, as gewisliche, truly, certainly. 
We also find the simple form toisse, as in the Ormulum and 
the Canterbury Tales. 

P. 65, 1. 175. unskile, folly, indiscretion, sins. See Orm. 
vol. i. p. 12. 

1. 177. ure sunnen, &c, the sins against us, &c. See 1. 193. 

P. 67, 1. 223. \>ing, sake, account. ' To hwain setwite Jm me 
ser |>aet £u hi forlure for minum pingtun' = Why didst thou, just 
now, upbraid me that thou hadst lost them on my account (or 
for my sake.) (Boeth. vii. 3.) 

1. 230. fond -feond, enemy, the devil. (See p. 69, 1. 1.) 

P. 69, 1. 251. ivrihte, accusation, blame. The devil is repre- 
sented as the accuser of mankind. For the form ivrihte, see 
Orm. i. 136, 286; ii. 10, 339, 341; and Gloss, to Gen. andExod. 

1. 265. lete = conduct, as well as speech. Cp. the O.N. lot, Iceti, 
gestus, sonitus. See Orm. i. 39, 40, 348. 

1. 268. inlied = A.S. ingehyd, intention. 

P. 71, 1. 278. waning, qy. for woning or wuning, abode. 

1. 292. him refers to scrift, which is masculine. Imbben . . . 
inurne, may have received (shrift) ; but habben . . . imune = may 
have remembered. 

1. 294. do infirste = put off, grant respite. 

P. 75, 1. 2. The Trinity MS. reads, 'Ne noman ne agh werne 
]?anne me him for nede J>ar to bit' = Nor ought any man to 
refuse (to teach) when any one in need thereto entreats (him). 

1. 35. aide, an error for halde. The Trinity MS. has healde 
willen = are willing to i*eceive. 

1. 36. \o\nunge - \oftnunge = O.E. chesunge, adoption, election. 


P. 77, 1. 3. ivacste. The Trinity MS. has westme, which is 
also used for strength. 

' Ac hie be wcestmum \vig[an] curon.' 

(Caadnion, p. 193, 1. 8.) 

= For they, according to his strength, chose each warrior. 

1. 11. studed- stud£& = helpeth. A.S. studu, a support. 

P. 79, 1. 5. half quic. The A.S. sam-cucu, healf-cioic corre- 
sponds to the phrase ' half-dead,' but it is here literally rendered 
on account of the distinction drawn by the author of this homily 
on p. 81, 1. 3. 

1. 9. toerue. — Werf ( = A. S. weorf) signifies properly an ass ; 
but in p. 85, 1. 3, werue is given as synonymous with mare. 

1. 16. Jerusalem . . . gri\>es sih]>e. ' Jerusalem visio pads . . . 
Finita via habitabimus in ilia civitate, quae numquam ruitura 
est, quia et Dominus habitat in ea, et custodit earn ; quae est 
visio pads aeterna Jerusalem.' (St. Aug. Enarr. in Ps. cxxxiv. 
§ 26.) ' Hierusalem, on \>sere is symle sibbe gestfift.' 1 (^Elf. Horn, 
i. 210.) See Orm. vol. ii. pp. 274, 429. 

1. 21. wrechede = xorech-hede, crime, wickedness. 

I. 23. scrude. I have rendered this by produce, as if it were 
an error for strunde (A. S. strynd, stock, strain, tribe). 

II. 26-28. It was a prevailing notion that sin caused the in- 
ferior ci'eatures to become hostile to man. See Gen. and Ex. p. 6. 

P. 81, 1. 4. aquenched , extinguished. 

1. 9. hisflesc awelden, keep in subjection the lusts of the flesh. 

1. 15. holde mode, a well-disposed (favourable) mind. ' Be- 
heald min gebed holdum mode' = with a gracious mood. (Ps. 
v. 1 .) ' pe him hold ne wses' = who was not favourable (friendly) 
to him. (Caad. 217, 2.) ' Beheald me holdlice (favourably) and 
gehyr me eac.' (Ps. liv. 1.) 

1. 28. sexe, a short knife. ' And (seo) hyre seaxe geteah' = she 
drew out her poniard. (Beow. 1. 3095.) 

1. 32. elelendis, foreign. In A.S. we have the forms elelend, 
and elelemlisca, as well as ellend and ellendisca. 

1 Ac me to sange symle hsefde, 
hu ic ])ine so^faestnysse shiest heolde, 
}>9er ic on elelande ahte stowe. (Ps. cix. 54.) 

1. 35. com flon, [came flying. The infinitive after verbs of 
motion is very common in A. S., but is not so frequently used by 
later writers, who prefer the present participle, which we have 
also in the Saxon English. ' Da comon J>ser fleogende twegen 
faagre englas.' (iElf. Horn. vol. ii. pt. v. p. 504.) 

1. 36. fe^er-home. This properly signifies ' vestis plumis con- 
structa^ but it is also used for wings. 


' And [he] haefde craft mid him. 
J>et he mid fe&er-homan. ( = wings), 
fleogan meahte.' (Csed. p. 27, 1. 13.) 

' geseo ic him his englas. 
jmbe hweorfan. 

mid feSer-haman' (with feathery wings). 
(Ibid. p. 42, 1. 6.) 

Home or hartie is found in the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder, 
p. 21, 1. 391. 

' Of he caste his dragouns hanie.' 
P. 83,1. 31. 

' The schryft-Jjader that varth ary^t 
Schal be wel debonayre and lo^e ; 
He schal wyslyche thy senne hele, 
Bet thane he wolde hys owe. 
3ef he the schel anoye a}t, 
• Hyt wyle of-]>enche hym sore ; 
And otherwyle anoye he mot, 
Wanne he scheweth the lore ofhelthe, 
Ase mot the leche ine voule sores 
Wanne he royneth thefelthe.' 

(Shoreham, pp. 35, 36.) 

P. 85, 1. 3. unorne may here be rendered bold, wayward. Its 
more ordinary meaning is, simply, rough, old ; unorne mare \et 
bitacneS ure unorne fleis. Cp. the following from the Vision of 
Piers Ploughman, ed. Wright, vol. ii. p. 354 : — 

' For he seigh me that am Samaritan 
Suwen Feith and his felawe 
On my caput that highte caro, 
Of mankynde I took it.' 

1. 25. wur]>inge, dung, ordure. See a good note on this word 
in Cockayne's St. Marherete. 

P. 87, 11. 5, 6. of elchan hiwscipe. The original has cet celcum 

1. 10. londe. The original has leodscipe. 

1. 13. ledde. The original has mid; but perhaps the scribe 
of the Lambeth MS. intended to write and ledde. 

1. 21. \e ner. The original text has \>a clypod God \>one 
moysen him to. 

1. 25. detye. The original has siege. 

P. 89, 1. 21. edmodliche. The A.S. text has dnmodlice = 

1. 22. onbodinde. The A.S. text has anbidigende. 

1. 25. upjleunge = upfleringe, upper flooring. 

1. 27. spechen. The A.S. text has gereordum. 


L 29. troiofeste. The A.S. text has eawfceste. 

1. 31. eclicnew. The A.S. text has celc oncnew. 

abluied. The A.S. text has ablicged. 

P. 91, 1. 10. /orS. The A.S. text has o«J>««. Old English 
writers also employ for-te or forto = until. 

1. 11. \>a iturn\cT\e. The A.S. text has %a wurdon hi onbryrde 
(stimulated), and cwcedon, &c. 

1. 17. mid sibsumnesse. The A.S. text has on annysse. 

salden - The A. S. text has beceapodon. 

1. 23. wone = lack. The A.S. text has wcedla = poor person. 

1. 24. apostlas fotan, the feet of the apostle (St. Peter). The 
AS. text has to \ozra apostola fotum. See 1. 26. 

1. 27. re$e = A.S. hrcvSe. 

1. 32. Heo nomen, &c. The A.S. text has Namon ¥>a to rcede, 
\Obt him wozrlicor wcere, }pcet hi sumne dad heora landes wur^Ses 
cethcefdon, weald him getimode. 

P. 93, 1. 9. selt. The A. S. text has setle. But seld or seald 
is a seat or chair. ' Ic wolde of selde sunu meotodes drihten 
adrifan.' (Csed. p. 275, 1. 17.) 

1. 1 3. mid \ere annesse. The A. S. text has mid \azre geheal- 
sumnysse, \>et hi drohtnian on mynstre, be heora ealdres dihte. 

1. 15. and heom yf &c. The A.S. text has and him forgeaf 
ingehyd ealra gereorda; for&an %e se eadmoda Jieap ge-eamode 
cet gode \ozt iii cer \cet modige werod for leas. 

1. 22. to drefde = A.S. tostencte. 

1. 23. J)i bileafden = \a Mleafden. The A.S. text has Hi ¥>a 
geswicon ^arre getimbrunge = they then ceased from the building. 

1. 24. to dreofden. The original has to-ferdon, departed. 

fye&San. The A. S. text has stfSSan, and this shows that \>e&6an 
is an error for se&San. In the Northern dialect of the four- 
teenth centui-y we find \e\en = thence. 

1. 26. Nu eft, &c. The original has ]\ r u eft on ^isum dcege, 
\>urh ¥:ces Halgan Gastes to-cyme, wurdon ealle gereord ge-anladite 
and ge&ioozre ; for ¥>an %e eal se halga heap, Cristes hyredes wais 
sprecende mid eallum gereordum ; and eac \ait wunderlicor wazs, 
^Sd&a lieora an bodade mid anre sprozce, ozlcum wazs ge&uht, ¥>e 
¥>a bodunge gehyrde, &c. 

1. 29. bodeden, plural, by attraction to apostlum. 

1. 33. iemede = A. S. ge-eamode = gained. See iarnede in 
1. 35. 

1. 35. iseyn = A.S. azteoioed. 

P. 95, 1. 3. loit-utan la&e = A.S. unsca&Sig. 

1. 11. dreihninde = A.S. drohtnigende. 

1. 12. mid nane lcv6nesse = A.S. mid unscaffiSignysse. 

1. 13. ne ofbitere speche nes = A. S. ne he biterviyrd 1103s. 

1. 14. forbere, if not in the subj. mood, is an error for forber; 
the A.S. is forbozr. 


1. 15. ercan may be l'ead ertan, which is probably miswritten 
for erstan (first). The A. S. text has wrran = former. 

IrSegedde \a/a sitnfuUen to \ere godnesse. The A. S. text has 
IrSegode, Ipam synfulhim to gecyrrednysse, which Thorpe renders 
' mitigated, for the conversion of the sinful.' IfiSegien = to 
moderate, act gently towards, soften. 

1.16. forsunegede. The A. S. text has receleasum = to the 

1. 20. murlv&e, not mirth, but an error for me^c, greatness. 
See note, p. 307, 1. 18. The AS. text has mcerSa. 

1. 25. forftnimeS =fomime&, consumes. 

1. 27. itend = A. S. onbryrd. 

Erest, &c. The A.S. text has wrest on him sylfum celcne leakier 
adwazscan, and sv&San on Ms underSeoddum = first extinguish 
every sin in himself, and afterwards in those under his care. 

1. 30. vovft-utom iifelnesse = A.S. on unscce&Signysse. 

1. 31. ^if=^ife. The final e has probably been dropped as it 
was in reading, before the following word commencing with a 

1. 32. godes icioime = A.S. gode gecweme. 

1. 35. rikt-wissnesse. The first s is dotted out in the MS., and 
should therefore be riht-ioisnesse. 

P. 97, 1. 2. un-cladnesse. The A.S. text has unscce&Signysse. 
The scribe perhaps intended to write unld&nesse ; for on p. 95, 1. 3, 
he has written wfeutan UC6e for the older unsca?&6ig. 

iteriS is for itende (pi. form of the p. p.) The A.S. text has 

1. 3. niminde. The A.S. text has fornymende. 

1. 14. for^ifnesse and hukt. The A.S. text has forgyfenysse 
kiht = hope of forgiveness. 

1. 15. ^eomerinde. The A.S. text has unrotan. 

1. 17. yf, an error for yf'S. The older text has forgif^. 

v6onc. The A. S. text has ingekyd = knowledge. 

1. 19. gast, for gaste. The A.S. text has gasta. 

1. 26. het. The A.S. text has hatte. 

I. 27. gode. The A.S. text has mairum, great. 

II. 28, 29. paid pet hermede cristene men. The A.S. text has 
Paulus elite cristenra manna. 

1. 30. cachepol. The original has tollere. 

1. 32. hi neren aferede of nane, etc. The A.S. text has ki 
forsaioon ealle, &c. 

1. 33. ivv6-utan fore - A. S. orsorkliee, fearlessly. 

1. 34. hehnesse = A. S. wm-^mynt. 

keriane = A. S. mairsigenne. 

1. 35. hine seoffimede mede. The A.S. text has gemedemode 
hine sylfne. 

1. 36. isundian. The original has geneosian, to visit. 


P. 99, 1. 2. godes. The original has godas, gods. 

1. 21. nehstan '. cd sica he heom er bihet. The original has 
nehstan swa swa hi sylfe. He sende efte, swa sioa lice ckr behet. 

1. 29. onlihte. The original has onbryst. 

1. 31. mid gode dedan'. and trewfestnesse. The A. S. text has 
mid ingehyde and arfcestnysse. 

1. 33. blisse. The A.S. text has gi&incv&e, honour. 

P. 101, 1. 3. iferende. The A.S. text has iverod. 

1. 6. godnesse is an error for godcundnesse, and should have 
been translated ' godhead,' as the A. S. text has godctundnyss. 

1. 7. un-to-delendlich. The A.S. text has unascyrigendlice. 

1. 9. itacned. The original has geswutelod, manifested. 

1. 10. eahte. The A.S. text has gestreon. 

1. 1 1. iponc on his ehte '. he bv& \>es deofles bern buten he hit 
iswike. The original has ' hiht on his gold hord he brS swa swa 
se apostol cwse^J pam gelic pe deofolgyld begceS.' 

P. 121, 1. 5 from bottom, pah ne nedde he, to p. 123, 1. 24, 
fowertene niht. The whole of this passage is taken from iElfric's 
Homily for Palm Sunday. (See Thorpe's edition of iElfric's 
Homilies, vol. i. part ii. pp. 215, 217.) 

' peah-hwaeftere ne nydde he na pot Imleisce folc to his cwale, 
ac deofol hi tilde to ¥>am weorce, and God pcet ge6afode, to aly- 
sednysse ealles geleaflidles mancynnes. 

' We habba^ oft gested, and git secga^, f»a?t Cristes rihtwisnys 
is swa micel, pcet he nolde niman mancyn neadunga of Ham 
deofle, buton he hit forwyrhte. He hit forivyrhte ¥>a¥>a he tihte 
pcet folc to Cristes cwale, )>03s jEhnihtigan Godes ; and ¥>a purh 
his unscasQ&igan dectfS lourdon we alysede fram %am ecan decu&e, 
gif v:e vs sylfe ne forpcerafc. \)a getimode ¥>am reSan deofle 
swa swa d&6 pam grcedigan flsce, pe gesih¥> pcet ces, and ne gesilr6 
^Sone angel Se on ¥>am cese stica?& ; bfi& ponne grcedig pees ceses, and 
forswylcft pone angel Jofe mid pam cese. Swa wees pam deofle : 
he geseh ¥« rnenniscnysse on Criste, and na ¥>a godcundnysse : *&a 
spryt/e he pcet Iudeisce folc to his siege, and gefredde &« pone 
angel Cristes godcundnysse, pvrh ^Sa he wees to electee aceocod, 
and benoimed ealles mancynnes para £e on God belyftvS 

'pa Iudei gendmon hine on frige- cej en, and heoldon hine ^a 
niht, and ^ces on merigen hi hine gefcestnodon on rode mid 
feoiver ncegelum, and mid spere geioundedon. And^Sa embe nbn- 
tid, papa he for&ferde, pa comon twegen gelyfede men, Ioseph 
and Niclwdemus, and bebyrigdon his lie cer eefene, on niwere 
¥>ryh, mid deorwyr^um reafum bewunden. A nd his lie keg on 
brygene pa sceter-niht and sunnan-niht ; and seo godcundnys 
wa3s on ¥>cere hwile on helle, and geivrcte pone ealdan deofol, and 
him of-anam Adam, pone frumsceapenan man, and his wif Euan, 
and ealle %a ¥>e of heora cynne God cer gecwemdon. pec gefredde 
se deofol pone angel pe he cer grcedelice forsvjealh. And Crist 


arcis of cleave \one easterlican sunnan-dfeg, \e nu bv& on seofon 

I here add Thoi'pe's translation, which corrects one or two 
inaccuracies in that of mine : — 

' Yet did he not compel the Jewish people to slay him, hut 
the devil instigated them to the work, and God consented to it 
for the redemption of all believing mankind. 

' We have often said, and yet say, that the justice of Christ is 
so great, that he would not forcibly have taken mankind from 
the devil, unless he had forfeited them. He forfeited them when 
he instigated the people to the slaying of Christ, the Almighty 
God ; and then through his innocent death we were redeemed 
from eternal death, if we do not desti'oy ourselves. Then it 
befell the cruel devil, as it does the greedy fish, which sees the 
bait, and sees not the hook which sticks in the bait ; then is 
greedy after the bait, and swallows up the hook with the bait. 
So it was with the devil : he saw the humanity in Christ, and 
not the divinity : he then instigated the Jewish people to slay 
him, and then felt the hook of Christ's divinity, by which he was 
choked to death, and deprived of all mankind ivho believe in 

' The Jews took him on Friday evening, and held him that night, 
and on the morrow fixed him on a cross, with four nails, and 
with a spear wounded him. And then about the ninth hour, 
when he departed, there came two believing men, Joseph and 
JYicodemus, and buried his corpse before evening in a new tomb, 
enwarpt in precious garments. And his corpse lay in the 
se/ndchre the Saturday night and Sunday night, and the Divinity 
was during that while in hell, and bound the old devil, and took 
from him Adam, the first created man, and his wife Eve, and 
all those of the race who had before given pleasure to God. 
Then was the devil sensible of the hook which he had before 
greedily swallowed. And Christ arose from death on the Easter 
Sunday, which will now be in seven clays' 

P. 123, 1. 8 from bottom, alesde, redeemed, set loose or free. 

P. 127, 1. 9. hive's. I have read the contraction as n, it 
may be m. See hivem, 1. 5 from bottom of the same page. 

P. 133, 1. 17. alfreos^e = 1 afreosy, for gefreosge, from A. S. 
freolsian, to keep holy day. i Freolsia\ Drihtnes restedozg] 
Lev. xxv. 2. 

P. 135, 1. 20. e&eliche clede, a [good] deed of little value in 
itself, because easily done. E^Seliche = A. S. ea^Selic, easily, from 
ea/6, easy. 

1. 28. biha^e&is merely another form of onha$e¥>, is convenient 
to, from A. S. onhayan, to have an opportunity to do a thing, to 
be convenient. Bosworth quotes the phrase, 'gif me onhagaft' 
= if convenient to me. 


P. 137, 1. 4. for godes Imie does not mean for the love of God ; 
loue - sake. Cp. ' \>e of his luuan adreag' = who for his sake had 
endured. (Legend of St. Andrew, ed. Kemhle, p. 10, 1. 328.) 
Godes = of a recompense, reward, or benefit. Cp. ' manig 
o)>erne godum gegre'tan,' = many a one greets another with bene- 
fits. (Beowulf, 1. 3726.) ' Wene Ic Jjset he mid gode gyldan 
wille uncran eaferan,' = I ween that he will repay our offspring 
with recompense or requital. (lb. 1. 2372.) 

P. 141, 1. 33. ilokene, (pi.) closed, shut. 

P. 145, 1. 4. dunge urift-uteu priknnge. If dunge = i 6enunge, 
we may translate 'feasting without satiety.' 

1.11 from bottom, uuel, evil, hard or difficult. 

P. 147, 1. 22. het-halde = .ethalde, retain. 

P. 151, 11. 1, 2. This passage seems to be quoted from one of 
the Apocryphal Gospels. A 7 ", (in 1. 9 from bottom) is perhaps 
Nicodemus and not Nathaniel. 

P. 155, 1. 2. \>et erre weren to-gedere, that previously was 
united. The Trinity MS. has er. 

P. 157, 1. 11. yur\>, an error for \>urh, through. 

1. 21. utbiioiste, out-dwelling. ' To heuen, that bese the beste 
beioyste.' (Met. Horn. p. 69, 1. 5.) 

1. 22. itityed seems to be another form of the A.S. getv&ed 
= permitted, from getvSian, tvSian, to allow, permit. 

P. 161, 1. 21. Do he to gode, etc., let him do for God what he 
can while he is alive. In the translation I have followed the 
Egerton MS. 

1. 36. Monies monnes sare istvinc, etc. The rendering in the 
text is only right on the supposition that unholde = unhide. We 
ought, I think, to place a comma after 'would' in line 35, and so 
connect it with what follows : — ' He who does not well while he 
may, shall not be able when he would, for many a man's hard 
affliction (i.e. grievous sickness) hath [been] often unfavourable' 
(i.e. has prevented him from amending his evil life). Here 
unholde will have its proper signification, from A. S. hold, favour- 
able, friendly. 

P. 163, 1. 40. his = her, i.e. 'blisse.' This form is common in 
the Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

1. 45. ylde, requital, recompense. 

I. 46. solf The Egerton MS. reads suuel, which may be 
rendered ' dainties.' It properly signifies anything in addition 
to the ordinary diet ; anything eaten with bread — sauce, meat. 
The Trinity MS. B 14, 52, reads, ])ider we sendtfS and ec beriS 
to litel and to selde. 

II. 55, 56. es, hes = her, and refers to echte. See note on 
1. 40. 

P. 165, 1. 94. of-dred is an error for of-dredde. The Trinity 
MS. has of-dradde. 


1. 95. mid horn, probably for mid hwom. The Trinity MS. 
has mid hwan. 

1. 103. ordlinghes = orlinges = horlinges, whoremongers. 

P. 167, 1. 108. temen. See L^amon, vol. i. p. 54, and Early 
Eng. Allit. Poems, p. 38. 

1. 118. \enne, evidently for \onne or \>eonne. 

1. 121. The Trinity MS. reads, ^ief be endinge is god al hit 
is god •] euel ^iefeuel is be ende. 

1. 133. We may translate this line as follows: — Many a man 
says, ' Who cares for torment, for that shall have an end !' 

P. 169, 1. 143. Swines brecle seems to be the roasted flesh of 
the swine. A. S. brede, roasted meat. See Cockayne's Leechdoms, 
vol. iii. p. 98. 

1. 170. redde is an error for rerde or arerde, upreared, 

P. 170,1. 175. Read well after done. 

P. 171, 1. 179. and ende is probably an error for an-ende, at 
the last, finally ; an ende or on ende also signifies ' to the end.' 
See Castel off Love, ed. Weymouth, 11. 822, 973, and Glossary, 
p. 79. 

1. 192. on honde. Cp. O.E. heranont, heranonden, in respect 
of this. 

P. 172, 1. 236. Read ever before any. 

P. 173, 1. 214. bigunne, had sought; 3rd sing. subj. of big an. 
A. S. begangan (or began), to go after. 

\. 221. hi = 1 ih = I, a form which occurs in the present 

1. 223. his = I. See Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 215. 

1. 231. woio, is evidently an error for wry, weeping (the lection 
of the Trinity MS.) 

1. 232. to hete, an error for to cliele. The Trinity MS. reads, 
Hie fare's J ram hate to chele, fram chele to hate. 

1. 235. The Trinity MS. has the following reading: — ' ErSer 
do^ hem wo inoh, nabbed none lisse,' each (of these tortures, i.e. 
heat and cold) cause them woe enough ; they have no cessation. 

P. 175, 1. 253. tening. The correct reading is probably reuing, 
robbery. The Trinity MS. reads raving. 

1. 260. borde. The Trinity MS. has bode, command, message, 
which is followed in the translation. 

1. 268. hechte to. — Tihte to, instigated (them) to, is the reading 
of the Trinity MS. 

1. 271. ofipouhte sore, bitterly repented. 

P. 179, 1. 319. The correct reading perhaps is, yf we 
serueden god, so we do^Sfor erninges, if we served God as we do 
for gains. I have translated as if the reading were erminges, 
i.e. poor ones. The Trinity MS. has very plainly, ' 3ef we serueden 
god half bat we do^ for erminges [? erminges].' 


1. 330. bute ive umr\e us iwar, unless we ourselves be 

1. 337. bene. Does this mean the well-trodden way 1 See 
Gawayne and the Green Knight, 11. 2402, 2475. I have 
translated as if bene were another form of O.E. bain, ready, 
also easiest, nearest. 

1. 343. nv?Ser hulde, the downward slope, the lower declivity 
or incline. Hulde = helde, Trist. iii. 89 ; Lay. 12867. 

P. 183, 1. 380. yhte may be an error for wihte, weight, 
measure. (See 1. 212, p. 173.) The Trinity MS. has wihte. 

1. 384. ludi boc, etc. The Trinity MS. reads, ' On him hie 
sullen ec isien al J>at hie ar nesten.' 

1. 390. wurse, inferior. Cp. O.E. unirsen, to impair, become 

1. 2 from bottom. Ihesu teke \>et tu art. Thou too Jesus that 
art, etc. Teke is for to-eken (A. S. to-eacan), in addition, besides, 
moreover. In this sense we find teke in the Ancren Biwle, 
p. 140 : ' Nout one jet tis, auh teke J?et heo teme^ wel hire 
fulitowene fleschs' = not only this, but she also tameth well her 
undisciplined flesh. 

P. 185, 1. 2. ase \eo = even as she, sunne being feminine. 

1. 11 from bottom, yrty, mercy, favour. It is also used by 
Early English writers in the sense of quarter, rnei*cy. 

1. 10 from bottom, hwi ne. This might be rendered 'why 
not?' but my reason for the pi-esent translation may be seen 
in the Preface to Hampole's Pricke of Conscience, p. xxvi. 

1. 5 from bottom, hwa li/= each is her life, i.e. each is as dear 
to her as life. Propertius addressing his mistress calls her his 
Life : — '^Eratas rumpam, mea Vita, catenas.' 

P. 187, 1. 9. luuiende, 1 for liuiiende, living. Seep. 201, 1. 11 
from bottom. 

1. 10. sar is here a substantive, signifying pain, torment. 

1. 2 from bottom, bote, salvation. 

P. 188, 1. 6 from bottom, sufferings; stondunges, like O.E. 
stoundes = afflictions, sufferings. On the three sufferings of 
Christ, see Ancren Riwle, p. 111. 

1. 5 from bottom, fixed : ituht seems to signify drawn, from 
A. S. tyhtan, to draw. 

P. 189, 1. 2. strike is to stream, flow. See Lajamon, vol. i. 
171, 397 ; Legend of St. Katherine, 1. 2514. 

1. 1 8. for hwam = for which [purpose] . 

P. 193, 1. 1. sweiiS. Perhaps this term refers to the playing 
of musical instruments. A.S. sweg, the sound of music, also a 
musical instrument ; swegan to sound. Dr. Stratmann suggests 
O.N. sveigja, sway, bend, turn. 

bitweonen. Cp. the use of among in the phrase 'and lude 
among' = loud at intervals, Owl and Nightingale, 1. 6. 



1. 34. beies signifies crowns as well as bracelets. The Prompt. 
Parv. has bee. 

1. 45. This line might be more literally rendered as follows : 
' There shall one stir up (mix) for them the golden cup.' 
Dr. Stratmann suggests that steoren is for steran, to burn in- 
cense, make perfume ; but schenchen in the next line is rather 
against this view. 

Chelle = chille = A.S. cylle, cup, originally a skin sewed up 
and used for a water-bag, hence a flask, bottle, cup. 

1. 51. ciclatune, a rich stuff from India. Fr. ciglaton. (H. Col.) 

P. 195, 1. 6. a&e . . . Hong = along, in the sense of 'cause 
of,' ' on account of.' Cp. 'JSt \e ys ure lyf gelang'' = it is 
along of thee that we live. ' Hi sohton on hwon J>at gelang 
ware,' Bd. 3, 10 (in Bosworth). 'Gen is cat ¥>e lissa gelong" 1 = 
moreover along of thee are all my pleasures. Beowulf, 1. 4306. 
See Cymbeline, v. 5. 

P. 197, 1. 126. lune. Dr. Stratmann suggests Dan. luun. 
Prov. Eng. loun, lown, quiet. 

1. 134. biseon usually signifies to look after, look to, take 
care of, provide for. Ancren Riwle, pp. 132, 202, 344. 

P. 199, 1. 141. to-drawe = to lead astray. See Gloss, to 
Hampole's Pricke of Conscience. 

P. 204, 1. 3. For 'sin. Through] read 'sin, and who 

P. 205, 1. 5. motlld signifies a. female pleader. Cp. begg-ilde, 
a female beggar ; cheap-ild, a female trafficker ; fostr-ild, a 
foster-mother ; grucch-ild, a female grumbler ; marSel-ild, a 
prating woman. 

1. 5 from bottom, nim mot, etc. Cp. the phrases ' say a word 
for me,' ' put in a word for me.' 

P. 207, 1. 2. sunfule, sinners. 

P. 211, 1. 23. liuie. The MS. has luuie. 

1. 2 from bottom, mislicunge, dislike, disgust. 

P. 215, 1. 16. This quotation occurs in Hali Meidenhad, 
p. 27. 

P. 217, 1. 12 from bottom, seiyi = sei$e, may say. 

P. 219, 1. 14. bed%. The original has sindon. 

1. 16. mihti. The original has mihtige and wlitige. 

I. 10 from bottom, to rede. The original has to \am rcede. 

1. 6 from bottom, bela/nvp. The original has getinwde. 

P. 220, 1. 6 from bottom. Read then after thou. 

P. 221, 1. 11. bide nane niede to \an, etc. The original has 
ne gebigde ne ne nydde mid nanum )>ingu?n to ]>am, etc. 

1. 20. anstdndende, standing alone. 

1. 21. paradis. The older text has neorxna-wange. 

1. 22. bruce, eat, as well as enjoy; the modern English brook. 

P. 223,1. 1 0. god ^e&ih^S, for gode ^ilvS = groweth,or increaseth 


in goodness. $eSih¥> is the 3rd. pers. sing, of ^e^Seon, to thrive, 
flourish, grow. 

&Sre %esceafte. The older text has ealle *&a nytenu = all the 

1. 22. dea?6 swelten = ded&e siveltan, perish by death. 

1. 24. imugon ^ec7iowen. The older text has ^e magon geseon 
and tocnawan. 

1. 31. ]>as = fyces, of that. 

1. 32. \e his, etc. The older text has hwi he his, etc. = why 
he, etc. 

P. 225, 11. 6, 7. pa wear%, etc. Thorpe's rendering is, ' Then 
there was rapidly a great increase of people.' 

1. 11. an man, one man, not a man. 

1. 13. ennen for enne, alone. 

1. 15. Wrec for wire. A. S. ivyrc. 

an arc. The older text has amne arc. 

1. 18. Ic ygdderi. Thorpe's rendering is, ' I will gather into 
thee of beast-kind and of bird-kind mates of each, that they may 
hereafter be for foster.' 

I. 23. tveter ]>eotan. Thorpe correctly renders this term by 
water-torrents, from \>eote, a cataract, torrent. 

II. 28-30. Ic wille . . . folce. I will set my covenant be- 
twixt me and you for this promise : that is, when I overspread 
the heavens with clouds, then shall be shown my rainbow 
betwixt the clouds. (Thorpe.) 

1. 31. ^emene^ed. The A. S. text has gemyndig. 

P. 226, 11. 11-13. There was, etc. Translate as follows: — 
There was nevertheless one family which had never bent to any 
idol, that had ever worshipped the true God. (Thorpe.) 

P. 227, 1. 6. awendan. The A. S. text has gebiged. 

1. 8. naman, and lac, etc. The older text has naman ; \>aira 
manna naman \e wosron entas and y/el-daide. Eft ^onne hi 
deade wazron \onne cwaidon \a cucan \>cet hi wozron godas ; and 
wur^Sodon hi, and him Idc, etc. 

1. 10. and beswicene mennisc . . . pa, etc. The older text has, 
and \>cet beswicene mennisc feoll on cneowum to ]>am anlicnyssum, 
1 and eweedon, " Ge sind ure godds and we besetta/6 urne geleafan 
and urne hiht on eow." Da,' etc. 

1. 13, deofel-yjld, an idol, properly a sacrifice or offering made 
to devils or false gods. It occurs in the Abrenuntiatio Diaboli, 
and has puzzled the translators, 'Ec forsacho Diabolae end allum 

1. 20. hefonlice. The older text has healican, supreme ; \>es 
cenne (to this kin) is put for the A. S. \yssere mmg^Se, for this 
race. In the later text ]>es is probably an error for Ipese. The 
correct form \>ise cynne occurs a little lower down (1. 23). 

1. 30. tvnes acenned, twice born. (Thorpe.) 


1. 34. forwyrhte were, had become guilty or forfeited (our 

P. 229, 1. 7. hesne, for the older hmse. 

1. 9. getocnisse signifies properly sign, miracle ; but it here 
translates the A.S. getingnysse, speech. 

1. 12. berieles. The older text has byrgenum. 

I. 17. nam . . . micel anda = A.S. nam . . . micelne dndan, 
showed great envy. 

II. 18-20. pa war%, etc. Now was one of the twelve of 
Christ's companions, who was called Judas, seduced by the 
instigation of the devil. (Thorpe.) 

1. 25. wel reowen = A.S. wcelhreowan; y.numan. The scribe 
seems to have been in some doubt as to the conjugation of this 
verb, which admits of no change in the preterite plural. 

1. 34. s&S yeleafen. yeleafe is not neuter but masculine. The 
older text has s&Sne geleafan. 

P. 231, 1. 13 from bottom, abiden of fe laford to \e none inn 
come. This should be rendered — ' await until the lord, at noon, 
should come to his abode (house).' 

P. 233, 1. 13. This quotation occurs in iElfric's first Homily, 
' De Initio Creaturse :' — ' He hylt mid his mihte heofonas and 
eor^San, and ealle gesceafta butan ^eswince, and he besceawa?S \a 
niwelnyssa J>e under }>yssere eor^an sind. He awecS ealle duna 
mid anre handa! (pp. 8, 9.) 

1. 7 from bottom, cheteft. So in MS., but evidently an error for 

P. 235, 1. 1. a wunder-worder [1 worden] = in wonderful 
(Avondrous) words. 

1. 3. la lief= A.S. la leof, O domine ! 

1. 33. ses, an error forces, of the. 

P. 236, 1. 24. After inviters read to the city ( = to berie.) 

P. 237, 1. 8. \at ]>e more his = and what is more. 

1. 10. ampres. The A.S. ampre, ortvpre, signifies a swelling, 
perhaps an ulcerous swelling. 

1. 22. ehten = tehten ? taught. 

1. 26. peses = 1 )>esse - dative plural. 

1. 35. witetlice = witerlice or witodlice. 

P. 239, 1. 2. mevchestowe. In the translation I have read 
merthestowe, and perhaps wrongly so ; for merchestowe may 
stand for mearce-stowe, a place marked out, an appointed place, 
from A. S. mearce, a boundary, limit. 

1. 8. letes. As no imperative singulai's (or plurals) in -es occur 
in these Homilies, I think we must i*ead lete his us neferfandie 
= let us never prove, or have experience of, it : fandian governs 
the genitive in A.S., as ' Nefanda Jju \ines Godes,' Deut vi. 16. 

l.*12. oft may be an error for d%, until. (See 1. 15.) If so, the 
translation of 11. 11, 12 must be amended, and instead of into 


darkness, etc., we must read into darkness until doomsday, 
when all God's enemies shall, etc. 

1. 21. \er midenarde . . . werpiS abec = turn away from the 
world, or turn their backs upon the world. 

1. 31. sandlice. I have translated this as if it were an error 
for sunderlice ; hut a more careful examination of the passage 
induces me to think that we ought to read s[c]andlice, dis- 
graceful, shameful. 

P. 241, 1. 7. The quotation in this line is from Ephesians 
vi. 11. 

P. 243, 1. 6. heriscole = here-gescole, war -band. 

P. 245, 1. 15 from bottom. tachiS. T.* has leareS us -j 
teache¥> \>urh aforbisne. 

1. 13. yf\es lauerd. T. has yf\e husebonde. 

1. 12. T. reads to-breken after hus. 

1. 7. ha. T. has ho. 

P. 247, 1. 4. ayin. Royal MS. has amines. T. reads somen 
for somet. 

1. 6. nurhft. T. has mwrS. The Royal MS. has, very plainly, 
ra*rS. Dr. Stratmann seems to think mirh¥>, gaiety, noise, is the 
correct reading ; but nurS (for gnum^S), murmuring, muttering, 
makes good sense. Cp. A. S. gnornian, to murmur, lament, and 
O.E. nurnen, to mutter ; and see ' Allit. Poems,' B. 65. 

For a \et, T. has til •)>. 

1. 9. T. has fares J ram instead of from. 

1. 10. bihouJS. T. has biheueft. 

1. 20. ileanett. T. has ileaued ; Royal MS. has ilenet. 

1. 31. ]>at me, etc. T. has \at is mesure. 

1. 33. vnmeo^S. T. has unmedfo. 

1. 34. on Jiest. T. reads horn nest ; for deme, it reads demande. 

1. 35. \eo. T. reads ]>a f. 

P. 249, 1. 3. wit. T. has wites. 

1. 9. lone. T. has long. 

1. 10. elheowet. T. reads Me heowet. See Ancren Riwle, p. 368. 

1.11. hat. T. has bides. 

1. 12. For hweonene and comme, T. has htce^en and com. 

1. 17. After freiniS T. reads him, and for he reads ha. 

1. 21. T. has men for me. 

1. 36. readien. T. has reoden. 

P. 251, 1. 2. T. has stinc for stench. 

1. 4. for . . . for. T. reads f . . . f. 

1. 6. \at. R. reads )>er. 

1. 10. draken, drakes, i.e. dragons. Satan is sometimes styled 
the ' drake.' 

1. 12. T. omits the second ham, and reads grot for greot. 

* Cotton MS. Titus, D. 18. 


1. 15. T. reads frodm for froggen. 

1. 16. nease gristles, the gristle of the nose. 

1. 17. eauraskes. Koyal MS. has eaureshes, but T. has eaf 

1. 19. meaften. T. has md&ekes ; for remunge R. has reminge. 

1. 20. snawi. T. has sweat*. 

1. 22. o&etf. T. reads to7. 

1. 29. T. reads aw after Euch. 

1. 31. After aw£ T. has fer te&ew, moreover. 

1. 33. For \>e, Royal MS. has \>es. 

P. 253, 1. 1. T. reads aire after for \e. 

1. 8. unseli. Royal MS. 17 A. 27, has unselie, the proper 
plural form ; /tare. T. has Aore. 

1. 10. edwiteS. Royal MS. has etiviteft. 

1. 16. wontrearSes. Royal MS. has wondrades ; T. has wan- 

1. 19. schok£6, her, rue&. T. has schekeS, hear, and runeS. 

1. 25. i wis. T. has ]>?s. 

1. 33. haue&, \urue. T. has haues, par/ us. 

P. 254, 1. l./ee, i.e. property, treasure. 

I. 6. For / may, etc., read / am not able. 

II. 6, 7. For do now tell, etc., read 'Do now, Sister Prudence, 
what behoveth thee (to do), quoth Strength, and warn (defend) 
us,' etc. 

1. 26. Whatever, etc. More literally, ' Whatever I may be of 
hardship (misfortune), I do not fear on account of softness 
(prosperity or luxurious living).' 

P. 255, 1. 6. lo9S. T. reads led%> ant for [his] wrenches Ich con 
= for I know his wiles. 

1. 8. ]>e ant. T. has ]>u. 

1. 18. ba. T. has ba%e. 

1. 24. worldlich. T. has eor^lich. 

1. 26. for. T. has for na. 

1. 27. licomlich. T. has lichomliche. 

1. 31. readeS us. T. has teacheS us 3 leareft. 

1. 33. unweotenesse. T. has unweonesse. 

P. 256, 1. 9 from bottom. For joyful and lovely, read nobly 
and richly. 

P. 257, 1. 5. luft. Royal MS. and T. read lust, pleasure. 

1. 9. me ne. T. has me self 'ne. 

1. 11. ei. T. has eauer ani. 

1. 22. lane. T. has leane. 

1. 25. dreaien. T. has drahen. 

1. 26. treoioliliche. T. has treweliche ; Royal MS. reads 

1. 35. schimmeft. T. has schimeriS. 

P. 258, 1. 17. For countenance, read 6eawi// (or glory). 


1. 32. For face so joyful, read beauty (or brightness) so 

P. 259, 1. 1. wel is riht = it is very right. 

Iv&eliclie is not an error for blfeeliche, as it is also the lection of 
T. ; IvSelicJie = attentively, from O.E. IrSen, to listen, give ear to. 

lustnin. T. adds f helden us swa stille hwilfearlac us agrette 
= that kept ourselves so still while Fear greeted us. 

1. 4. ofte. T. has oftre. 

1. 9. ]>urue. T. has yum. 

1. 12. sehe; seh in T., which uniformly omits the final e in the 
2nd pers. sing. pret. indie. 

1. 13. 36. T. has pi. 

1. 19. \rumnesse. So in T. 

1. 25. ful. T. has f idle. 

etscene. T. has edscene. In the Ancren Riwle, pp. 116, 140, 
154, 206, we find e&cene, iSsene = easily seen, apparent, manifest. 

1. 29. iseh. T. has biseh. 

After heouenliche, T. reads weordes, hosts, companies. 

1. 32. o. T. has to. 

1. 35. ich ne . . . lengre, T. has ine . . . of hire lengre. 

P. 261, 1. 2. a unwer^eS. T. has ai univercheS, and has 
Novem ordines ibi sunt before nihe wordes. For wordes it has 

1. 4. For the first on, T. has of 

1. 5. hwile. T. has hiciles. 

1. 10. poure. T. has of\>oure ■} lahe. 

1. 14. biheolt, hare. T. has bihild, livrc. 
. 1. 19. haliche, blissen. T. has haliliche, blisse. 

1. 22. feolohlukest. T. has felahlukest. 

1. 23. libbinde. T. has libbende. 

1. 25. feierlec. T. hasy*eiV£e«c. 

1. 31. sittende. T. has sittinde him. 
■ 1. 32. « setnesse. T. has em setnesse. 

P. 263, 1. 21. munne, spealie. T. has numne, spelie. 

1. 28. Jje odre, /te. T. has Jw^re Aa. 

etlunge. T. has eatlunge = estimation ; but eilung = ailing, 
pain, grief, envy. 

1. 35. bigotten. T. has bi^oten, R. biyoten, poured, cast. 

1. 36. nanesweis. T. has o na?ie wise. R. onane wise. 

P. 264, 1. 1. joyful. Translate 'diligent in these songs of 
praise, as it is written,' etc. 

P. 265, I. 12. neh ne neh = neh ne seh ich cd (T.). 

1. 15. trof. T. hasjjrc/. 

1. 17. unwine. T. has unwines. 

1. 2Q.folhin. T. h&sfonden. 

1. 22. wunne. T. has^me. 

a/i. T. reads f. 


1. 28. farlac isfleme . . . strenSe is omitted by T. 

1. 29. nu gild's. T. has nu nu gudS fearlaic. 

1. 30. muri. T. has muri tale; and for sondes reads sonden. 

1. 32. ow. T. has ow gudS mectiS. For stunde and ndSres, it 
reads stude and noidSeres. 

1. 33. warnest. T. has wames. 

P. 266, 1. 4. o/lter ^e ?w7? o/* ^Aeir mistress. More literally, 
after Will their mistress. 

P. 267, 1. 1. as. T. has as euer. 

1. 3. )><2£ is. T. has \e (is). 

\>at hird. T. reads his hird. 

1. 4. beon. T. has &eon. se; and for don it reads, don al as 
ham luste ase toil hare lafdi -\ nawt ase icit ham tuhte. 

1. 6. ]>eos. T. has ]>es. 

1. 7. \at. T. reads to. 

1. 10. is%>. T. reads i \e slepe. 

1. 12. luue. T. reads 3 lime. 

1. 13. ««i. T. has ■] 7t«s. 

1. 18. StrencSe. T. reads j strencSe i God j mea^S. 

abuten ende. Amen. T. ends here. 

P. 269, 1. 3. mildeu, honey-dew. See note on mildew in 
Philological Society's Proceedings for 1865, p. 5. 

1. 22. bekinde, beaking, warm. Cp. the modern 'basking.' 

P. 273, 1. 30. karlische, not churlish, but human. O. E. carl, 
a man ; carl-man, a male. 

P. 277, 1. 25. tvesti, destitute. See p. 285, 1. 29. 

P. 283, 11. 17, 18. Bale drinch = poisonous drinks. The Ancren 
Ptiwle calls the two drinks here referred to attri drinch. ' God, 
for ure secnesse drone attri drinch o rode.' (p. 364.) 

1. 33. luue lettres. See Ancren Kiwle, p. 388 : ' A last he 
com him suluen, and brouhte pet gospel ase lettres iopened, and 
wrot mid his owune blode saluz to his leofmon, of luue gretunge 
uorte wowen hire mid, 3 forte weldeu hire luue.' 

P. 285, 1. 9. derennedes (1 dereinedes). I can make nothing 
of this verb except by connecting it with darraign, O.E. 

' A monek he sende him in message, ~j dude as }>e sley, 
pat lond, ]>at him was i3iue, ]>&t he ssolde him vp3elde, 
0}>er come, 3 dereyni ]>e ri^te mid suerd in j>e velde.' 

(Specimens of Early English, p. 65, 1. 84.) 

1. 21. guer/aste, transversely. This meaning of course con- 
nects it with modern Eng. gueer, Ger. guer. In the Ancren 
Riwle we have heteueste ( = hetelueste), which seems to have been 
equivalent to uileueste (p. 244), but which the editor renders 
' closely confined.' ' Ine stonene )>ruh biclosed heteueste.'' 
(p. 378.) 


Note on the Rhythm of Be Octo Vitiis. 1 

The homily ' De Octo Vitiis ' is a fair specimen of that which, 
as I have elsewhere said, 2 may be defined as semi-alliterative 
verse or rhythmical prose. The whole piece can be divided 
into lines having something of the same ' swing ' or cadence as 
is usually found in Anglo-Saxon verse, but the alliteration is not 
kept up with much regularity. It was excellently adapted, no 
doubt, for the purpose of recitation aloud. Certain words of 
explanation, and all the Latin cpiotatious, are not to be counted 
as belonging to the rhythmical portion. In order to show this 
more fully, a portion of the commencement of the piece may be 
thus marked off: — 

' Omnia nimia, etc. ; bset is on englisc — 
Ealle oferdone" binge deriaS, 
& seo gemetegung is - ealra msegna modor. 
Se oferlyfa" on aete & on wsete 
De^ bone man unhalne" & his sawle gode la^Setteb, 
Swa swa ure drihten - on his godspelle cwa#>.' 

In the first of these lines, there is an alliteration in the cZ's of 
oferdone and dericcS ; in the next, in the m's of gemetegung, 
magna, and modor ; in the third, in the vowels commencing 
oferlyfa and cete ; but in the next two lines there is no trace of 
it. The chief rule that is observed throughout is, to have two 
emphatic syllables (or sometimes three) in each half-verse, the 
number of more slightly accented syllables being immaterial. In 
such a short specimen, the cadence can hardly be appreciated, 
and the reader may easily fail to perceive it altogether ; but it 
is nevertheless apparent enough after a page or two has been 
read over carefully. The stops introduced in the present text 
are the dots and semicolons which were made by the original 
scribe. Besides these, there are numerous others by a second 
hand, which have been introduced with the utmost correctness, 
and have reference only to the method of reciting the lines. For 
instance, the pause in the middle of a line is frequently indi- 
cated by a sort of inverted semicolon, such as often occurs in 
the middle of the lines in some MSS. of Piers Plowman. But 
in no instance is this mark introduced at the end of a line. On 
the other hand, an ordinary semicolon often appears at the end 
of a line, but never in the middle. Slight as the marking of the 
rhythm seems to be to any one not accustomed to it, it is a very 
certain guide to any one who is familiar with it ; and it is, more- 
over, of very great importance, from the simple circumstance 

1 Kindly communicated by the Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

2 See my ' Essay on Alliterative Poetry,' in the edition of Bp. Percy's 
Folio MS., by Hales and Fumivall, vol. iii. 



that attention to it will often decide ivith certainty many dubious 
points in the parsing of the sentences ; and may also assist in 
detecting any transposition or omission of words. A very little 
practice would enable a reader with a good ear to mark off 
the lines without any assistance from the dots occurring in the 
manuscript ; and it is precisely because I have myself succeeded 
in this experiment that I am convinced that the cadence of the 
verses was intentional, and not existent only in my own imagina- 
tion. But the fact is, that the present piece is no solitary 
example ; there are plenty of such specimens, and I may espe- 
cially mention one in much later English, viz. Dan Jon Gayt- 
ryge's Sermon, in ' Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse,' ed. 
G.G.Perry, E. E. T. S. 1867. 

#Ib <£ng(bjj %omilu». 

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NEW YORK : C. Sceibner & Co. 
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V*nk&n.J[ erf** ixnfax* unfto y^af *yv& fkig ecttum-«K)[ £aj? 
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p? ofc (4^cneflr.*jtttt>cud? t^cke drir<% ^ j>et~Wetfulir men um<r 

W ifceW»cue£jrn%t^&tiIjreti-tf^ k-Ue&itfcinen 

«ceCTtoti.l>n t^TpcetTwu frrde fume Jnfoieti lyim ij wiAkcfce^tf 
fttnartM* bog^ Ipe l^te brekmof }etre^.{>oye^^nC mAkci^i 
^»tfe btrttic^^Tnoke^ ^defoenr TOtttTnAnne^wmtf^&J'elmg- 
fcUxfcie'df t^w«wlAe>eroo ^ri?tni££e&exi WaQfc wl^)tr{^rl>kene 
bo5e£Wtl^^etereuJ^£iDlc*Dwnk?T4^n^etl^ tu^rtutd 

Voefte; J»<* W<m V*f l*fH)*nfc co-men ben.|?o|ie'd»n.Uc^cH««aeit 

JW 69. MS. 14- . SI. Tnru Qll. Camhr. 

Ph otolith* "by Cooie fcFoth.eringliam.1^ Prince 

Ill <0tt#Hsft ||jmriltys 







Author of 'Historical Outlines of English Accidence.' 

Editor of flam pole's ' Pricke of Conscience,' 'Early English Alliterative Poems,' 

' The Story of Genesis and Exodus,' ' The Ayenbite of Inicyt,' 

'Legend* of the Holy Rood,' 'Old English Miscellany,' 

etc. etc. ; 

Member of the Council of the Philological and Early English Text Societies. 



from MS. 54 D. 4. 14 in Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 

and a Photolithograph and Transliteration of the Music of two of them. 






Abdita qure tenebrans monumenta recondidit /Etas 

/Etas nunc tandem clara retexit ea 
Qua? licet ana sanctum non sint referentia cultum 

Temporis id nasvus simplicitasque fuit 
Sylibes qua? sint sapida insipidumque recuses 

Ipsa vetustatis gratia dulcis erit. 




-L HE Homilies in the present volume are transcribed from the 
unique MS. B. 14. 52, in the library of Trinity College. Cam- 
bridge. My attention was first directed to this interesting 
collection of discourses by the two extracts printed by Mr. 
Thomas Wright in " Reliquiae Antiquse," which Matzner has 
reprinted in the second part of his " Altenglische Sprachproben," 
correcting, as we might expect, some of the most obvious of 
Mr. Wright's literal mistakes. There are, however, two im- 
portant errors, wetiden for wenden, and tunge for muge, which the 
German critic has left unaltered. 

In one passage Matzner has taken an unwarrantable liberty 
with the language of the manuscript, by substituting a reading 
of his own, and making an alteration to support it. On p. 159, 
1. 4 of Homily XXVII, the phrase c he hes fette hom ' occurs, 
which is equivalent to ' he hire fette horn'' (see p. 165, 1. 12 from 
bottom) — i. e. he [Christ] fetched or brought her [Mary] home. 
Matzner, not knowing the form ^<?=her (cp. his in "Ayenbite"), 
substitutes wes for it, and changes the preterite fette to the 
passive participle fet, and is obliged to explain he by she ! 
JIes = heY is one of the peculiarities of the "Moral Ode," and 
occurs no less than four times on p. 221. 


I have not added a glossary to these Homilies, because it is 
my intention when the Third Series is printed to add a glossary 
to the whole collection. Most of the words will be found in 
Stratmann's useful " Old English Dictionary," which has already 
reached a second edition. The photolithography by Messrs. Cooke 
and Fotheringham, of a page of the MS., shows the character 
of the writing. The six lines of Latin verse on the back of the 
title-page are in a very late hand, and are addressed to the 
reader by a former possessor of the manuscript, who signs him- 
self " W. L." or « W. P." 

My best thanks are due to the authorities of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, for the long loan of the MS., and to Mr. Aldis 
Wright for the trouble he was at to place it safely in my hands. 
I must also express my thanks to my kind friend Mr. Skeat for 
many valuable suggestions while the work was passing through 
the press. 

In the Appendix will be found three thirteenth -century 
Hymns, from a MS. in Corpus Christi College, Oxford, to which 
M. Paul Meyer first called our attention. A photolithograph 
(by H. W. Taunt) of the music to the first and second of these 
hymns, in two parts, has been given, together with two tran- 
scriptions of it into modern notation ; the one by a professed 
musician, Dr. E. F. Rimbault, and the other by the well-known 
authority on Early English pronunciation, Mr. A. J. Ellis. To 
both these gentlemen I am greatly indebted for their help. On 
the differences between them my readers must decide for them- 
selves if they can. 


King's College, London, 
April 1873. 



In the First Series of Old English Homilies I proved conclusively 
that many of the treatises from the Lambeth MS. were transliterated 
and modernised copies of older compositions. I was first led to per- 
ceive this by certain orthographical peculiarities which I pointed out 
in the Preface to Part I. I have not been able to find any such in- 
dications of transcription in the present series, and therefore cannot 
prove so clearly that any of these Homilies are copies of older versions. 
But the fact that five Homilies (IV, XXV, XXVI, XXX, XXXII) in 
this series are also found in the Lambeth MS. affords some ground for 
believing that at least these, if not many other Homilies of this series, 
are transcripts. I have already said * that it is probable that all the 
numerous versions of the Moral Ode are transcribed from some late 
tenth- or early eleventh-century version. As this poem occurs in the 
Trinity as well as in the Lambeth MS., the points of difference between 
the two versions enable us, as might be expected, to throw some light 
upon this point. We must, for the present, leave out of sight the 
dialectical peculiarities of the Trinity MS., and simply bear in mind 
that the original copy from which all the versions of the Moral Ode 
were transcribed was in the West-Saxon or Southern dialect. 2 But the 

1 Preface to First Series of Old English Homilies. 

2 The Moral Ode being a ryming poem might seem to negative any such 
assertion of the original being as early as the tenth century ; but, however scarce 
ryme was at this period, it was not wholly unknown. 


scribe of the Trinity MS. has removed very many of the original dia- 
lectical peculiarities, 1 and substituted others of his own for them. In 
addition to tbis the prose treatises show that the grammatical forms 
and structure employed in the Trinity MS. are much simpler than those 
of the Southern versions : so that any very old forms that occur in the 
Moral Ode, as pi-inted in this volume, but which are wanting in the 
other copies, may be considered as due to the scribe's inadvertency, 
who in copying would now and then forget he was modernising, and so 
set down the forms be found in bis original copy. In the prose treatises 
there are only a few traces of this in ( i ) the employment of si subj. 
of is — " a hapax Jegomenon" (p. 9) ; (2) ther, there, gen. plur. of the 
article (p. 129) ; (3) gen. plur. in -e, in louerde (p. 121), &c. In the 
Moral Ode, however, we bave what I take to be a very evident mark 
of transcription, and of inadvertency on the part of the copyist. It 
was pointed out in the First Series that the older se \>e was altered 
(or modernised) to be pe. 2 Now this form be be is very common in the 
Moral Ode of the Trinity and Lambeth MSS. ; but while the older 
form se be is carefully excluded from the latter and older MS., it occurs 
several times in the former and later one. And it is also remarkable 
that while the ordinary form of the definite article (for all genders) is 
the throughout the prose Homilies and the Ode in the Trinity MS., yet 
some few instances of se occur in the Ode instead of \>e. Cp. — 

1 Se be 3 her do^ ani god for to habben godes ore.' 1. 53. 
1 Se be 4 aihte wil holde wel be hwile hes muge wealden.' 1. 55. 
' Se be 5 mast do^ nu to gode and se 6 last to lothe.' 1. 61. See 1. 67, 
' Se [be] 7 dxrS his wille mast he sal habbe werest rnede.' 1. 221. 

1 The Lambeth MS. is older than the Trinity MS., and has far more archaic 
forms. The Moral Ode in Jesus Coll. MS. (printed in An Old English Mis- 
cellany, p. 58) is much later (about 1246-50) 

2 Cp. ' Eft se pe dselS admyssan for his drihtnes lufan se behyt his goldhord,' &c. 
(Old English Homilies, First Series, p. 300). ' Eft pe pe deleft elmessan for his 
drihtnes luuan i pe behut his goldhord,' &c. (lb. p. 109). The alteration of se pe to 
pe pe took place when se and seo became be.and beo. For be pe we also find pe pat, 
he that. Lajamon has no examples of pe pe, which evidently marks an earlier 

3 Lambeth MS bo pe ; Egerton MS. be pe ; Jesus Coll. MS. (1. 54) he pat. 

4 Lamb, be pet ; Egerton Pe pe ; Jesus pe pat (1. 56). 

5 Lamb, po pe; Egerton pe pe; Jesus pe pat (1. 62). 
' Lamb, pe ; Egerton pe pe ; Jesus te pe. 

7 Lamb, pe pe ; Egerton (1. 219) be 'Se; Jesus pe pal. 


'And se be 1 more ne mai don mid gode ibanke.' 1. 69. 

' Se be 2 last wot he serS ofte mast se 3 J>it £ = be hit] al wot is 

stille.' 1. 112. 
l Se* man be 5 nafre nele don god ne nafre god lif lade.' 1. 123. 
'par is se 6 krSe Sathanas and helzebub se e ealde.' 1. 287. 
'par me [sal] drihte self iseien swo se 7 is mid iwisse.' 1. 379. 

In the Kentish dialect se and (si = seo) were retained as late as the 
thirteenth century (see An Old English Miscellany, p. xv), but not in 
other Southern dialects, and certainly not in the Midland variety spoken 
by the scribe of the Trinity MS. I therefore look upon the presence 
of se ]>e as evident proof of transcription. 



The Homilies in this volume are much more complete than those 
printed from the Lambeth MS. in Old English Homilies, First Series. 
None of them, however, seem to be copied, as some of the Lambeth 
Homilies are, from iElfric's treatises. Most of them, perhaps, were 
originally translated from Latin Homilies, though some few have the 
appearance of original compositions, especially those that furnish us 
with specimens of popular etymology. Thus, on p. 25 we read that we 
call God 'fader for pat he us feide (put together, joined) here,' or 
because ' bat he fet (feeds) alle liuiende bing.' 8 On p. 45 king is con- 
nected with kennen, to direct, rule, just as rex is connected with 
regere : — ' He is cleped kirtg, for bat he kenned eure to rihte.' On 
pp. 97, 99, Easter is connected with (1) arise — ' pis dai is cleped estrene 
dai bat is aristes dai ;' (2) with este (dainty) — 'pis dai is cleped estre 
dai, bat is estene dai.' The housel (p. 99) is connected with how and 
seely (cp. sell/, silly ; Ger. selig) : — ' And te este is husel and no man 

1 Lamb. be fte ; Egerton be be ; not in Jesus. 

2 Lamb. be fte ; Egerton (1. 112) \>e be ; Jesus \>at. 

3 Lamb. be ; Egerton \t \>e ; Jesus he ]>at. 

4 Lamb. ]>e ; Egerton ]>e ; Jesus \>e. 

5 Lamb. \>et ; Egerton ]>c ; Jesus \>at. 

6 Egerton \e (1. 283) ; Jesus (1. 281) ]>e. 

7 Egerton (1. 375) and Jesus he (1. 371). 

8 The Poet Kalidasa (in the Raghu Va?isa, II. 48), more correctly, derives VVS 
(father) from TJT to guard, preserve. 


ne mai seien liusel. wu god it is.' On p. 209/0 (applied to the devil) 
is connected with fo-de : — ' He (devil) is cleped marines fo for he /ode 
J>e forme man with God.' So hindre (deceit) is explained from 
bihinden, p. 213. 

Omitting a few allusions to the gluttony and drunkenness of the 
period, and to the profligacy of the clergy (p. 163), and the rapacity 
of the rich (pp. 177, 179, 181), there is nothing that throws any light 
upon the social condition of the twelfth century. 

The religious instruction given in these Homilies is of a very simple 
character ; and all the discourses, while not without interest, possess 
much quaintness in the mode in which the Scriptures were popularly 
expounded. See the Sermon on the Lord's Prayer, p. 25 ; the 
curious division of men into sheepish, neatish, and goatish, p. 37 ; on 
fasting, p. 63 ; church-going, kneeling in church, p. 83 ; on John the 
Baptist, p. 131 ; on the sea-star, p. 161 ; on the world as a desert, 
p. 163; on Doomsday, pp. 171, 173 ; on the serpent, pp. 197, 199. 
The whole of the thirty-third discourse, p. 208, is exceedingly curious, 
treating of the traps set by the devil in the following lairs — (1) Play, 
(2) Drink, (3) Market, (4) Church! 



Sir F. Madden puts these Homilies earlier than L^ainon's Brut, 1 — 
how much earlier he does not say. I have little doubt they were 
written before a.d. 1200. There are, however, orthographical and 
grammatical peculiarities that are usually considered to mark a much 
later date, but these may be due to the dialect of the transcriber. 

We have no clue from the MS. itself as to the exact place where it 
was written, and the difficulty is increased by the circumstance that the 
dialectic peculiarities are of secondary introduction, that is to say, the 
Homilies were originally in the Southern or West-Saxon dialect, and 
were subsequently copied by a sci'ibe who substituted the peculiarities 
of his own dialect for those of his original MS. : in fact, we have 
here both transcription, modernisation, and adaptation. But while it is 
difficult from internal evidence to fix upon the particular county 
where these Homilies were written, it is comparatively an easy 

1 See Preface to La3amon. 


matter to see to what group of Old English works they must be 
assigned, or in other words, to point out the grammatical elements 
which are peculiar to them. Looking at the occasional plurals of the 
present indicative in -en, we at once detect the Midland peculiarities 
of the copyist. But the Midland dialect had many subdivisions, and 
the verbal forms of the singular present indicative lead us to assign 
these Homilies to the East- Midland speech. But this dialect falls into 
two subdivisions : — 

( i ) Northern represented by the Ormulum. See Preface to Genesis 
and Exodus. 

(2) Southern represented by the Old English Bestiary, the Story 
of Genesis and Exodus, and Havelok. 1 

While, of course, there is much that is common to the two sub- 
divisions there is one very plain mark of difference, and that is 
the employment of the pronoun es, is or (lies) = them, by the writers of 
the southern division of the East-Midland dialect. 

This pronoun is not found in any of the Northumbrian dialects, 
nor does it occur in the West-Midland dialect, but it is very common 
in the Southern dialects as late as 1340. Its frequent occurrence in 
the Bestiary, the Story of Genesis and Exodus, and in Havelok, and 
its absence from the Ormulum, seem to indicate clearly a more 
southern locality for the composition of the former works. 

Whatever name we may give to the dialect, there is still the fact of a 
group of Midland works containing this pronominal form. But there 
is another interesting point connected with its use — namely, its 
coalescence with the personal pronouns (and with verbs). 2 Thus in the 
Bestiary we have wes ('De culuer hailed costes gode, alle wes ogen to 
hauen in mode,' 1. 786) = we + es = we + hes = we them ; and in Genesis 
and Exodus, lies = he + es = he them. 3 

In the Ayenbite (Kentish dialect) although lie and hise are 

1 In Havelok we have many Northern, and some few Southern, peculiarities : 
but the East-Midland element is easily detected on comparing it with Genesis 
and Exodus. 

2 In Havelok es (is, as) occurs but does not coalesce with pronouns, only 
with verbs. See 11. 970, 1174. 

3 Cp. Moral Ode in this volume p. 221, 1. 55, where hes (he her) = he . . cs (Lam- 
beth), he . . his (Egerton), he . . him (Jesus). In 1. 56, the second hes (he her) = 
lie . . it (Lambeth), heo . . hit (Egerton), he . . hit (Jesus). aihle is a feminine 
substantive. For hes = her, see Moral Ode, 11. 40, 56. 


collocated, they never coalesce, and we might he tempted to affirm 
that in this dialect, he and hise never do coalesce : hut in the Old 
Kentish Sermons, thirteenth century (contained in An Old English 
Miscellany) we find a corresponding coalescence to lies in the form 
has = lia + es or ha + hise = he them : — ' Se christen man yef has deb '. 
of-seruet bo hlisce of heuene.' See An Old English Miscellany, 
p. xv. 

The appearance of this form in the Kentish dialect still further 
strengthens the supposition of a more southern locality for Genesis 
and Exodus &c, over that of the Ormulum. It seems as if these 
agglutinative forms were confined in the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries to the south-east of England — Suffolk, Essex 
and Kent. 

Now, as these Homilies from the Trinity MS. have traces of East- 
Midland peculiarities, and moreover contain an example of the co- 
alescence of the pronoun es with one of the personal pronouns, I 
unhesitatingly class them along with the Bestiary and the Story of 
Genesis and Exodus. The agglutinative form in the Homilies, though 
similar in formation to wes and lies is perhaps unique : mes = me + es = 
the Southern me hi, me them, i. e. one them (cp Ger. man, Fr. on) : — 
' po be waren swo lease men ]>at mes 1 ne mihte leuen' (1. 255)— Those 
who were such liars that one was not ahle to helieve them. As these 
Homilies have no instance of qu for hw, 2 and contain also many 
Southern forms, as lies = her, genitive plurals in -ene, &c, I feel inclined 
to assign them to a locality still more southern than even Genesis and 
Exodus : Essex perhaps, on account of its contiguity to Kent, would 
answer best. 

The remarks on the grammatical peculiarities of the East-Midland 
dialect contained in my Preface to Genesis and Exodus, apply also to 
the secondary dialectical varieties in these Homilies. For points of 
difference the reader must refer to the following Summary of 
Grammatical Forms. 

1 ' pet me horn ne mihte ileuen.' (Lambeth MS.) 

' pet me hi ne mihte ileuen.' (Egerton MS. I. 257.) 

'pat me heom ne niyhte ileuen.' (Jesus Coll. MS. 1. 251.) 

2 Smith's 'Gilds,' shows that qu for hio was common in the East-Midland 
dialect. See Lynn, Norwich, &c. 




I. Gender. 

i. There is, as in all East-Midland works, a disregard for the older 
distinctions of grammatical gender. 

2. As in the Ormulum, and Genesis and Exodus, there are no instances 
of nouns with the feminine suffix -en (very common in the Ancren 
Riwle). The suffix ster occurs but once, in wassestren - washerwomen. 
Huccsterre in Ormulum (ii. p. 192, 1. 15817) is probably masculine. 
In the Northern dialects of the fourteenth century clemster (a judge), 
songster ( = songere, a singer), &c, are masculine nouns. 

3. The Norman- French -ess does not make its appearance in these 

II. Number. 

1. For the most part the older plural endings (i) -an, (ii) -a, (iii) -u 
show a tendency to become -es : — 

(i) blostmes (151, 197), erendrakes (129), hertes, lichames (119), 
names (91), sterres (107, 153), times (3); wities (113), 
all originally forming the plural in -an. 

(ii) becles, dedes, (57, 131), mihtes (35), sinnes (7, 13), sowles 
(97), vjedes (11), vnindes (33); feminines forming the 
plural originally in -a. (iia.) giues, lages, luues (229); 
feminines ending in the singular in u and forming 
the plural in -a. (ii b.) burges (51), old pi. byrig. 
(ii c.) suites (19), old pi. suna (masc.) 

(iii) denies (39), old pi. deqflu (masc). 

(iv) limes (65, 85), treives (37), wapnes (13, 117); neuter sub- 
stantives originally forming the plural in -u. (iv b) dohtres 
(19, 197); shuldres (211), wundres, sustres (147) ; belong- 
ing to -r stems, forming their plurals originally in -u. 

(v) The following substantives originally had no inflexion in 
the plural : — bemes (73), folkes, huses, lokes (45), lombes, 
yinges (19), swerdes, wordes (43, 65), werkes (13). 


2. There are, however, many traces of plurals in en : — 

(i) assen (195), ashen (65), blostmen (89, 117), chirchen, 
cheken (73), egen, eien (25, 33), ear-en (25, 33), iselen, (65), 
fon (33), halegen (23,119), hinen, moren (139), ocsen (195), 
heten (in), turtlan (49), utlagen (33), tilien (163) ; ori- 
ginally old plurals in -an. Sometimes the n is dropped : — 
heme (115), blostme (107), erendrake (35), eare (181), 
hete (in), name (177), time (3), tilie. 

(ii) Feminines forming their plural originally in a : — beden, 
deden (9, 13), honden (2 1, 169), mihten (35), roden, sennen, 
synnen (n, 17, 41), toeden (33, 57), wunden (19, 41), 
$erden, wuken T (3). Sometimes the old plural suffix -a is 
represented by -e : — honde (89, 181), bede (123), mihte, 
mede, synne (5, 37), icuke (3), dede (n, 15). 

(iii) Masculine plural originally in -u: — defien (173). 

(iv) Neuter plural originally in u : — gaten (23, 113), limen (181), 
trowen (25), wajmen. Sometimes -u is represented by -e : — 
hole (201), lime (181), wapne (n). Childr-en (87), and 
childr-e (17) are the plurals of child, (iv 6) Stems in -r 
forming plural in -u (or a) breiren (175), bro\ren, isustren 
(219), wundren (109), reteren (37). 

(v) Old neuters with no plural suffix: — cZeor (177), get (37), 
foe (49), or/, swin (37), ^ors (179), \ing (15), s/fc?p, wo«Z 
(27, 81), were (11), 

(vi) Plurals formed by vowel-change : — men, fet, frend, fend, te&. 
It is easily seen that uew and old forms are used without any dis- 
tinction, and the same word has its plural formed in no less than three 
different ways, as synne, synnen, synnes. 

III. Case. 

1 . The genitive singular for the most part ends in -es : — ' deides 
craftes,' ' lichames bileue '; 'niehtes dede' (n), ' eves gulte' (179). 

2. Some few feminines still keep the old form in -e : — ' chirche 
dure'; ' sowle fode ' (27), ' helle gaten,' neddre (59, 195), eue (101), 
wombe (n), and wombes (p. 37). 

3. The genitive plural in -es (unknown in the oldest period) 

1 Two forms in Old English— wuce, pi. wucan ; and wucu, pi. wuca. 


occurs only a few times for the older -a : — teares (65), wateres (43), 
louerdes (179), mennes (139, 155). 

The two forms (-es and -ene) sometimes occur close together : — 
' aire louerdes louerd and ah*e king ene king' (89). 

4. The most common genitive plural suffix is -ene, which repre- 
sents the older suffixes -ena and -a: — (i) Bemene (113), tungene ; 
(ii) blissene (115), englene (33), estene, herdene, horene (49), kingene 
(45), lechene (41), mihtene (167), sauline (57), maidene (161), \ornene 
(21), iimrmene (121). Occasionally en occurs for ene — as englen (99), 

5. A few nouns have the genitive plural in e (for the older -a) : — 
kinge, louerde (121), manne (19), sa/te. 

6. Broker, fader, take no inflexion in the genitive singular. 

7. The dative (singular and plural) terminates in -e. Man has 
sometimes its old dative men (5), instead of manne. The dative 
plural has often the same form as the nominative, cp. 'bi bo dages' (3) 
with 'hi ban dagen' (47, 49). 

Sometimes after on and mid the dative plural ends in -n ( = the 
older -um): — foten (207), \ingen x (135). 


1. The Definite or Weak form of the Adjective is denoted by a 
final e for all numbers and cases. 

2. The plural of the adjective is marked by a final -e. 

3. Participles in -en and -ed take final -e in the plural and definite 
form : — ' ]>eforbodene appel,' ' be forsingede '(121), ' \owuene men' (39). 

4. The ending of the genitive singular falls off in the indefinite or 
strong form of the adjective, except in some few indefinite pronouns 
and numerals. Cp. enes, anes (163), ' Jesses ivreches woreldes wele* 
(Moral Ode, 1. 338), ecJies, ilehes, eVteres, (99, 193), nones (Moral Ode, 
1. 372). Exception — ' heuenliches kinges dohter' (161). 

5. The dative sing. fern, -re occurs once in onre (181). 

6. The old genitive plural suffix ( = -ra) occurs only in al-re (198) 
and tweire (95). 

1 With words that form their plural in -n it is difficult to say whether they are 
datives or accusatives; but there can be no doubt with respect to such forms 
as dagen, foten, and \>in'jeu. 



Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs. 

The Comparative degree of adjectives ends in -ere, and occasionally 
in -ure ; the Superlative in -este. Adverbs form the comparative and 
superlative in -er and -est respectively. They have often the same 
form as adjectives. 

Adverbs in -Hche change it into -Inker for the comparative, and 
-lukest for the superlative. Cp. gerenluker (171), grisluker (171), 
warluker (197), wuredluker (83), cfeerluJcer (97), wenlukest (29). 




eald, aid, old, 


ea$ (adv.), 


ere (adv.), 

erur, aerrure, 



fireste, firste. 




betere, betre, 


hegh, heh, 

heieste, hegeste. 


lengere (leng, : 



lyt, litel, 

lesse, lasse. 

negh, neh, 




uvel, yfel, 


wereste, werste. 


latere, later, 

lateste, laste. 



mest, mast. 




uttere (adv.). 

. . . 

Double superlatives 

are eftemeste, formeste, 

si^en-meste, uuemeste, 



The Southern forms of the numerals predominate. 

The ordinals are (1) ]>at on, (an), (2) }>at crSer. (3) pe \ridde, 
(4) feor^e, (5) jifte, (6) sexte, (7) seue£e, (8) egteZe, ehteKe, (9) nigete, 
(10) tieSe. 

prittttde = thirtieth ; fowertvZe = fortieth ; fiftvXe, jiftugeie = fiftieth. 

The only Northern form is ehtende = eighth (87). Hund = ten, as 
in hund seuenti = seventy (51). 



i. The Indefinite Article is an, on before a vowel or h; a before 
a consonant. The form ane (ace.) occasionally occurs (119)- Onre, 
dat. fern. p. 181. 

2. Sum = one, a, some. It is used in apposition with personal 
pronouns : sume we = some of us. 


1 . The soft form (ich) of the first personal pronoun predominates. 
Ic occurs but once; / occurs in ami (129), ibie (220). 

2. The dual forms of the first and second persons do not occur. 

3. In the dat. and ace. second personal pronouns plural, we have 
a mixture of Midland and Southern forms : giu, geu (Midland) ; eio, 
ow, eow (Southern). 

4. The pronoun \>ei occurs twice, instead of the more ordinary 
East-Midland form hie (or lie). The Southern forms hi, lueo ( = tlmj) 
seldom occur. 

5. lies occurs for them and for her ; mes = me + hes (see Moral Ode, 
1. 255), Jies^he + hes (ib. 11. 55, 56). 

6. The relative sometimes coalesces with the neuter demonstrative, 
as \>it = \e + hit. See pp. 3, 123, 224. \e hit occurs uncombined on 
p. 221. 

First Personal Pronoun. Second Personal Pronoun. 




ihc, Ic, I. 





Ace. J 










Giwer, giuwer, giuer, gurc, 

Dat. ] 

► Us. 


Ace. J 

Giu, geu, eu, ew, ou, ow, eow. 



The Pronoun of the Third Person. 







hie 1 , he heo, 

hit, it. 








him, it. 


Hin, hine, 


hie, he, hire, hes, 

hit, it. 


Masc. Fem. and Neut. 
Hie, he, hi, \>ei. 

Here, heore, hore, here, hur, her. 

Hie, hem, em, hes. 
Ure, here, &c. are used as genitives with al, ech, ani. 


The n falls off from min and ]>in, in most cases leaving mi and 
yi for the possessive pronoun before a vowel or h. The fuller 
forms occur a few times. 

Else is sometimes the pi. of his. 

The absolute forms in -s (as ures, &c.) are unknown. 


i. The ordinary relative is ]>e and \et (]>at) ; both indeclinable. Man 
\>e = he who (201). 

2. Se \e and \e \e occur in the Moral Ode. (See p. 221.) 

3. Hvjos, huas (whose), and warn (hwam), are used as relatives ; but 
not hwo. 

The Interrogative pronouns are hwo, while (ivich, woch), iohe£er. 
Masc. and Fem. Neut. 

Norn. Hwo, hwa, wo, hwat, wet, wat. 

Gen. Hwos, wuas, wos, same as masc. 

Dat. Hwam, warn, hwan, wan, „ ,, 

Ace. „ „ „ „ hwat, wet, wat. 

1 Aie = an older hia for kio. 


The accusative masculine occurs adverbially in ' a litel wan.' 
While is softened to hwilch, hwuch and wich, woch, and is declined 
only in the plural (wiche). 

Swo, se, are relatives after swilcli. 


The Indefinite pronouns are man, me ( = one), elch, ilch, ech (each), 
gen. elches (p. 222) ; everech, efnch, auerihe, of He, afri, efri (every) ; 
cfeer, pi. o¥>re. Ev&er, av&er - either, both (gen. evteres, p. 213); nefcer 
(neither) ; ani. 


^e (te) is used for all genders. 

All inflexions fall off except in some very few instances, as — 





Se (in Moral Ode only) 

)>ie ( = \>eo = seo). 


pes (rare). 


pan in combination with at, 

j>are, }>ar, }>ere, J>are, 143, 

asatten; and /or pe-nones 

181; Moral Ode, 1. 347. 

=for \>en ones. 


pen, \>ene, Jjane. 

Nom. po. 

Gen. per, J>ere (see p. 


Dat. po ( = j>on), J>an 

Ace. po. 

%at, ^6et, is no longer employed only as the neuter of \e. The plural 
of \at is J>o. 

fiis, originally neuter, is used with words of all genders. Most of its 
inflexions in the singular have dropped except pesse, pisse, \ese = pesse 
(dat.), Jesses (gen.), in Moral Ode, 1. 438. 

The plural forms are pis, pes, ]>os, posse, and ]>ese. pes = our these ; 
\>os = our those. 

Compounds of -like : — ilk, ilch (same) ; sioilc, stvidc, svnlch (such). 

Thilke does not occur. O^Serlike occurs in the comparative ofeerluker 
(see p. 224). 

b 2 




i. Infinitive Mood. — The infinitive mood terminates in -en, oc- 
casionally -in (see 7, 117) : sometimes the n is dropped. 

Infinitives in -ten and -ie are not uncommon in these Homilies ; hut 
they do not occur in Genesis and Exodus, or Ormulum. 

The infinitive without to is occasionally used (31). 

2. The Gerundial Infinitive has the sign to or for to (7) before 
it, and like the simple infinitive ends in -en, -e (15) except in some very 
few instances in which the suffix is -ne or -ene. 

The present participle in -ende or -hide occurs very often instead of 
the true gerundial infinitive, of which there is a good example on 
P- 39- 

3. Participles. — The passive pai'ticiple of strong verbs ends in -en ; 
occasionally n is dropped. The passive participle of weak verbs ends 
in -ed (-d, -i). 

The prefix ge- of the passive participle becomes i-, which is frequently 
dropped. (See Genesis and Exodus, Pref. x, xvii.) 

The imperfect participle ends in -ende, occasionally in -inde ; never 
in -inge. 

4. Imperative Mood. — Remains the same as in the oldest period. 


1 . The present tense sometimes does duty for the future. 

2. The past imperfect progressive is not uncommon ; it is common 
in the place of the past indefinite. 

3. The person ending of the present tense plural is for the most 
part -e% : occasionally the Midland plural -en is found which has been 
introduced by the transcriber. Other endings are the same as in the 
First Series of Homilies. 

4. Aren occurs as well as ben, beth, and sinde = sinden or senden, = 
are. (See Moral Ode, 1. 288 ; Genesis and Exodus, Pref. p. xvii.) 





Division I. 
(See Historical Outlines of English Accidence, pp. 287-289). 

Passive Participle. 

Preterite. Preterite Plural. 

bifel p. 87 ... 

wul 167 ... 

held 211 ... 

wield 119, 169 ... 

het, bihet, 75, 101, . . . 


. . . bihengen 189. 

heold, hield 23, 27, 

85, 167 
blew bleuw, bleu 1 9, 

cnew 127, 143 
let, forlet 59, 125 
feng, underfeng 141, 


wiep, wep 151 
siew, sew 151 

ihealden 221 

ihaten, haten, hoten 
71, 127, 141, 185 

bifongen, biuonge 143, 

swopen 87 
grouwen 129 

Division IT. — Class i. 
(Hist. Outlines, pp. 292-293.) 

Pret. Sing. Pret. Plur. 

geald, jiald 45, 166, 


bigunnen 85 

Pass. Part, 
unfoivjolden, 221 

( bigunne 

\ bigunnen 99 


Pret. Sing. 

wan 53 
bond 23, 113 

dranc in 
sprong 127 

wear}), war]) 181, 


Pret. Plur. 
urnen 39 

funden 89 
wunden 87 
sungen 53 

Wurmen 161 

Pass. Part. 

bunden 11, 65 
funden 161 

sprunge, 225 
stungen 205, 207 
worsen, wur|)en 97 } 

borgen 1, 43. 

abroiden 175. 

Division II. — Class ii. 
(Hist. Outlines, pp. 296-297.) 


com 155, -cam 163 
binam, -nom 35, 139 

bar 47, 135 
brae 69, brec 23 
spac, spec, n, 35, 153 
bi-stal 7 

Pass. Part, 
-hole 139 

binome 137 

nume 59 

iboren, boren 133, 223 

broken 93 

speken 5 1 

bistolen 220 

Division II. — Class iii. 

(Hist. Outlines, p. 297.) 
Preterite. Pass. Part. 

. . . treden 153 

3ef, gaf, 167 jieuen 169 

gaf, giaf 35, 135, 141 ... 

que^, qua 1 ?* 5, 49 ... 



lai, lei 51, 161, 187 
bed, bad 65, 87, 69 
for-bed 35 


wrac 35 ... 

seh, sogh, seg, segh, sah, selij . . . 

7, 109, 145, 147, 175 

et 47 ... 

. . . meten 159 

Division II. — Class iv. 
(Hist. Outlines, pp. 299-300.) 

Pass. Part, 
-lein 161 
iboden 185 
boden 117, forboden 

159, 181, beden 63 
seten 103 

shop 17, 222 
forsok 147 

wuesh 151, wess 65 
stod 59 
toe 167 
oc 177, 179 
wacxs 161 

Pass. Part, 
shapen 117, 105 

hoven 167 
wasshen 87 
stonden 41, 181 

slain 103 
Division II. — Class v. 
(Hist. Outlines, pp. 302-303.) 

Pret. Sing. 
bilef 205 
drof 87, 105 
glad 107 
bod 33 

wrot 7 

bot 181 

wot 141 

ros, ai-os 97, 113 

Pret. Plur. 

Pass. Part. 

abiden 1 




Division II. — Class vi. 
(Hist. Outlines, pp. 305-306.) 

Pret. Sing. Pret. Plur. Pass. Part, 

seh 107 

toah, tegh 145, 185 
Jjeagh 161 

stejli, stelr}, steg, steah 

165, in, 23 
smeart 179 

reu 147 

lihjh ( = lih = leh) 131 

fleg 127 

beih 121 

ches 17, 133 
forleas 35 

atogen 205 

¥ewen, ¥ogen 39, 41 

abroiden 175, 209 
logen 61 

icoren 167, icore 143 
chosen 93 


1. For ordinary forms see remarks 1, 2, 5, 6, and 9 in the Preface, 
p. xlix, of the Old English Homilies, First Series. 

2. For-to, for-te, occur instead of a-\et = c?6-\cet. 

3. Compounds of her, ther, and wher, are very common. 

4. ]>i = forty, p. 205. 

5. Adverbs in linge are rare ; nedlinge, bredlinge. 

6. The Norse forms he6en, ¥>e£en, wvSen = hence, thence, and whence, 
occur as well as the pure English henen, tlienen, and whanene. 

See Preface to Old English Homilies, First Series, pp. 1, li. 


The only noticeable forms are sam . . . sara ( = whether . . . or) 
a very rare form in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; alse hwat 
se = as soon as. 














X. SHRIFT .... 








































XXV. ST. JAMES ..... 











APPENDIX ...... 






Page 11, 1. 19. For Ach read Ac. 

17, 1. 4. For leuerd read louei'd. 

33, 1. 13. For angel read engel. 

37, 1. 12. Jfor J)is read \at is. 

61, 1. 20. For set ted ra&cZ setter. 

71, last line. For aten read haten. 
105, 1. 14 from bottom. For fule read ful. 
107, 1. 21. i?V all reacZ alle. 

125, 1. 24 from bottom. Restore trinneS to the text. 
137, side-note 1. For unnith read unnitt. 
145, 1. 5. For his read lies. 

„ 1. 6. For ]>e read )>a. 
151, headline. For de sancto laurentio read de sancto 

153, 1. 3. For selfen read seluen. 
167, 1.15 from bottom. For sar§ read ser8. 
177, 1. 13. For hi read hie. 
183, 1. 19. For good read god. 
203, 1. 10. For jxmkeS read ]>onked. 


Page 6, 1. 7 from bottom. For in reacZ one. 

30, 1. 4. .For spillest read sparest. 

32, 1. 8 from bottom. For unmerited read unattainable. 

54, 1. 21. For men read persons. 

58 foil., headline. For beginning of lent read ash Wednesday. 

80, 1. 1 from bottom. For Ninive read Ninivitee. 
150, headline. For st. laukence read st. james. 
173, 1. 5. For hidden read healed. 





Tlcce venit rex occurramus obviam salvatori nostro. To-day is come the 
holy time that is called Advent, thanked be our Lord Jesus Christ 
who hath sent it. And it lasteth full three weeks and somewhat more, 
Et sigyiificat tria tempora, ante legem, sub lege, sub gratia, and betokens 
three times (periods) ; one which was before the Old Law, the second 
was under the Old Law, and the third was under the New Law. Men 
who were dwelling under each of these three periods longed eagerly after 
our Lord Jesus Christ's coming as we [now] do, who are under these 
three weeks which are called Advent, that is to say, in English, our Lord 
Jesus Christ's coming. 

Adventus autem duo sunt manifesti, et totidem occulti. Our Lord 
Jesus Christ's comings are two openly ; — the first is gone, which the 
patriarchs and the prophets and other men who were [living] in those days 
longed for ; and the second coming shall be on doomsday, and that we look 
for • and all those who have been since our Lord Jesus Christ ascended 
to heaven ; and all those who are to come hereafter await his coming. 
And of the first coming speaketh the holy book, thus saying, Ecce 
venit rex, &c. Here cometh our King, let us go towards him and re- 
ceive him graciously and highly honour him, scilicet cordis munditia, 




77»cce nenit rex occurrarnus obuiam saluatori nostro. To dai The time of 

J_j . ill Advent lasts 

is cumen fte hone tul bat me clepe^ acluent. banked be ure somewhat 

more than 

louerd crist bit 1 haue^ isend. And hit lasted bre wuke three weeks. 

. i So in MS. 

fulle and sum del more. Hit stgnificat tria tempova. ante legem. It betokeng 
sub lege, sub gratia, and bitocne^ bre time. On be was bi-fore i^before'the' 
be olde lage. be o^er was on be holde lage. and be bridde was 2, under the 
on be newe lage. Men be waren wunede 2 on elche of bese 3, under the 

P 1 1 ., . New Law. 

brie times wisten gerne alter ure lauerd ihesu cnstes tocume 2 read 
alse we doS. be ben on besse bre wuken J be ben cleped aduent. wunen e ' 
bat is seggen on enelis ure louerd ihesu cristes tocume. I? these 

> OD ° times men 

Aduentua awtem c/«o stm£ manifesti. et totidem occulti. ea s er] y 

* yearned tor 

Ure louerd ihesu cristes tocumes f ben tweien openliche. be ™mf™ da 
fireste is gon. bo be patriarkes and be prophetes and o'Sre ^J - . 6 ! A '®, tw0 
men be waren bi bo dages after wisseden. And bat o^er tocume ^J^ 
be^ on domes dai. and bat we abiden. And alle bo .' be habben winbTorf 
ben se^en ure louerd ihesu crist steh to heuene. And alle bo x^wYio^have 
be ben tocumen her after abided his tocume. And of be firste u r d L S '"d> e s 
tocume speke^ be holi boc bus qwe^ende. Eece nenit rex i^veiijo" are 
et cetera, here cume? ure king, wule we fare togenes him. f or the second 
and him faire understonden. and heiliche wurSie ,s. cordis Christ. 


oris modestia, opens sanctimonia, that is, [let us] go towards him, not 
bodily, but in good thought (purity of heart), and receive hiin in our 
humble prayers, and honour him in our good deeds. Of the last coining 
speaketh the holy book in another place, thus saying, Ecce Dominus 
veniet et omnes sancti ejus cum eo. Our Lord will come and all his hallows 
(saints) with him ; — that shall be on doomsday. Two other comings 
are both alike, Altero visitat quando mentium tenebras illuminat, vel cari- 
tatem cordibus infundit. The one coming is when he coineth to a man 
and turneth his heart to forsake and hate his sins, and to love God and 
all his fellow Christians ; and this coming we pray for when we sing Veni 
Domine visitare nos in pace. — Come, Lord, and visit us in peace. Altero 
venit rapere quemque de miseriis hujus vitce. The second secret coming 
shall be when he cometh to each man separately and taketh him out of 
this world ; and of this coming speaketh our Saviour himself in the holy 
gospel, and admonishes us all to beware thereof, and thus saith : Vigilate 
quia nescitis diem neque horam, that is, be vigilant and forsake your 
sins, that ye be not found in sin, and so forlorn (utterly lost). Horum 
autem adventum alius fuit misericordice, et ideo desiderabilis ; alius erit 
justitiai, et ideo formidabilis ; alius separationis, et horridus ; alius gratice 
et blandus. — Of our Lord Jesus Christ's open comings, the first was an 
advent of mercy ; and all faithful men who lived at that time, and before 
it, longed eagerly thereafter, and it appeared to them long ere he came 
and delivered them from eternal death. The second open coming, which 
is to come on Domesday, is an advent of righteousness, for then he 
will there requite each man for his labour with such reward as he has 
earned here ; and that coming is very awful, for then shall no man be 
certain, ere he hear the lovely (joyful) word of our Lord Jesus Christ's 
sweet mouth, Venite benedicti patris mei, dr. Come, ye blessed [of my 
father], and receive eternal life and bliss with the angels of heaven, that is 
prepared since the beginning of the world. To the others, that is to the 
sinful, shall be said the loathsome, sharp, and horrible word, Ite maledicti 
in ignem eternum. — Depart ye accursed spirits into everlasting fire in hell, 


mundicia. oris modestia. *o])eris s&nctimonia. bat is fare to- * p- 2. 
genes him. nob [t] lichanliche 1 . ac on gode banke. and under- * so in MS. 
stonden him on ure e^ele bede. and wurSsupen him '. on ure hl„™ir y christ 
edie dede. Of Se lateste to-cume specS be holie boc on o^er ^ a p r ""j^ of 
stede bus qwe^ende. Ecce dominus ueniet et omnes sanct^y a ]^[y an 
etus cum eo. Ure louerd wile cume. and alle hise halegen mid wc 
him. bat be^ on domes dai. Tweien o^er tocumes ben bo^e There are tw0 

' other secret 

iliche. Altero xdsitat qu&ndo mentium tenebras illuminat. uel adv ents. 
caritatem cordibus infundit. pat o^er tocume is bane he cnme^ The first is 

_ ' m when Christ 

to men and turned his herte to forleten and hatien his senne. c °mes and 


and to luuien god f and al his emcristen. and bis tocume we men ' s hearts. 
bidden bane we singen. Ueni domine uisitare nos in pace. 
Cum louerd and biwind us on seihtnesse. Altero uenit rapere 
quemque de miseriis huius uite. bat o^er digeliche tocume beo^f The second is 

x * /o when he 

bane he cume^ to elch man sunderlupes. and doS ut of bisse visits ea 5 h 

' L ' man and re- 

worelde. and of bis tocume specS ure helende seluen on be ™° t v ^ |j| m 
holie godspelle. and muneged us alle to ben warre barof ( world - 
and bus que$. JJigilate quia nescitis diem neqae horam. [>at 
is be^ wakiende. and forlete^ gure synne. bat ge ne ben ifunden 
on sunne. and swo forlorene. Horum autem aduentum alius 
fuit misericordie '. et ideo desiderabilis. alius erit iusticie f et 
ideo formidabilis. alius separations '. et horridus. alius gr&tie '. 
et blandus. Of ure louerd ihesu cristes openliche tocume. be The first open 

coming of 

forme was of mildhertnesse. and alle bileffulle men be waren bo f Christ was on 

account of 

and ^ar biforen wissede swrSe ^ar after. *and ^uhte long er he mercy, and 

all men 

come, and alesede hem eche deaSe. bat o^er openliche tocume. 'on g ed for his 

' A coming. 

bat is te cumen a domes dai '. be^ of rihtwisnesse. for banne he * p. 3. 
wile ^ere gelden elch man his hwile mid swilch mede swo he pu i%Tadvent 
ernede here, and bat tocume is swrSe ei [s]liche. for banne beS Doomsday. 
noman siker f ar he ihere bat lufliche word of ure louerd ihesu account of 

. . . judgment and 

cristes swete muSe. Venite benedicti patvis mei et cetera, righteousness, 

when each 

Cume^ ge ibletsede. and underftrS eche lif. and blisse mid man shall be 


englen of heuene. bat is giarked srSen be biginninge of bes according to 
woreld. to be o^er wur$ iseid bat lo^eliche word, and ateliche. That coming 
and grisliche. bat is to synfulle. Ite maledicti in ignem etemum. fui one, for 

no one will 

Wite^ ge awariede gastes into bat eche fir on helle. and wunie^ feel safe until 


and dwell there ever and aye, without end, with all devils. Again, our 
Saviour's first coming shall appear secret and terrible to all men, because 
that he separateth the soul from the body, when he departs from this 
woi-ld. His second secret coming is soft and very mild and pleasing to 
all those to whom he (Christ) cometh, to enlighten them with true belief 
and with true love to himself. So may he come to us, for his great 
mercy. Qui vivit et regnat, &c. Amen. 



-rrora est jam nos de somno surgere dec. The lord Saint Paul, who is the 
head teacher of all holy churches, beheld this wretched world and 
saw that most men led their lives in sins and delighted them in their 
loathsome sins, as weary men love to sleep ; and he had great sorrow 
thereof, and therefore he thought that he would admonish all sinful men 
to amend their lives, and to renounce and repent of their sins ; and wrote 
then a writ (epistle) and sent it to sinful men, and in it thus spake 
with them, and included himself with them as though he were sin- 
ful. Hora est jam nos, &c. Long have we lien in our foul sins and 
sweltered (slept) therein, as slothful men do in sweet sleep. But now it 
is time that we rise therefrom and cleanse ourselves of our foul sins, and 
after that lead our lives in purity, and so await our Saviour's coming, ttat 
approacheth now from day to day, and shall be in mid-winter's night. 
Thus he speaks with us in one passage, in his holy writing, and in another 
place admonishes and instructeth us to lead our lives in purity, thus 
saying, Sobrie et juste, et pie vivamus in hoc seculo. — Let us lead our lives 
in this world soberly towards ourselves, so that we think and say and do 
that which is needful (or profitable) to our souls and bodies ; and let us 
forsake all that is unprofitable to them, as the wise clerk has said in 


bar '. 6 and 6 abuten encle. mid alle deflen. Eftsone ure helendes he hears his 

doom pro- 

on tocume bincS dieliche and grisliche alle marine. Forwi i nounced by 
for \>at he dele^ be sowle f and be lichame. banne he wit of bisse Christ's com- 

ing to separate 

woreld. His crSer dieliche tocume is softe. and swrSe milde. and soul and 

body is secret 

licwurSe alle bo f be he to cume^. fox* to aleomen hem of rihte and terrible. 

1 ' His other 

bileue. and, of so^ luue to him seluen. Swo cume he to us I for comi "&' to 

enlighten the 

his muchele mildhertnesse. Qui uiuit et ifegnat. and'genUe! 


TTora est iota, nos de soTapno surgere et cetera, pe lauerd sainte st. Paul said 

J_ _/ m .... that most 

powel be is heued lorSeau of alle holie chirechen bihield an men led a 

1 r # sinful life 

bis wreche woreld. and sagh bat mast mannen ladden here lif on and loved 

1 ° ' their sins, 

sunnen. and bat hem likede here lodliche sinnes. alse werie men even as a 

* weary man 

is lief to slapen. *and him bat soi'e reu. and barfore boghte bat en -> oys slee P- 

he wolde alle synfulle men '. munigin to rihtlachen here liflode. 

for to forleten and to beten heore synnes. and wrot bo a writ f To direct 

sinful men 

and sende hit synfulle men. and baron wrS hem bus spec, and he wrote a 

J ' r r letter to them. 

dude him seluen mid hem baron f alse beih he sunful ware. He included 


Horn est iava. nos. et cetera, longe we habben lein on ure fule sinners. 

synnes. and swoldred baron f alse slou man do^ on swete 

slape. Ac nu hit is time, bat we rise ba[r]of. and clensen us of st. Paul tells 

us that now is 

ure fule synnes. and after bat ure lif laden on clennesse. and swo the time to 

* forsake our 

abiden ure helendes tocume. bat neihlache^ nuSe fram dai to J*™ a , nd t0 

' look for 

daie. and be^ on midewintres niht. bus he specS wrS us on Christ's 

> L coming, 

stede '. in his holie write, and o^er stede minegeS us. and %^^jh„ 
wisseb us to leden ure lif on clennesse f and bus que^. Sobrie w ' ntei '' sni g ut - 
et iuste. et pie uiitamus in hoc secnlo. Wile we leden ure lif on we must 

think and 

bisse worelde me^eliche togenes us suluen. bat we benchen and speak and do 

r ° ' r that which is 

q^te : Sen. and do bat ure sowle and ure lichame be biheue. and needful for 

A ' soul and body. 

forlaten al bat hem be^ unbiheue i alse be wise clerc seide on 


his book, thus saying, Si prodesse cupis tibi quae, sint commoda qucere. — If 
thou desire to increase in goodness, seek after things that shall be profitable 
to thee. We lead our lives rightly towards our Lord Jesus Christ, if we 
forbear to do all that is displeasing to him, and follow in thought and in 
speech and in deed that which is pleasing to him. Qui placet ipse Deo 
proximus esse potest. — The man may be nearest to God who shall please 
him. Towards our fellow Christian we must lead our lives humbly 
in two ways. Of one the holy book speaketh, thus saying, Da egenti, 
succurre non habenti, et in omni necessitate pro Christo subveni. — 
Give to the needy, help the destitute, and in all wise relieve the 
necessities of thy fellow Christian. Proximi nostri omnes quibus est 
tinus Dominus, una fides, unum baptisma. — Our fellow Christians are 
all those that obey one Lord, and have one belief in common, and 
one baptism. In such a mode of life we may trustfully abide our 
Lord Jesus Christ's coming, and be confident that he will come to us 
and will preserve us from our mortal life, and from everlasting woe, 
and will give us eternal weal with himself in heaven. Qui vivit et 
regnat, &c. Amen. 



~\Jox precessit dies autem appropinquabit. Our highest teacher next 
to our Lord Jesus Christ, that is our lord (master) St. Paul, admo- 
nishes us to amend our lives, and sheweth us in what wise, and saith 
that we ought so to do, and telleth us why, thus saying, Nox precessit, 
dies autem, &c. — The night is forth-gone (passed), and the day approach- 
eth, and therefore it is right that we renounce and forsake nightly 
deeds, which are the works of darkness, and clothe ourselves with the 
weapons of light, that is, with true belief and with brightness, so that 
we walk by day in a becoming manner. 


his boc. bus qwe^ende. Si prodesse cupis tibi que sint covamoda 

quere. Gif bu gierne waxest 1 on godnesse f sech after Jung be ^e l ?««* waxen. 

be£ biheue. Ure lif we lede^> richtlicbe togenes ure louerd We must for. 

sake all that 

ihesu crist. gif we forbere^ al bat f bat bim is unqweme. and >» displeasing 
folgeS on bonke and on speche. and on dede '. bat him is 
iqueme. Qui placet ipse deo proximus esse potest. \>e man mai 
be *god next, be him be^> iqueme. Tegenes ure emcristene we * p- 6. 

■ii ii t i- r i ii«i • r\ We must act 

sulle laden ure lit: edmoclehche on two wise. On is bat be towards our 

, fellow Chris- 

hohe boc of specnS. bus qwe^ende. Da egentx. succurre non tians in two 


habenti et in omni necessitate pro 2 Christo suhueni. Gief be 2 originally 
nedfulle. help be hauelease. and on alle wise bet bin emcristene j We must 
nede. Eximi 3 nostri omnes quibus est unus dominus. una fides, needful and 
tinum baptisma. Vre emcristene ben alle bo f be hereS one po P r. ' e 
louerd. and haue^ one bileue imene. and one fulcninge. On J^ Pr0 ~ 
swilch liflode we mugen trustliche abiden ure louerd ihesu O " rf f." ow 

© (_ hristians are 

cristes tocume. and siker ben f bat he wile to us cume. and ^fgone* 
weren us mid [wiS] ure dea^liche Hue. and wrS eche wowe. Faitl^Tn'd 
and gieuen us eche wele mid bim seluen on heuene. 
uiuit et i?egnat. 

one Baptism 
in common. 



\jox pvecessit dies awtem appropinqudbit. Hure heiest lor^eu st. Paul 
after ure louerd ihesu crist. bat is ure louerd sainte powel. us to amend 

' our lives, and 

munege^ us to rihtlechen ur liflode. and wisse^ us on wilche shows us how - 
wise, and serS bat we hauen riht barto i and serS hwu bus we must 

' ' forsake 

qwe^ende. Nox precessit. dies autem et cetera. De niht is nightly deeds 

^ ■» and the works 

forS-gon f and -dai neihlecheS. and forbi hit is riht bat we of darkness, 

and clothe us 

forleten. and forsaken nihtliche deden. bo ben be werkes of with the wea. 

* ' pons of right. 

biesternesse. and scruden us mid wapnen of lihte. bat be^ 
so^feste bileue. and of brihtnesse. swo bat we gon a dai 


Non in commessationibus, et ebrietatibus non in cubilibus et impudicitiis, 
nun in contentione et emulatione, sed in horum oppositis. And not in dark 
garments. But here we will tell you of these dark weeds, what the 
holy apostle meant when he spoke of night and deeds of night, and day 
and weapons of light. Nox accipitur multis modis, sed hie pro infidelitate. 
• — Night here betokeneth unbelief, that is everywhere put down, and right 
belief raised up, thank God ! and yet, nevertheless, there are some so 
defiled with unbelief on the one hand, and so fast bound and so enveloped 
therein, that no priest nor bishop may amend them, neither with prohibi- 
tions, nor with shrift, nor with cursing, and that is wicked custom 
(fashion) that men yet confide in, and that consists in cleeping (invoca- 
tion), and asking (inquiry), and unkind (unnatural) deeds, and cursing, 
and hansel and time (chance) and divination, and many such crafts of the 
devil ; and the wretched man [trusts] that such things may prove a 
hindrance to the purposes of God ; but all those who believe that such 
things may further or hinder them are accursed by God's mouth, who 
thus speaketh in the Holy Book. 

Maledictus homo qui confidit in homine. — Cursed be the man that 
believeth in divination. But I will say, and take ye heed to it, what 
causeth such hindrances [to God's purposes]. We read in books that each 
man hath for a companion, an angel of heaven on his right hand that 
guides him and admonishes him ever to do good, and on his left hand an 
accursed spirit that ever teacheth him to evil, and that is the devil. He 
maketh the unbelieving man to believe in such divinations, as I erewhile 
spake of, and therewith he beguileth him, and depriveth him of heavenly 
weal and bringeth him into hell woe. May Christ shield us therefrom, 
and keep us in the true faith, and each man who hath it, and may he 
give it to him who hath it not. 

The works of darkness, which are all heavy sins, and other such, as the 
apostle has here mentioned, as are over-eating, and to eat at unseasonable 
hours at the ale-house and at invitations, and at feasts, and chiefly at 
every feast to which he may be invited : for there a man knows not how 
(and will not try) to observe moderation of his mouth nor of his belly ; 
and though he may know it with respect to meat, he will not with drink, 
ere he be so conditioned that he will fall into the devil's hand. 

The third is for a man to sit in the evening at drink and to lie [a bed] 
long in the morning, and slothfully to arise and go too late to church. 



bicumeliche. Non in commessationibus et ebrietatibus ?ion tn 
cwftilibus et inpudicitiis won in contentions et emulations, seel in 
hoi-um oppositis. And nobltl on derke wedes. ae her we seien wesi-aiinow 

*■ ' L J explain what 

eow of bese derke wedes. wat be holie apostle meneSf bo he |? meant by 

> Ti> deeds of night 

nemnede niht. *and niehtes dede. and dai. and leochtes wapne. a J- , ^ i ^ e 1 . apon3 
Nox accipitur multis modis. sed hie pro infidelitate. Niht * p. 6. 
bitocneft her unbileue. bat is aiware aleid. and rihte leue arered tokens an. 
gode^onc. and na^eles get is sume barfore of unbileue ifild on Some are s0 
one stede. and swo faste bunden. and swo biwunde barinne. sin that no y 

.,. . . • • 1 <• 1 i priest nor 

bat no prest. ne no bissop ne niai ni»i chastien : ne imd tor bode, bishop may 

make them 

ne mid scrifte. ne mid cursinge. and bat is IrSer custume. bat amend their 

r . r lives. 

man leue$ get. and bat is after clepenge. and ascinge. and wicked 

7iii 7 71 customs, as 

uncunne. and warienge. and handselne. and time, and nwate. soothsaying, 

&c, are the 

and fele swilche deueles cmftes. and bat wrecne man. bat causes of this, 
swilche bing kira mai letten f of bat be god him haueS munt. 
Ac alle bo be leue% bat swilch bing he»i muge furSrie o^er CnB ** is the 
letten f ben cursed of godes niuSe. be ^us serS on be holie hoc. g^dev-n's 
Maledictus homo qui confidit in homine. Cursed be be man be divfimfion, 
leue^ upen hwate. Ach ich wile segen undernimetS hit. hwat J°|\ 
make^ swilch letten. we radeft on boc. bat elch man haue^ to ??lfi^^ iBn 

i angel on his 

fere on engel of heuene I on his rihthalf. bat him wisse^. and "fa^alii'lo- 
munege^ eure to don god. and on his lifthalf an wereged gost. So good" m t0 
bat him aiire tache^ to ufele. and bat is be deuel. he make^ be °"J"\ '?" 
unbilefulle man to leuen swilche wigeles f swo ich ar embe gf^'stTnat 
spac. and bare mide he him bicker^, and binime^ him heuene toa^-riL* 1 
wele. and bringe^S him on helle wowe. enst us barwi^ silde. 
and healde us rihte *bileue. and elch man be hit haue^. and * p. 7. 
geue hine bo be hit naue^ nocht. De were of ^esternesse f bat The works of 

darkness are : 

ben alle heuie sennen. and swilche o^re so be apostle her nemde. l.aii heavy 

' sins. 

alse ben oueretes. and untimeliche eten alehuse. and at ferme. 2 - gluttony 

and drunken- 
awe/ at feste. and masthwat at ilche la^e^ 1 metisupe. For J?ar man h ie u s s a g al w " at 

ne can his niuSes me^e. ne cunnen nele. ne his wombe met. and feasts - 

1 So in MS. 

)>eih he cunne of mete '. he nele cunne of drinke. er he be swo 3. drinking 

late at night 

iueid bat he falle defle to honde. De bridde is bat man sitte an and getting 

up late in the 

euen at drinke. and liege longe a moreeren. and slawliche arise^. morning, and 

&t> & ° so be too late 

and late to chireche go¥. Dat feorSe is unrihte luue. bat is *» church. 


The fourth is unrighteous love, that is, whoredom and adultery which 
people commit between them, unless they be lawfully espoused, and that 
is wicked and unseasonable and wretched ; for whoredom hath no 
(proper) time nor reasonableness, but is the devil's obedience. 

Nevertheless if a man hath aught to do with his right spouse at the 
wrong time or at an unseasonable time, when he should fast or keep 
holy day, he sinneth greatly, for the holy book forbiddeth it. The fifth 
is contention and jaw and double speech and every jangling of words. 
The sixth is when a man eggeth on his neighbour to do or speak to him 
harm or shame, and hath envy, each towards the other, and causeth 
him to lose his property, or his rights. These are the six works of 
darkness which the holy apostle so especially forbids. For each man 
who doth them, except he forsake them and repent, ere his last day, 
shall lose eternal light and bliss and life, and have in hell eternal pain 
and darkness along with devils. Christ shield us therefrom if it be 
his will [so to do] ! The day which the apostle speaketh of is our right 
belief, which is our soul's light ; the weapons of this light are six works 
of brightness, which are thus named, Temperantia, Modica potio, Stre- 
nuitas, Continentia, per invicem Oratio, invicem Dilectio. The first is 
right moderation in meals. The man who uses moderation aright shunneth 
ale-feasts and vain lusts (idle will), and hath proper meal times and 
enjoyeth timely meats and observeth moderation of mouth and of belly. 
The second is for a man to drink moderately, not for to quench his 
wicked desires (will) or his lust, which bad habits have brought on, but 
to relieve the necessities of his thirst. 

The third is that a man should be watchful and nimble and active and 
tidy and rise . early, and seek (go to) church diligently. The fourth 
is that the man that hath a spouse should refrain from lustful deeds 
when so ever it is untimely ; and that those who are unespoused 
(unmarried) should abandon [them] altogether. The fifth is that each 
man should pray for others as for himself. The sixth is that each 
man should love others as himself, though he cannot quite so much. 
Ista sex opera dicuntur et vestes et arma ; vestes — quia nos ornant apud 
Deum et homines; arma — quia nos muniunt apud hostes. These six 
works of brightness are called shrouds (garments) of light, because they 
clothe and deck, anent God and anent man, every one that doeth them ; 
and moreover they are called weapons of light, because each man that 


hordom. and mid-liggunge J»e men drigen bi-twenen hem S bute ^- ™ ci ^®' 

gef he ben lageliche bispusede bat is unriht and untimeliche. do ,™ t a " d 

and mid unseize i for hordom ne haueS non time ne scule. ac 

is defies hersumpnesse. Ne forSe gef man haue^ to done mid 

his rihte spuse on unsele. o^er an untime ban man faste sal. 

o^er halgen. he sinegeS gretliche. for be holie boc hit forbet. 

bat fifte is chest and chew, and twifold speche and ilch fliting ^'double 

of worde. Dat sixte is bat man egge% his negebure to done ?^ e ^ and 

ofter to speken him harm, o^er same, and hailed ni^ elch wrS 6. Exciting 

r one's neigh- 

o¥er. and niakeS him to forlese his aihte. o£er of his rihte. bese bourtoevu 

* speaking or 

ben be six werkes of besternesse. * be be holie apostle for-bet so wi cked deed. 
swi¥e. For elch man be hem doS J bute he hem forlete. and Except a man 
bete ar his ende dai \ he sal forlesen eche liht. and blisse and six works he 

shall suffer 

lif. and hauen an belle eche pine, and besternesse mid denen. eternal tor- 
ment in 
crist us bare wrS silde gef is wille be. De dai be be apostle of darkness, 

> ° ' ' along with 

speeS is ure rihte bileue. hat is ure sowle liht. be wapnes of his devils. 

. Day is right 

lihte ben six werkes of brihtnesse. be hatten bus. Temperancia. belief. 
Modica potio. Strenuitas. Continencia. Per inuicem oratio. ^^^ 
Inuicem dilectio. Det foremeste is riht medeme mel. be man 1 ffc oderatton 
be hit meSe^ riht. be suneS aleS gestninge. and idel wil. and ta3£££to 
haueS riht mel tid. and nutted timeliche metes, and genieS his a im p e ™ per 
muSes me?e. and of his wombe mete. Dat oder is emliche ?• Moderation 

in drinking. 

drinke. naht for te q*«enchen his lu^ere wil. ne his lust, be 
miswune haueS on broht f ac for to beten his bur[s]tes nede. 
De ¥ridde is bat man be waker. and liht. and snel. and seli. 3 - Rising 

' early and 

and erliche rise, and gernliche seche chireche. Dat feorSe is. j^jj^ 
bat man be spuse haue^. his golliche deden wrS-teo. swo hit be time ' 

> ' L 4 Restraining 

untime. and bo be beS unbispused f forleten mid alle. Dat carnal actions 

> ' r and avoiding 

fifte is. bat elch man for o$er bidde f alse for him seluen. Dat a11 lascivious- 

f ness. 

sixte is. bat elch man luuie o£er al swo alse hi?;i seluen. beih he s. Praying 

' for others as 

swo swi^e ne muge. Ista sex opera dicuntur et uestes et arma. f ° r ourselves. 

7 • A ■ *' Moving our 

Vestes f quia nos ornant apud deuva.. et homines. Arma. quia neighbours as 


nos muniunt apud hostes. Dese six werkes of brictnesse. ben These works 
cleped lihtes scrud. *for bat hie snrSeS and huihted 1 togeues before God 
gode. and togenes manne elch be hie do£. and ec he ben * P 9. 
nemned lichtes wapne. for elch man be hes do^> were^S him 


doeth them protecteth himself therewith from the enemy of mankind. 
The lord Saint Paul, who teacheth us thus and admonisheth us to re- 
nounce the six works of darkness which pertain to night, and to do the 
six works (deeds) which I last mentioned, which pertain to brightness, 
may he intercede for us with the holy Father of heaven, to give us might 
and strength to forsake darkness and to follow brightness. Qui vivit 
et regnat, &c. Amen. 



nnria sunt hominum saluti necessaria, scilicet fides, baptismus vitce 
munditia. Be FIDE ait dominus in evangelio, qui non crediderit 
condemnabitur ; et sapiens ait, sine fide impossibile est homini placere 
Deo. De BAPTISMO autem, dicit dominus in evangelio; nisi quis re- 
natusfuerit ex aqua et spiritu sancto et cetera. De VIT^E MUNDITIA, 
dicit dominus per prophetam, lavamini mundi estote; et in psalmo, declina 
a malo et fac bonum ; et apostolus, immunditia nee notninetur in vobis 
cupientibus igitur consequi salutem. Insinuandum est qua; sit fides 
catholica ; et quce sit debita baptismo custodia ; et qua dei mandatorum 
observantia, id est, vital munditia. Et primo, qua; sit fidei doctrina in 
syraboli serie contenta. Three things there are that each man must 
have who will lead a Christian life : the first is right (true) belief, 
the second is baptism, the third is fair (good) life ; and he is not fully 
a Christian that is wanting in any of these three. Of Belief speaketh 
our Lord Jesus Christ in the holy gospel, thus saying, Qui non crediderit 
condemnabitur. The man who hath not true belief in him, he shall be 
doomed to suffer woe with devils in hell. Of Baptism he speaks in 
another passage in the gospel, and saith, Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex 
aqua, &c. — No man may come to God's kingdom unless he be baptized. 



seluen barmide wr$ mankinnes unwine. De lauerd sainte They are a 

' shield to us 

poul be us lare$ bus. and munegeS us to forleten be six werkes against the 
of besternesse. be bilige to nihte. and to done be six dede. be 
ich later nemnede be bilige to brihtnesse. he bingie us to be 
holie fader of heuene. bat he geue us rnihte and streng^e to 
forletene beste?*nesse. and to folgie brictnesse. Qui uiuit et 


CREDO. The Creed. 

rria sunt homimim saluti necessaria. scilicet fides, baptismus Three things 
necessary to 

uite mundicia. De fide ait donxinus in euangelio. Qui salvation. 
non credidexit condempnabitur. "Et sapiens ait. Sine fide 
inpossibile est homini placere deo. De baptismo <mtem dicit 
dominus in euangelio. Nisi quis renatus fuexit ex aqua et 
spiritu sancto et cetera. De uite mundicia dicit c/ommus per 
prophetam. Dauamini mundi estote. "Et in psalmo. Declina 
d malo et fac bonum. TUt apostolus. Immundicia nee nomi- Faith, Bap- 

. . tism, and 

netur m uobis cupientibus l^rttur consequi salutem. Insinuandum furity of 


est que sit fides catholica. et que sit debita baptismo custodia. et 

que dei mandatorum obseruantia .i. uite mundicia. Et primo 

que sitfidei doctrina in simboli serie contenta. Dre bing ben bat He who lacks 

elch man habben mot. be wile his enstendom leden. bat on is these three 

... . . things is not 

nhte bileue. bat o^er is fulohtnmge. be ^ridde be faire liflode. atrueChris- 
and he nis naht fulliche cristene. bat is ani wane *of bese brie. * p . 10. 
Of be bileue specS ure louerd ihesu crist on be holie godspelle. ^t true has 
bus que^ende. Qui non crediderit condempnabitur. De man Le condemned 
be ne haue^ rihte bileue on him. he be^ dempd to bolie wowe with devils in 
mid deflen on helle. Of be fulcninge he spec^ on o^er stede. on no one shall 
be godspelle. and sei$. Nisi quis renatus /uerit ex aqua et kingdom 
cetera. Ne mai noman cume to godes riche. bute he be fulcned. baptized. 


Of Clean (pure) Life speaketh Isaiah the prophet, thus saying, Lava- 
mini mundi estote — wash you and abide clean ; and David in the psalter- 
book [thus saith] , A delicto meo munda me domine ! — Cleanse me, Lord,, 
from my sins. Et alibi, Asperges me, domine, ysopo, &c. — Sprinkle me 
with meekness, Lord, then shall I be clean. But because that each man 
is in Baptism [cleansed] of all sins, and ought to know his belief ere he 
receive baptism, therefore I will say to you your Belief, and your Prayer, 
and teach it you by God's help. 

The true belief the twelve apostles put into writing ere they de- 
parted through the whole world to preach Christianity. But each of 
them wrote his verse, and St. Peter wrote the first. And the psalm 
which they all wrote is called Creed, after the first word of the psalm ; 
and at the beginning of Christendom (Christianity) each man learnt the 
Lord's Prayer and Creed before he received baptism. And there were then 
many children who died unbaptized and were lost, and therefore there is 
a law ordained according to our Saviour's direction that children shall be 
baptized, and that their godfathers shall answer for them before the priest 
at the font, and be sureties for them before God at the church doors and 
securities at the font that they shall know their belief and their prayer, 
that is the Lord's Prayer and Creed, when they are able to learn them, 
and so be believing and righteous men. And the godfathers cannot do 
that unless they know their belief and take much heed of the children. 
Nor ought any man to refuse [to teach] when he is asked on account of 
necessity to do so. You all know your Creed, as I suppose, though 
you do not all know what it signifies. But listen now and attend to 
it, and I will teach you, by God's help, so that ye shall know ; and I 
will repeat to you the Creed word by word, and therewith what each 
word signifies. 

firedo in JDeum, I believe in God. Patrem omnipotentem, the father 

almighty. Creatorem coeli et terras, creator and ruler of heaven and 

earth, and of all creatures. This word Credo may be understood in three 

ways : the first is Credo Deo, I believe God ; the second is Credo Deum, 

CREDO. 17 

Of clene liflade specS ysaias be prophete bus qweSende. ILaua- Isaiah and 

1 J r i x r -l ^ Darid both 

mini mundi estote. wasseS geu and wunie^ clene. and daurS in speak of a 

° pure life. 

be Salter boc. A delicto meo munda me domine. Clense me 
leue/'d of mine synnes. TUt alibi. Asjierges me domine 3/sopo et 
cetera. Bispreng me mid edmodnesse louerd ba?ine be ich clene. 
Ac for bat elcli man be^ on fulcninge of alle synnen. and ogh to Every one 

. . . . . ought to 

cunnen his bileue ar he fulcninge underfo. barfore ic wile segen kll0w llis , 

> b belief before 

ow gure bileue. and gure bede. and tachen hit ew bi godes he to ba P tize<1 - 
fultume. De rihte bileue setten be twolue apostles on write \ The twelve 

' apostles drew 

ar hie ferden in to al middeneard to bodien c/-istendome. Ac up the articles 

of the Chna- 

elch of hem wrot his uers. and sainte peter he wrot bat tiau faith - 
formeste. and be salme be hie alle writen is cleped credo. ^^l^ ey 
After be formeste word of be salme. and ate biginninge of^|^ the 
cristendornf elch man leornede »ater roster, and credo 1 , ar At the con >- 

-*■ mencement of 

ban he fulcninee understoden. And bo waren manie childre Christianity 

r o > each man 

dede fulehtlese and forlorene. and barfore * hit is iset lage j* 3 ™* a h ^ 
bi ure drihtenes wissunge. bat me sal children fuluhtnie. and ^^ e mster 
here godfaderes sullen for hem audswerie bifore be prest ^ ap 1 *° 3 ' 
ate fanstone. and ben here bore^es togenes gode ate chireche in order that 

- . children 

dure '. and inboreges ate fanstone. bat hie sulle cunne here should not die 

' unbaptized, 

bileue. and here bede i bat is be pater noster and credo, bane godfathers 
hie lernie mugen and ben bileffulle men and rihtwise. And JJJJjJShrtedt? 
bat ne mugen be godfaderes naht don '. bute hie here bileue u^a/the 
cunnen. and nime to be children muchele geme. Ne noman ne 3^' this tl)e 
agh werne. banne me him for nede bar to bit. Alle cunne ower ^"'j^y un " 
crede baste ich wene. beih ge alle nuten hwat hit bique^e. Ac " n e ™ s their 
lusted nu and undernime^ hit. and ich wille tachen eu bi godes j h ^Q Te ^ 
fultume. bat ge sulle witen. and segge ou be crede word after "^ expian. 
word, and barmid hwat elch word bitocneS. w^gS^* 

help, will I 
explain it. 

firedo in deum. Ic bileue on god. Tatrem. ommjwtentem. 
bene almihti fader. Creatorem celi et terre. Suppende 
and wealdende of heuene and of eor¥>. and of alle safte. Dis T»e word 

'creed' is to lie 

word credo man mai understonden on bre wise. Credo deo. Ich understood in 

* a threefold 

leue gode. bat o£er is. Credo deum. Ich ileue bat god is. bese s9use - 



I believe that God is. These two things do all heathen men. But the 
third doth no man except the good Christian, qui credit in Deum, that is, 
he who believes in God. And thereto five things are necessary for to 
believe in God. Scilicet, eum Dominum omnium recognoscere, super omnia 
obedire. The first thing is to acknowledge him as lord over all things ; 
the second is to love him above all things ; the third is to stand in awe 
of him above all things ; the fourth is to honour him above all things ; 
the fifth is to praise him above all things. The man that hath in himself 
these five things, hath in